References of "Velichkov, Vesselin 50003260"
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See detailAnalysis of the NORX Core Permutation
Biryukov, Alex UL; Udovenko, Aleksei UL; Velichkov, Vesselin UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

NORX is one of the fifteen authenticated encryption algorithms that have reached the third round of the CAESAR competition. NORX is built using the sponge-based Monkey Duplex construction. In this note we ... [more ▼]

NORX is one of the fifteen authenticated encryption algorithms that have reached the third round of the CAESAR competition. NORX is built using the sponge-based Monkey Duplex construction. In this note we analyze the core permutation F. We show that it has rotational symmetries on different structure levels. This yields simple distinguishing properties for the permutation, which propagate with very high probability or even probability one. We also investigate differential symmetries in NORX at the word level. A new type of truncated differentials called symmetric truncated differentials (STD) is proposed. It is shown that, under the Markov assumption, up to 2.125 rounds of the F function of NORX32 and NORX64 can be distinguished using STD. Finally, we note that our analysis covers only the permutation F and does not immediately threaten the security claims of the designers. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign Strategies for ARX with Provable Bounds: SPARX and LAX
Dinu, Dumitru-Daniel UL; Perrin, Léo Paul UL; Udovenko, Aleksei UL et al

in Cheon, Jung Hee; Takagi, Tsuyoshi (Eds.) Advances in Cryptology --- ASIACRYPT 2016, 22nd International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, Hanoi, Vietnam, December 4-8, 2016, Proceedings, Part I (2016, December)

We present, for the first time, a general strategy for designing ARX symmetric-key primitives with provable resistance against single-trail differential and linear cryptanalysis. The latter has been a ... [more ▼]

We present, for the first time, a general strategy for designing ARX symmetric-key primitives with provable resistance against single-trail differential and linear cryptanalysis. The latter has been a long standing open problem in the area of ARX design. The Wide-Trail design Strategy (WTS), that is at the basis of many S-box based ciphers, including the AES, is not suitable for ARX designs due to the lack of S-boxes in the latter. In this paper we address the mentioned limitation by proposing the Long-Trail design Strategy (LTS) -- a dual of the WTS that is applicable (but not limited) to ARX constructions. In contrast to the WTS, that prescribes the use of small and efficient S-boxes at the expense of heavy linear layers with strong mixing properties, the LTS advocates the use of large (ARX-based) S-Boxes together with sparse linear layers. With the help of the so-called long-trail argument, a designer can bound the maximum differential and linear probabilities for any number of rounds of a cipher built according to the LTS. To illustrate the effectiveness of the new strategy, we propose Sparx -- a family of ARX-based block ciphers designed according to the LTS. Sparx has 32-bit ARX-based S-boxes and has provable bounds against differential and linear cryptanalysis. In addition, Sparx is very efficient on a number of embedded platforms. Its optimized software implementation ranks in the top-6 of the most software-efficient ciphers along with Simon, Speck, Chaskey, LEA and RECTANGLE. As a second contribution we propose another strategy for designing ARX ciphers with provable properties, that is completely independent of the LTS. It is motivated by a challenge proposed earlier by Wallen and uses the differential properties of modular addition to minimize the maximum differential probability across multiple rounds of a cipher. A new primitive, called LAX is designed following those principles. LAX partly solves the Wallen challenge. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic Search for the Best Trails in ARX: Application to Block Cipher Speck
Biryukov, Alex UL; Velichkov, Vesselin UL; Le Corre, Yann UL

in Fast Software Encryption - FSE 2016 (2016)

We propose the first adaptation of Matsui's algorithm for finding the best differential and linear trails to the class of ARX ciphers. It is based on a branch-and-bound search strategy, does not use any ... [more ▼]

We propose the first adaptation of Matsui's algorithm for finding the best differential and linear trails to the class of ARX ciphers. It is based on a branch-and-bound search strategy, does not use any heuristics and returns optimal results. The practical application of the new algorithm is demonstrated on reduced round variants of block ciphers from the Speck family. More specifically, we report the probabilities of the best differential trails for up to 10, 9, 8, 7, and 7 rounds of Speck32, Speck48, Speck64, Speck96 and Speck128 respectively, together with the exact number of differential trails that have the best probability. The new results are used to compute bounds, under the Markov assumption, on the security of Speck against single-trail differential cryptanalysis. Finally, we propose two new ARX primitives with provable bounds against single-trail differential and linear cryptanalysis -- a long standing open problem in the area of ARX design. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the Authenticated Cipher MORUS (v1)
Mileva, Aleksandra; Dimitrova, Vesna; Velichkov, Vesselin UL

in Cryptography and Information Security in the Balkans: First International Conference, BalkanCryptSec 2015 (2015)

We present several new observations on the CAESAR candidate MORUS (v1). First, we report a collision on its StateUpdate(S, M ) function. Second, we describe a distinguisher in a nonce-reuse scenario with ... [more ▼]

We present several new observations on the CAESAR candidate MORUS (v1). First, we report a collision on its StateUpdate(S, M ) function. Second, we describe a distinguisher in a nonce-reuse scenario with probability 1. Finally, we observe that the differences in some words of the state after the initialization have probabilities significantly higher than the random case. We note that the presented results do not threaten the security of the scheme. This is the first external analysis of the authenticated cipher MORUS. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic Search for Differential Trails in ARX Ciphers
Biryukov, Alex UL; Velichkov, Vesselin UL

in Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2014)

We propose a tool for automatic search for differential trails in ARX ciphers. By introducing the concept of a partial difference distribution table (pDDT) we extend Matsui's algorithm, originally ... [more ▼]

We propose a tool for automatic search for differential trails in ARX ciphers. By introducing the concept of a partial difference distribution table (pDDT) we extend Matsui's algorithm, originally proposed for DES-like ciphers, to the class of ARX ciphers. To the best of our knowledge this is the first application of Matsui's algorithm to ciphers that do not have S-boxes. The tool is applied to the block ciphers TEA, XTEA, SPECK and RAIDEN. For RAIDEN we find an iterative characteristic on all 32 rounds that can be used to break the full cipher using standard differential cryptanalysis. This is the first cryptanalysis of the cipher in a non-related key setting. Differential trails on 9, 10 and 13 rounds are found for SPECK32, SPECK48 and SPECK64 respectively. The 13 round trail covers half of the total number of rounds. These are the first public results on the security analysis of SPECK. For TEA multiple full (i.e. not truncated) differential trails are reported for the first time, while for XTEA we confirm the previous best known trail reported by Hong et al. We also show closed formulas for computing the exact additive differential probabilities of the left and right shift operations. The source code of the tool is publicly available as part of a larger toolkit for the analysis of ARX at the following address: https://github.com/vesselinux/yaarx . [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential Analysis of Block Ciphers SIMON and SPECK
Biryukov, Alex UL; Roy, Arnab; Velichkov, Vesselin UL

in Fast Software Encryption - 21st International Workshop (2014)

In this paper we continue the previous line of research on the analysis of the differential properties of the lightweight block ciphers Simon and Speck. We apply a recently proposed technique for ... [more ▼]

In this paper we continue the previous line of research on the analysis of the differential properties of the lightweight block ciphers Simon and Speck. We apply a recently proposed technique for automatic search for differential trails in ARX ciphers and improve the trails in Simon32 and Simon48 previously reported as best. We further extend the search technique for the case of differen- tials and improve the best previously reported differentials on Simon32, Simon48 and Simon64 by exploiting more effectively the strong differential effect of the cipher. We also present improved trails and differentials on Speck32, Speck48 and Speck64. Using these new results we improve the currently best known attacks on several versions of Simon and Speck. A second major contribution of the paper is a graph based algorithm (linear time) for the computation of the exact differential probability of the main building block of Simon: an AND operation preceded by two bitwise shift operations. This gives us a better insight into the differential property of the Simon round function and differential effect in the cipher. Our algorithm is general and works for any rotation constants. The presented techniques are generic and are therefore applicable to a broader class of ARX designs. [less ▲]

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