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See detailA multifactorial and integrative approach to impulsivity in neuropsychology: Insights from the UPPS model of impulsivity
Rochat, Lucien; Billieux, Joël UL; Gagnon, Jean et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2018), 40(1), 45-61

Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong ... [more ▼]

Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong evidence that impulsivity constitutes a key factor at play in these behaviors, the literature about impulsivity in neuropsychology is to date scarce. In addition, examining and understanding these problematic behaviors requires the assumption that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. Consequently, this article aims at shedding light on frequent risky and excessive behaviors in patients with brain damage by focusing on a unified, comprehensive, and well-validated model, namely, the UPPS model of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). This model considers impulsivity as a multidimensional construct that includes four facets: urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking. Furthermore, we discuss the psychological mechanisms underlying the dimensions of impulsivity, as well as the laboratory tasks designed to assess each mechanism and their neural bases. We then present a scale specifically designed to assess these four dimensions of impulsivity in patients with brain damage and examine the data regarding this multidimensional approach to impulsivity in neuropsychology. This review supports the need to adopt a multifactorial and integrative approach toward impulsive behaviors, and the model presented provides a valuable rationale to disentangle the nature of brain systems and mechanisms underlying impulsive behaviors in patients with brain damage. It may also foster further relevant research in the field of impulsivity and improve assessment and rehabilitation of impulsive behaviors in clinical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailL’entrainement attentionnel : Une technique transdiagnostique
Billieux, Joël UL; Ceschi, Grazia; Van der Linden, Martial

in Van der Linden, Martial; Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël (Eds.) Interventions psychologiques en psychopathologie cognitive (2015)

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See detailDo emotional stimuli interfere with two distinct components of inhibition?
Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Rochat, Lucien; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Cognition & emotion (2015), 29(3), 559-67

Emotions have recently been shown to interfere with the efficacy of inhibitory control. However, understanding their impact requires taking into account that inhibition is not a unitary construct, but ... [more ▼]

Emotions have recently been shown to interfere with the efficacy of inhibitory control. However, understanding their impact requires taking into account that inhibition is not a unitary construct, but consists of distinct functions underlain by specific mechanisms. In this study, 88 participants performed two emotional versions of classic laboratory tasks designed to assess (1) the ability to inhibit a prepotent response (a stop-signal task using faces with different emotional expressions) and (2) the capacity to resist the effect of proactive interference (PI; a recent negative task that included emotional words). Overall results showed that emotional stimuli interfered with inhibition capacities in both tasks. Although tending in the same direction, these results suggest that different underlying mechanisms (e.g., top-down vs. bottom-up processes) or consecutive differences in emotional processing (e.g., different interactions with stimulus/task properties, processing stages or motivational aspects) are at play in these two inhibition-related functions. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Dysfunctional Use of the Mobile Phone a Behavioural Addiction? Confronting Symptom-Based Versus Process-Based Approaches.
Billieux, Joël UL; Philippot, Pierre; Schmid, Cecile et al

in Clinical psychology & psychotherapy (2015), 22(5), 460-8

UNLABELLED: Dysfunctional use of the mobile phone has often been conceptualized as a 'behavioural addiction' that shares most features with drug addictions. In the current article, we challenge the ... [more ▼]

UNLABELLED: Dysfunctional use of the mobile phone has often been conceptualized as a 'behavioural addiction' that shares most features with drug addictions. In the current article, we challenge the clinical utility of the addiction model as applied to mobile phone overuse. We describe the case of a woman who overuses her mobile phone from two distinct approaches: (1) a symptom-based categorical approach inspired from the addiction model of dysfunctional mobile phone use and (2) a process-based approach resulting from an idiosyncratic clinical case conceptualization. In the case depicted here, the addiction model was shown to lead to standardized and non-relevant treatment, whereas the clinical case conceptualization allowed identification of specific psychological processes that can be targeted with specific, empirically based psychological interventions. This finding highlights that conceptualizing excessive behaviours (e.g., gambling and sex) within the addiction model can be a simplification of an individual's psychological functioning, offering only limited clinical relevance. KEY PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: The addiction model, applied to excessive behaviours (e.g., gambling, sex and Internet-related activities) may lead to non-relevant standardized treatments. Clinical case conceptualization allowed identification of specific psychological processes that can be targeted with specific empirically based psychological interventions. The biomedical model might lead to the simplification of an individual's psychological functioning with limited clinical relevance. [less ▲]

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See detailAméliorer la réalisation d’intentions dans l’intervention psychologique: La méthode « si-alors »
Berner-Burkard, C.; Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial

in Van der Linden, Martial; Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël (Eds.) Interventions psychologiques en psychopathologie cognitive (2015)

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See detailApprendre à négliger le mauvais côté des choses: La modification des biais cognitifs
Ceschi, Grazia; Heeren, Alexandre; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Van der Linden, Martial; Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël (Eds.) Interventions psychologiques en psychopathologie cognitive (2015)

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See detailImplicitly assessed attitudes toward body shape and food: the moderating roles of dietary restraint and disinhibition.
Moussally, Joanna Myriam; Billieux, Joël UL; Mobbs, Olivia et al

in Journal of eating disorders (2015), 3

BACKGROUND: Attitudes toward body shape and food play a role in the development and maintenance of dysfunctional eating behaviors. Nevertheless, they are rarely investigated together. Therefore, this ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Attitudes toward body shape and food play a role in the development and maintenance of dysfunctional eating behaviors. Nevertheless, they are rarely investigated together. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the interrelationships between implicitly assessed attitudes toward body shape and food and to investigate the moderating effect on these associations of interindividual differences in problematic and nonproblematic eating behaviors (i.e., flexible versus rigid cognitive control dimension of restraint, disinhibition). METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one young women from the community completed two adapted versions of the Affect Misattribution Procedure to implicitly assess attitudes toward body shape (i.e., thin and overweight bodies) and food (i.e., "permitted" and "forbidden" foods), as well as the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire to evaluate restraint and disinhibition. RESULTS: The results revealed that an implicit preference for thinness was positively associated with a positive attitude toward permitted (i.e., low-calorie) foods. This congruence between implicitly assessed attitudes toward body shape and food was significant at average and high levels of flexible control (i.e., functional component of eating). Moreover, an implicit preference for thinness was also positively associated with a positive attitude toward forbidden (i.e., high-calorie) foods. This discordance between implicitly assessed attitudes was significant at average and high levels of rigid control and disinhibition (i.e., dysfunctional components of eating). CONCLUSIONS: These findings shed new light on the influence of congruent or discordant implicitly assessed attitudes toward body shape and food on normal and problematic eating behaviors; clinical implications are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailInterventions psychologiques en psychopathologie cognitive
Van der Linden, Martial; Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël UL

Book published by De Boeck/Solal (2015)

Les thérapies génériques (thérapies cognitivo-comportementale, interpersonnelles, etc.) ont fait leurs preuves, mais un nombre substantiel de personnes traitées continue à présenter des symptômes ... [more ▼]

Les thérapies génériques (thérapies cognitivo-comportementale, interpersonnelles, etc.) ont fait leurs preuves, mais un nombre substantiel de personnes traitées continue à présenter des symptômes résiduels ou rechutent rapidement.   Le développement de nouvelles interventions psychologiques focalisées sur les dysfonctionnements psychologiques spécifiques est alors primordial et représente un défi important pour la psychologie clinique. Les auteurs de cet ouvrage s’attachent donc à les décrire en caractérisant leurs principes méthodologiques et leurs fondements théoriques, et en rapportant les données qui démontrent leur efficacité, leurs spécificités, mais également leurs limites.   Ces interventions sont applicables à un large spectre de dysfonctionnements cognitifs affectant divers domaines de la cognition (attention, mémoire, jugement/interprétation, croyances métacognitives, etc.). Elles s’inscrivent dans une perspective transdiagnostique, et peuvent donc être utiles pour différents types de symptômes. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there an all-embracing construct of emotion reactivity? Adaptation and validation of the emotion reactivity scale among a French-speaking community sample.
Lannoy, Severine; Heeren, Alexandre; Rochat, Lucien et al

in Comprehensive psychiatry (2014), 55(8), 1960-7

BACKGROUND: Emotion reactivity is defined as the extent to which an individual experiences emotions in response to a wide array of stimuli, intensely, and for a prolonged period. This construct is a key ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Emotion reactivity is defined as the extent to which an individual experiences emotions in response to a wide array of stimuli, intensely, and for a prolonged period. This construct is a key psychological factor in the development and maintenance of psychopathological disorders. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a French version of the Emotion Reactivity Scale (ERS), which gauges three aspects of emotion reactivity: (1) emotional sensitivity, (2) emotional intensity, and (3) emotional persistence. METHOD: The French ERS and both concurrent and divergent validated scales were administered to 258 participants from the community. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses revealed good fit indices for: (1) a single-factor model, (2) a three-factor model, and (3) a hierarchical three-factor solution with a single-factor solution as a second-order latent variable for a generic construct of emotion reactivity. The French version of the Emotion Reactivity Scale also exhibits acceptable internal scale score reliability (total scale and subscales). Eventually, meaningful relationships were found between factors of emotion reactivity and depression, distinct aspects of impulsive behaviors, and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. CONCLUSION: Findings of the confirmatory factor analyses are consistent with previous studies suggesting that the ERS is mainly captured by a single major construct of emotion reactivity. [less ▲]

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See detailTrauma exposure interacts with impulsivity in predicting emotion regulation and depressive mood.
Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël UL; Hearn, Melissa et al

in European Journal of Psychotraumatology (2014), 5

BACKGROUND: Traumatic exposure may modulate the expression of impulsive behavioral dispositions and change the implementation of emotion regulation strategies associated with depressive mood. Past studies ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Traumatic exposure may modulate the expression of impulsive behavioral dispositions and change the implementation of emotion regulation strategies associated with depressive mood. Past studies resulted in only limited comprehension of these relationships, especially because they failed to consider impulsivity as a multifactorial construct. OBJECTIVE: Based on Whiteside and Lynam's multidimensional model that identifies four distinct dispositional facets of impulsive-like behaviors, namely urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking (UPPS), the current study used a sample of community volunteers to investigate whether an interaction exists between impulsivity facets and lifetime trauma exposure in predicting cognitive emotion regulation and depressive mood. METHODS: Ninety-three adults completed questionnaires measuring lifetime trauma exposure, impulsivity, cognitive emotion regulation, and depressive mood. RESULTS: Results showed that trauma-exposed participants with a strong disposition toward urgency (predisposition to act rashly in intense emotional contexts) tended to use fewer appropriate cognitive emotion regulation strategies than other individuals. Unexpectedly, participants lacking in perseverance (predisposition to have difficulties concentrating on demanding tasks) used more appropriate emotion regulation strategies if they had experienced traumatic events during their life than if they had not. Emotion regulation mediated the path between these two impulsivity facets and depressive mood. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings suggest that impulsivity has a differential impact on emotion regulation and depressive mood depending on lifetime exposure to environmental factors, especially traumatic events. [less ▲]

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See detailL’impulsivité: ses facettes, son évaluation et son expression clinique
Billieux, Joël UL; Rochat, Lucien; Van der Linden, Martial

Book published by Mardaga (2014)

L’impulsivité, définie globalement comme la tendance à exprimer des comportements excessifs et non planifiés, est un concept intégré dans les principaux modèles de la personnalité. L’impulsivité ... [more ▼]

L’impulsivité, définie globalement comme la tendance à exprimer des comportements excessifs et non planifiés, est un concept intégré dans les principaux modèles de la personnalité. L’impulsivité représente également une dimension psychologique importante pour la compréhension et le diagnostic d’un grand nombre de troubles psychopathologiques et neurologiques.  Les recherches récentes s’accordent sur la nécessité de considérer l’impulsivité comme un concept multidimensionnel et d’identifier les mécanismes psychologiques (cognitifs, affectifs, motivationnels) susceptibles de sous-tendre les diverses manifestations impulsives. Ce livre fait le point sur les recherches et les modèles théoriques actuels concernant l’impulsivité. Il vise aussi à décrire une large gamme d’outils validés permettant d’évaluer les différentes facettes de l’impulsivité et les mécanismes psychologiques qui y sont associés. Les outils présentés (avec leurs données normatives) dans cet ouvrage sont en utilisation libre de droits. Ce livre a également pour objectif de faire l’état des connaissances sur le rôle de l’impulsivité dans les troubles psychopathologiques et neurologiques, ainsi que sur les techniques d’intervention psychologique visant les conduites impulsives. [less ▲]

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See detailA multidimensional approach to impulsivity changes in mild Alzheimer's disease and control participants: cognitive correlates.
Rochat, Lucien; Billieux, Joël UL; Juillerat Van der Linden, Anne-Claude et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2013), 49(1), 90-100

INTRODUCTION: Impulsive behaviors are frequently described in brain-damaged patients, including patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, few studies have examined impulsivity changes and ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Impulsive behaviors are frequently described in brain-damaged patients, including patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, few studies have examined impulsivity changes and associated cognitive impairments in AD and healthy controls. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to compare patients with mild AD and matched controls on four dimensions of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking) recently highlighted in the literature. The second objective was to examine the association between impulsivity changes and cognitive performances on executive/attentional tasks in mild AD and healthy controls. METHODS: Thirty patients with mild AD and 30 matched controls were administered a battery of tests that assessed executive and attention processes. In addition, informants of each patient and control completed a short questionnaire designed to assess the changes on the four dimensions of impulsivity (Rochat et al., 2008). RESULTS: Patients with mild AD had higher scores than controls on lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance dimensions of impulsivity, whereas the two groups did not differ on urgency and sensation seeking. Furthermore, patients showed significant decreased performances on measures of inhibition of prepotent responses, set-shifting, and working memory, as well as higher variability of reaction times (RTs) than matched controls. Regression analyses computed on the whole sample emphasized that difficulties in inhibition of prepotent responses significantly predicted higher lack of premeditation, and larger variability of RTs and set-shifting difficulties significantly predicted higher lack of perseverance, even when global cognitive functioning, general processing speed, working memory, and age were controlled for. Urgency and sensation seeking were not associated with any variables. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide valuable insight into the nature of brain systems and cognitive processes underlying impulsive behaviors. In addition, they open up interesting prospects for better comprehension of behavioral and psychological symptoms of AD. [less ▲]

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See detailEncoding style and its relationships with schizotypal traits and impulsivity during adolescence.
Badoud, Deborah; Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial et al

in Psychiatry research (2013), 210(3), 1020-5

This study intends to explore how individual differences in encoding style (i.e. how encoding is implicitly affected by pre-existing schemata, so called an internal style, versus by cues from the outside ... [more ▼]

This study intends to explore how individual differences in encoding style (i.e. how encoding is implicitly affected by pre-existing schemata, so called an internal style, versus by cues from the outside world, so called an external style) are associated with schizotypal traits and impulsivity expression during adolescence. Moreover, we aim to provide first evidence reliability for the encoding style questionnaire with an adolescent sample. 101 French-speaking community adolescents (Mage=16.06, S.D.age=2.01; 57 girls; primarily Caucasian) participated in a cross-sectional study. The whole sample filled out a battery of self-report questionnaires. Our data supports a positive association between a predominant internal encoding style, the level of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits, and a higher degree of urgency and sensation seeking impulsivity components. On the one hand, these results have clinical implications in the sense that a low level in implicit processing, namely encoding style, is involved in positive and disorganized schizotypal traits as well as in impulsivity. Schizotypal traits and impulsivity are two sets of traits that put youth at risk for the development of severe psychopathological states in adulthood. On the other hand, this research enables an increased understanding of encoding style by providing the first reliable assessment tool for French-speaking adolescents. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of impulsivity in a sample of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers: a multidimensional perspective.
Billieux, Joël UL; Lagrange, Guillaume; Van der Linden, Martial et al

in Psychiatry research (2012), 198(2), 291-6

Numerous studies have shown that problem gambling is characterised by lack of impulse control. However, they have often been conducted without considering the multifaceted nature of impulsivity and ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies have shown that problem gambling is characterised by lack of impulse control. However, they have often been conducted without considering the multifaceted nature of impulsivity and related psychological mechanisms. The current study aims to disentangle which impulsivity facets are altered in pathological gambling. Twenty treatment-seeking pathological gamblers (PGs) and 20 matched control participants completed a self-reported questionnaire measuring the various facets of impulsive behaviours (UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale), as well as two laboratory tasks assessing inhibitory control (the go-stop task) and tolerance for delayed rewards (single key impulsivity paradigm). Compared with matched controls, PGs exhibited higher urgency, lower premeditation, impairment in prepotent inhibition, and lower tolerance towards delayed rewards. Nevertheless, complementary profile analyses showed that impulsivity-related deficits found in PGs are highly heterogeneous, and that some PGs are neither impulsive in the impulsivity facets assessed nor impaired in the cognitive mechanisms measured. These findings underscore (1) the necessity to disentangle the construct of impulsivity into lower-order components and (2) that further studies should take into account, in addition to impulsivity-related mechanisms, other psychological factors potentially involved in pathological gambling. [less ▲]

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See detailDifficulties in disengaging attentional resources from self-generated thoughts moderate the link between dysphoria and maladaptive self-referential thinking.
Rochat, Lucien; Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial

in Cognition & emotion (2012), 26(4), 748-57

Negative emotions increase self-focused attention, a core feature of depression and anxiety-related disorders. However, the cognitive mechanisms associated with the tendency to self-focus-and, conversely ... [more ▼]

Negative emotions increase self-focused attention, a core feature of depression and anxiety-related disorders. However, the cognitive mechanisms associated with the tendency to self-focus-and, conversely, with the ability to voluntarily disengage attentional resources from the self and direct them towards the external environment-remain poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to examine whether a specific cognitive control mechanism that directs attention between self-generated thoughts and external information might moderate the relationship between dysphoria and maladaptive self-referential thinking. Results showed that dysphoria increases the frequency of rumination, self-blame, and catastrophising, especially for participants who have more difficulty in switching from self-generated thoughts to information provided by the environment. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying maladaptive self-referential thinking associated with dysphoria. More specifically, this specific cognitive mechanism might play a key role in the maintenance or amplification of a depressed mood. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of a short French version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale.
Billieux, Joël UL; Rochat, Lucien; Ceschi, Grazia et al

in Comprehensive psychiatry (2012), 53(5), 609-15

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has a prominent role in psychiatry. Lynam et al (2006) have developed the UPPS-P, a 59-item scale measuring 5 impulsivity components: negative ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has a prominent role in psychiatry. Lynam et al (2006) have developed the UPPS-P, a 59-item scale measuring 5 impulsivity components: negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The aim of the present study was to validate a short, 20-item French version of the UPPS-P. METHODS: Six hundred fifty participants filled out the short French UPPS-P. A subgroup of participants (n = 145) took part in a follow-up study and completed the scale twice to determine test-retest stability; another subgroup (n = 105) was screened with other questionnaires also to establish external validity. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses supported a hierarchical model comprising 2 higher order factors of urgency (resulting from negative urgency and positive urgency) and lack of conscientiousness (resulting from lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance) as well as a separate factor of sensation seeking. The results indicated good internal consistency and test-retest stability. External validity was supported by relationships with psychopathological symptoms. CONCLUSION: The short French version of the UPPS-P therefore presents good psychometric properties and may be considered a promising instrument for both research and clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations among metacognitive beliefs, anxiety and positive schizotypy during adolescence.
Debbane, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial; Balanzin, Dario et al

in The Journal of nervous and mental disease (2012), 200(7), 620-6

The expression of early delusion and hallucination-like symptoms, known as positive schizotypy (PS), holds predictive power for later development of psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the ... [more ▼]

The expression of early delusion and hallucination-like symptoms, known as positive schizotypy (PS), holds predictive power for later development of psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the psychological and emotional processes promoting the expression of PS during adolescent development. Our study's objective was to examine the nature of the relationships between adolescent PS and two dimensions previously identified to contribute to adult positive symptoms of psychosis, metacognitive beliefs and anxiety. Using a structural equation modeling design, data from self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, metacognitive beliefs, and PS were collected from 179 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Our results indicate that although metacognitive beliefs significantly influence adolescent PS and anxiety, maladaptive contradictory metacognitive beliefs specifically potentiate positive schizotypal expression in hallucination-prone adolescents. Furthermore, we observe that PS and anxiety entertain reciprocal relationships. These findings suggest that relationships between metacognitive beliefs, anxiety, and PS can already be observed during adolescence. [less ▲]

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See detailFacettes cognitives de l’impulsivité et optimisme explicite : quels rôles dans les conduites de jeu d’argent ?
Aufrère, Laurence; Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial

in Vénisse, J.-L. (Ed.) Les addictions sans drogue : prévenir et traiter. Un défi sociétal (2012)

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See detailProblematic use of the Internet and self-regulation: a review of the initial studies
Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial

in The Open Addiction Journal (2012), 5

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See detailTrait gambling cognitions predict near-miss experiences and persistence in laboratory slot machine gambling.
Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial; Khazaal, Yasser et al

in British Journal of Psychology (2012), 103(3), 412-27

'Near-miss' outcomes (i.e., unsuccessful outcomes close to the jackpot) have been shown to promote gambling persistence. Although there have been recent advances in understanding the neurobiological ... [more ▼]

'Near-miss' outcomes (i.e., unsuccessful outcomes close to the jackpot) have been shown to promote gambling persistence. Although there have been recent advances in understanding the neurobiological responses to gambling near-misses, the psychological mechanisms involved in these events remain unclear. The goal of this study was to explore whether trait-related gambling cognitions (e.g., beliefs that certain skills or rituals may help to win in games of chance) influence behavioural and subjective responses during laboratory gambling. Eighty-four individuals, who gambled at least monthly, performed a simplified slot machine task that delivered win, near-miss, and full-miss outcomes across 30 mandatory trials followed by a persistence phase in extinction. Participants completed the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004), as well as measures of disordered gambling (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS]; Lesieur & Blume, 1987) and social desirability bias (DS-36; Tournois, Mesnil, & Kop, 2000). Skill-oriented gambling cognitions (illusion of control, fostered by internal factors such as reappraisal of losses, or perceived outcome sequences), but not ritual-oriented gambling cognitions (illusion of control fostered by external factors such as luck or superstitions), predicted higher subjective ratings of desire to play after near-miss outcomes. In contrast, perceived lack of self-control predicted persistence on the slot machine task. These data indicate that the motivational impact of near-miss outcomes is related to specific gambling cognitions pertaining to skill acquisition, supporting the idea that gambling near-misses foster the illusion of control. [less ▲]

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