References of "Van der Linden, M"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPrevalence and characteristics of addictive behaviors in a community sample: A latent class analysis
Deleuze, J.; Rochat, L.; Romo, L. et al

in Addictive Behaviors Reports (2015), 1

While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g ... [more ▼]

While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g., excessive gambling, buying or playing video games). In the current study, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of a wide range of addictive behaviors in a general population sample and to identify reliable subgroups of individuals displaying addictive behaviors.Seven hundred seventy participants completed an online survey. The survey screened for the presence and characteristics of the main recognized substance and behavioral addictions (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, other drugs, gambling, compulsive shopping, intensive exercise, Internet and mobile phone overuse, intensive work involvement, and overeating) in a three-month period. Key aspects of addiction were measured for each reported behavior, including negative outcomes, emotional triggers (positive and negative emotional contexts), search for stimulation or pleasure, loss of control, and cognitive salience.Latent class analysis allowed us to identify three theoretically and clinically relevant subgroups of individuals. The first class groups problematic users, i.e., addiction-prone individuals. The second class groups at-risk users who frequently engage in potentially addictive behaviors to regulate emotional states (especially overinvolvement in common behaviors such as eating, working, or buying). The third class groups individuals who are not prone to addictive behaviors.The existence of different groups in the population sheds new light on the distinction between problematic and non-problematic addiction-like behaviors. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailProblematic involvement in online games: A cluster analytic approach
Billieux, Joël UL; Thorens, G.; Khazaal, Y. et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2015), 43

Playing online games can become problematic and engender adverse consequences. Several psychological factors have been shown to influence the development and the maintenance of this problematic behavior ... [more ▼]

Playing online games can become problematic and engender adverse consequences. Several psychological factors have been shown to influence the development and the maintenance of this problematic behavior, including impulsivity traits, motives to play (immersion, achievement, social affiliation), and self-esteem. The aim of the current study is to determine whether reliable subtypes of problematic online gamers can be identified. A sample of 1057 online gamers was recruited. Validated questionnaires were used to measure established psychological risk factors (impulsivity, motives to play, self-esteem) and potential consequences of playing (addiction symptoms, positive and negative affect). Actual in-game behaviors were also monitored. Five reliable clusters of gamers were identified (three problematic and two nonproblematic clusters). Cluster comparison revealed that the psychological factors considered are differentially involved in problematic online gaming. At the theoretical level, the results emphasized that problem online gaming depends on a wide range of psychological factors. At the clinical level, the diversity of psychological profiles shown supports the development of personalized (custom-made) interventions targeting specific psychological mechanisms. Overall, our findings suggest that conceptualizing the problematic use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games as "behavioral addiction" is too restrictive and might result in the simplification of heterogeneous and multi-determined problematic behaviors. © 2014, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFactorial structure and psychometric properties of the French adaptation of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) in non-clinical participants
Larøi, F.; Billieux, Joël UL; Defeldre, A.-C. et al

in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2013), 63(4), 203-208

Introduction The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is a widely used instrument for assessing dissociation. However, there is disagreement regarding the internal structure of the DES and scores tend to ... [more ▼]

Introduction The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is a widely used instrument for assessing dissociation. However, there is disagreement regarding the internal structure of the DES and scores tend to be highly skewed. Objective The present study was designed to test the psychometric properties of a French version of the DES in non-clinical participants, in addition to applying a response scale as recommended by Wright and Loftus (1999) in order to resolve the problem of skewed scores. Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (computed in two independent samples) suggested a two-factor solution, which seem to represent two forms of dissociation ("automatic pilot" related dissociation episodes and "defensive" dissociation episodes). Results also revealed high internal consistency, and satisfactory results in terms of skewness and floor effects. Finally, significant associations with other measures (anxiety, depression, traumatic experiences) indicate good concurrent validity. Conclusions This study offers evidence that the present version of the French adaptation of the DES reveals good psychometric properties. Analyses of the internal structure of the DES suggest that two types of dissociative experiences are being measured: automatic pilot-related dissociation episodes (e.g., associated with different types of cognitive failures) and defensive dissociation episodes that may act as defensive mechanisms, especially in persons who have been traumatized (e.g., the avoidance of a memory related to a traumatic event). © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWhy do you play World of Warcraft? An in-depth exploration of self-reported motivations to play online and in-game behaviours in the virtual world of Azeroth
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Der Linden, M.; Achab, S. et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2013), 29(1), 103-109

Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are video games in which players create an avatar that evolves and interacts with other avatars in a persistent virtual world. Motivations to play ... [more ▼]

Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are video games in which players create an avatar that evolves and interacts with other avatars in a persistent virtual world. Motivations to play MMORPGs are heterogeneous (e.g. achievement, socialisation, immersion in virtual worlds). This study investigates in detail the relationships between self-reported motives and actual in-game behaviours. We recruited a sample of 690 World of Warcraft players (the most popular MMORPG) who agreed to have their avatar monitored for 8 months. Participants completed an initial online survey about their motives to play. Their actual in-game behaviours were measured through the game's official database (the Armory website). Results showed specific associations between motives and in-game behaviours. Moreover, longitudinal analyses revealed that teamwork- and competition-oriented motives are the most accurate predictors of fast progression in the game. In addition, although specific associations exist between problematic use and certain motives (e.g. advancement, escapism), longitudinal analyses showed that high involvement in the game is not necessarily associated with a negative impact upon daily living. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLifetime exposure to adverse events and reinforcement sensitivity in obsessive-compulsive prone individuals
Ceschi, G.; Hearn, M.; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Behaviour Change (2011), 28(2), 75-86

A diathesis-stress perspective of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) predicts that exposure to adverse events and personality dispositions jointly influence OCS. Gray and McNaughton's (2000) model of ... [more ▼]

A diathesis-stress perspective of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) predicts that exposure to adverse events and personality dispositions jointly influence OCS. Gray and McNaughton's (2000) model of personality posits that, faced with challenging circumstances, individuals with a high sensitivity to punishment (SP) will be more prone to OCS because they cannot avoid the downward spiral into anxiety. The current study investigates OCS severity in relation to lifetime exposure to adverse events (AE), SP, and sensitivity to reward (SR) in 122 nonclinical adults. The results indicate that OCS severity is predicted by AE, SP and SR. Interestingly, the impact of adverse experiences is moderated by SR and not SP. These findings suggest that: (1) exposure to adverse events and SP are independent OCS risk factors, and (2) exposure to adverse events is more critical for reward dependent people. This is discussed in light of responsibility and 'not just right experiences' in OCS, along with the role of impulsivity in the obsessivecompulsive disorder spectrum. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAddictions et mécanismes d'autorégulation : Pour une approche multifactorielle et dynamique
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Der Linden, M.

in Psychotropes (2010), 16(1), 45-56

Self regulation has traditionally been a central concept in many theoretical models of addictive behaviors, whether related to substance use or not. Although numerous studies have established a clear ... [more ▼]

Self regulation has traditionally been a central concept in many theoretical models of addictive behaviors, whether related to substance use or not. Although numerous studies have established a clear relationship between low self-regulation (lack of impulse control) and addictive behaviours, few have been based on a specific theoretical rational which considers the multifaceted nature of selfregulation and its related psychological mechanisms. The present article emphasizes the necessity to propose an integrative approach taking into account the specific contribution of the various facets of impulsivity in addictive behaviours. We also discuss the limitations of conceptualizing addictive behaviours by focusing solely on individual differences in self-regulation abilities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA French adaptation of the internal and external encoding style questionnaire and its relationships with impulsivity
Billieux, Joël UL; D'Argembeau, A.; Lewicki, P. et al

in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2009), 59(1), 3-8

Recent research has revealed the existence of individual differences in how preexisting schemata (versus cues from the outside world) affect encoding processes, which can be reliably assessed with the ... [more ▼]

Recent research has revealed the existence of individual differences in how preexisting schemata (versus cues from the outside world) affect encoding processes, which can be reliably assessed with the internal and external encoding style questionnaire (ESQ) [Lewicki, P. Internal and External Encoding Style and Social Motivation. In: J. P. Forgas, K. D. Williams, S. M. Laham, (Eds.), Social Motivation: Conscious and Unconscious Processes. Psychology Press, New York (2005). pp. 194-209]. The present study was designed to (1) test the psychometric properties of a French version of the ESQ and (2) explore in-depth its relationship with impulsivity - a trait of central importance in the understanding of emotional psychopathology, and which has been previously related to the internal encoding style. Sixty-three participants were tested using the French versions of the ESQ and the UPPS impulsive behavior scale. The UPPS identifies four distinct facets of impulsivity: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The results showed (1) that the French version of the ESQ has good psychometric properties and (2) that consistent with theoretical considerations, internal encoding style is related to two specific out of the four components of impulsivity: high urgency and low perseverance. © 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe role of impulsivity in actual and problematic use of the mobile phone
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Der Linden, M.; Rochat, L.

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2008), 22(9), 1195-1210

Several authors have investigated the risks arising from the growth in mobile phone use (e.g. debts incurred by young people). The aims of the present study are (1) to validate a new questionnaire ... [more ▼]

Several authors have investigated the risks arising from the growth in mobile phone use (e.g. debts incurred by young people). The aims of the present study are (1) to validate a new questionnaire assessing problematic mobile phone use: the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ), and (2) to investigate the relationships between the PMPUQ and the multi-faceted construct of impulsivity. With these aims, 339 subjects were screened using the PMPUQ and the UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale (UPPS) which assesses four distinct components associated with impulsive behaviours (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance and sensation seeking). The results showed that the PMPUQ has an acceptable fit and assesses four different dimensions of problematic mobile phone use (prohibited use, dangerous use, dependence, financial problems). While each facet of impulsivity played a specific role in mobile phones use, urgency appeared to be the strongest predictor of problematic use. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 354 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre all facets of impulsivity related to self-reported compulsive buying behavior?
Billieux, Joël UL; Rochat, L.; Rebetez, M. M. L. et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2008), 44(6), 1432-1442

Compulsive buying is defined as uncontrolled and excessive purchases leading to personal and family distress. While compulsive buying is generally considered to be an impulse control disorder, very few ... [more ▼]

Compulsive buying is defined as uncontrolled and excessive purchases leading to personal and family distress. While compulsive buying is generally considered to be an impulse control disorder, very few studies have explored its relationships with the multidimensional construct of impulsivity. Consequently, the aim of the present study is to investigate the role of the various components of impulsivity in compulsive buying. To this end, 150 volunteer participants from the community were screened using a questionnaire assessing compulsive buying, and the French version of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. This scale identifies four distinct components associated with impulsive behaviors: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The results showed that (1) compulsive buying is positively correlated with three facets of impulsivity (urgency, lack of perseverance and lack of premeditation), and (2) multiple linear regression analysis revealed urgency to be the only significant predictor of compulsive buying tendencies when gender, age, educational level and depression were controlled for. Those findings are discussed in light of the psychological processes underlying the various components of impulsivity in relation to the occurrence of compulsive buying behaviors. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDoes impulsivity relate to perceived dependence on and actual use of the mobile phone?
Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, M.; D'Acremont, M. et al

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2007), 21(4), 527-537

Several authors have studied the risks arising from the growth in mobile phone use (e.g. large debts incurred by young people, banned or dangerous use of cellular phones). The aim of this study is to ... [more ▼]

Several authors have studied the risks arising from the growth in mobile phone use (e.g. large debts incurred by young people, banned or dangerous use of cellular phones). The aim of this study is to analyse whether impulsivity, which has often been related to various forms of addictive behaviours, is associated with massive use of and dependence on the mobile phone. In this study, 108 female undergraduate psychology students were screened using a questionnaire evaluating actual use of and perceived dependence on the mobile phone, and with the French adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. This scale identifies four distinct components associated with impulsive behaviour: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation Seeking. The results showed that a relationship can be established between the use of and perceived dependence on the cellular phone and two facets of impulsivity: Urgency and lack of Perseverance. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (0 UL)