References of "Van Diest, Ilse"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRespiratory modulation of intensity ratings and psychomotor response times to acoustic startle stimuli
Münch, Eva Elisabeth; Vögele, Claus UL; Van Diest, Ilse et al

in Neuroscience Letters (2019), 711(1), 134388

Respiratory interoception may play an important role in the perception of respiratory symptoms in pulmonary diseases. As the respiratory cycle affects startle eye blink responses, startle modulation may ... [more ▼]

Respiratory interoception may play an important role in the perception of respiratory symptoms in pulmonary diseases. As the respiratory cycle affects startle eye blink responses, startle modulation may be used to assess visceral-afferent signals from the respiratory system. To ascertain the potential impact of brainstem-relayed signals on cortical processes, we investigated whether this pre-attentive respiratory modulation of startle (RMS) effect is also reflected in the modulation of higher cognitive, evaluative processing of the startle stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers received 80 acoustic startle stimuli (100 or 105 dB(A); 50 ms), which were presented at end and mid inspiration and expiration, while performing a paced breathing task (0.25 Hz). Participants first responded to the startle probes by 'as fast as possible' button pushes and then rated the perceived intensity of the stimuli. Psychomotor response time was divided into 'reaction time' (RT; from stimulus onset to home button release; represents stimulus evaluation) and 'movement time' time (MT; from home button release to target button press). Intensity judgements were higher and RTs accelerated during mid expiration. No effect of respiratory cycle phase was found on eye blink responses and MTs. We conclude that respiratory cycle phase affects higher cognitive, attentional processing of startle stimuli. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPost-learning cold pressor stress, after a heartbeat perception training, enhances interoceptive accuracy in high blood pressure responders
Breden, Ion-Hideo UL; Fischbach, Jean; Schenk, Lara UL et al

in Hennig, J.; Stark, R. (Eds.) Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc) plays an important role for generation of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) and trainings to enhance IAc reduces the perceived symptom severity of MUS. Post-learning stress ... [more ▼]

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc) plays an important role for generation of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) and trainings to enhance IAc reduces the perceived symptom severity of MUS. Post-learning stress may facilitate recognition learning. It is yet unknown, however, if acute stress, when evoked during the memory consolidation phase, could enhance the visceral learning in a heartbeat perception training (HBPT). The present study is the first to investigate the effects of a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induced after a HBPT aimed at increasing IAc. The sample consisted of 48 healthy students (28 women). IAc was assessed at three different time points: (1) once as a baseline measure, (2) 30 minutes after the SECPT, and (3) the day after. Assessment of IAc was performed using the heartbeat perception task developed by Schandry (1981). The HBPT followed the baseline IAc assessment and was a replication of the paradigm developed by Schaefer et al. (2014). The SECPT followed immediately after the HBPT. Results showed that post-encoding stress significantly increased IAc between T1 and T3 for participants showing a high blood pressure (BP) response in the SECPT compared to the control group, whereas low BP responders did not show such an effect. This indicates that post-encoding stress enhances visceral memory consolidation in high BP responders compared to low BP responder and non-stressed control participants. Post-learning stress facilitation of visceral learning and memory may represent a mechanism underlying symptom generation, which should be addressed in studies on somatic symptom disorders in the future. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (10 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRespiratory modulation of startle: effects on subjective intensity and psychomotor response times
Münch, Eva Elisabeth UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Van Diest, Ilse et al

in Hennig, J.; Stark, R. (Eds.) Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It ... [more ▼]

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It remains unclear, however, whether this respiratory modulation of startle (RMS) effect is also reflected in the modulation of higher cognitive, evaluative processing of the startle stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers received 80 acoustic startle stimuli (100 or 105 dB(A); 50 ms; binaural; instantaneous rise time), which were presented during peak and ongoing inspiration and expiration, while performing a paced breathing task at 0.25 Hz. Participants first responded to the startle probes by `as fast as possible' button pushes and then rated the perceived intensity of the acoustic stimuli. Psychomotor response time was divided into pre-motor (from stimulus onset to home button release; represents stimulus evaluation) and motor response time (from home button release to target button press). Intensity judgements were higher and evaluative response times accelerated during on-going expiration. No effect of respiratory cycle phase was found on eye blink responses and motor response time. We conclude, therefore, that respiratory cycle phase affects higher cognitive, attentional processing of acoustic startle stimuli. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRespiratory modulation of startle: effects on subjective intensity and psychomotor response times
Münch, Eva Elisabeth UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Van Diest, Ilse et al

in Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It ... [more ▼]

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It remains unclear, however, whether this respiratory modulation of startle (RMS) effect is also reflected in the modulation of higher cognitive, evaluative processing of the startle stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers received 80 acoustic startle stimuli (100 or 105 dB(A); 50 ms; binaural; instantaneous rise time), which were presented during peak and ongoing inspiration and expiration, while performing a paced breathing task at 0.25 Hz. Participants first responded to the startle probes by `as fast as possible' button pushes and then rated the perceived intensity of the acoustic stimuli. Psychomotor response time was divided into pre-motor (from stimulus onset to home button release; represents stimulus evaluation) and motor response time (from home button release to target button press). Intensity judgements were higher and evaluative response times accelerated during on-going expiration. No effect of respiratory cycle phase was found on eye blink responses and motor response time. We conclude, therefore, that respiratory cycle phase affects higher cognitive, attentional processing of acoustic startle stimuli. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (6 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPost-learning cold pressor stress, after a heartbeat perception training, enhances interoceptive accuracy in high blood pressure responders
Breden, Ion-Hideo UL; Fischbach, Jean; Schenk, Lara UL et al

in Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc) plays an important role for generation of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) and trainings to enhance IAc reduces the perceived symptom severity of MUS. Post-learning stress ... [more ▼]

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc) plays an important role for generation of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) and trainings to enhance IAc reduces the perceived symptom severity of MUS. Post-learning stress may facilitate recognition learning. It is yet unknown, however, if acute stress, when evoked during the memory consolidation phase, could enhance the visceral learning in a heartbeat perception training (HBPT). The present study is the first to investigate the effects of a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induced after a HBPT aimed at increasing IAc. The sample consisted of 48 healthy students (28 women). IAc was assessed at three different time points: (1) once as a baseline measure, (2) 30 minutes after the SECPT, and (3) the day after. Assessment of IAc was performed using the heartbeat perception task developed by Schandry (1981). The HBPT followed the baseline IAc assessment and was a replication of the paradigm developed by Schaefer et al. (2014). The SECPT followed immediately after the HBPT. Results showed that post-encoding stress significantly increased IAc between T1 and T3 for participants showing a high blood pressure (BP) response in the SECPT compared to the control group, whereas low BP responders did not show such an effect. This indicates that post-encoding stress enhances visceral memory consolidation in high BP responders compared to low BP responder and non-stressed control participants. Post-learning stress facilitation of visceral learning and memory may represent a mechanism underlying symptom generation, which should be addressed in studies on somatic symptom disorders in the future. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLearned Fear of Gastrointestinal Sensations in Healthy Adults
Ceunen, Erik UL; Zaman, Jonas; Weltens, Nathalie et al

in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2016), 14(11), 155215582

Background & Aims Gastrointestinal symptom-specific fear and anxiety are important determinants of gastrointestinal symptom perception. We studied learning of fear toward innocuous gastrointestinal ... [more ▼]

Background & Aims Gastrointestinal symptom-specific fear and anxiety are important determinants of gastrointestinal symptom perception. We studied learning of fear toward innocuous gastrointestinal sensations as a putative mechanism in the development of gastrointestinal symptom-specific fear and anxiety. Methods Fifty-two healthy subjects (26 women) received 2 types of esophageal balloon distention at a perceptible but nonpainful intensity (conditioned stimulus [CS], the innocuous sensation) and at a painful intensity (unconditioned stimulus [US]). Subjects were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups. During the learning phase, the innocuous CS preceded the painful US in the experimental group (n = 26). In the control group (n = 26), on the contrary, the US never followed the CS directly. During a subsequent extinction phase, both groups received only CS distention—the painful US was no longer administered. Indexes of fear learning toward the innocuous CS distention included the skin conductance response, fear-potentiated startle (measured by the eye-blink electromyogram), and self-reported expectancy of the US. Results During the learning phase, only the experimental group learned to fear the innocuous gastrointestinal CS, based on the increase in US expectancy (compared with the control group, P = .04), increased skin conductance response (compared with the control group, P = .03), and potentiated startle reflex (compared with the control group, P = .001) in response to the CS. The differences between the experimental and control groups in US expectancy and skin conductance, but not fear-potentiated startle, disappeared during the extinction phase. Conclusions Fear toward innocuous gastrointestinal sensations can be established through associative learning in healthy human beings. This may be an important mechanism in the development of fear of gastrointestinal symptoms, implicated in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (8 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn the origin of interoception
Ceunen, Erik UL; Vlaeyen, Johan UL; Van Diest, Ilse

in Frontiers in psychology (2016), 7

Over the course of a century, the meaning of interoception has changed from the restrictive to the inclusive. In its inclusive sense, it bears relevance to every individual via its link to emotion ... [more ▼]

Over the course of a century, the meaning of interoception has changed from the restrictive to the inclusive. In its inclusive sense, it bears relevance to every individual via its link to emotion, decision making, time-perception, health, pain, and various other areas of life. While the label for the perception of the body state changes over time, the need for an overarching concept remains. Many aspects can make any particular interoceptive sensation unique and distinct from any other interoceptive sensation. This can range from the sense of agency, to the physical cause of a sensation, the ontogenetic origin, the efferent innervation, and afferent pathways of the tissue involved amongst others. In its overarching meaning, interoception primarily is a product of the central nervous system, a construct based on an integration of various sources, not per se including afferent information. This paper proposes a definition of interoception as based on subjective experience, and pleas for the use of specific vocabulary in addressing the many aspects that contribute to it. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStartle responding in the context of visceral pain
Ceunen, Erik UL; Zaman, Jonas; Herssens, Natacha et al

in International Journal of Psychophysiology (2015), 98(1), 128-134

This study aimed to investigate affective modulation of eye blink startle by aversive visceral stimulation. Startle blink EMG responses were measured in 31 healthy participants receiving painful ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to investigate affective modulation of eye blink startle by aversive visceral stimulation. Startle blink EMG responses were measured in 31 healthy participants receiving painful, intermittent balloon distentions in the distal esophagus during 4 blocks (positive, negative, neutral or no pictures), and compared with startles during 3 ‘safe’ blocks without esophageal stimulations (positive, negative or neutral emotional pictures). Women showed enhanced startle during blocks with distentions (as compared with ‘safe’ blocks), both when the balloon was in inflated and deflated states, suggesting that fear and/or expectations may have played a role. Men's startle did not differ between distention and non-distention blocks. In this particular study context affective picture viewing did not further impose any effect on startle eye blink responses. The current results may contribute to a better understanding of emotional reactions to aversive interoceptive stimulation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 85 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffect of seated trunk posture on eye blink startle and subjective experience: Comparing flexion, neutral upright posture, and extension of spine
Ceunen, Erik UL; Zaman, Jonas; Vlaeyen, Johan et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(2),

Postures are known to be able to affect emotion and motivation. Much less is known about whether (affective) modulation of eye blink startle occurs following specific postures. The objective of the ... [more ▼]

Postures are known to be able to affect emotion and motivation. Much less is known about whether (affective) modulation of eye blink startle occurs following specific postures. The objective of the current study was to explore this. Participants in the present study were requested to assume three different sitting postures: with the spine flexed (slouched), neutral upright, and extended. Each posture was assumed for four minutes, and was followed by the administration of brief self-report questionnaires before proceeding to the next posture. The same series of postures and measures were repeated prior to ending the experiment. Results indicate that, relative to the other postures, the extended sitting posture was associated with an increased startle, was more unpleasant, arousing, had smaller levels of dominance, induced more discomfort, and was perceived as more difficult. The upright and flexed sitting postures differed in the level of self-reported positive affect, but not in eye blink startle amplitudes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (5 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBreath holding duration as a measure of distress tolerance: examining its relation to measures of executive control
Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Schroijen, Mathias; Constantinou, Elena et al

in Frontiers in Psychology [=FPSYG] (2013), 4(483), 1-9

Recent research considers distress (in)tolerance as an essential component in the development of various forms of psychopathology. A behavioral task frequently used to assess distress tolerance is the ... [more ▼]

Recent research considers distress (in)tolerance as an essential component in the development of various forms of psychopathology. A behavioral task frequently used to assess distress tolerance is the breath holding task. Although breath holding time (BHT) has been associated with behavioral outcomes related to inhibitory control (e.g., smoking cessation), the relationship among breath holding and direct measures of executive control has not yet been thoroughly examined. The present study aims to assess (a) the BHT-task's test-retest reliability in a 1-year follow-up and (b) the relationship between a series of executive function tasks and breath holding duration. One hundred and thirteen students completed an initial BHT assessment, 58 of which also completed a series of executive function tasks [the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Parametric Go/No-Go task and the N-back memory updating task]. A subsample of these students (N = 34) repeated the breath holding task in a second session 1 year later. Test-retest reliability of the BHT-task over a 1-year period was high (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), but none of the executive function tasks was significantly associated with BHT. The rather moderate levels of unpleasantness induced by breath holding in our sample may suggest that other processes (physiological, motivational) besides distress tolerance influence BHT. Overall, the current findings do not support the assumption of active inhibitory control in the BHT-task in a healthy sample. Our findings suggest that individual differences (e.g., in interoceptive or anxiety sensitivity) should be taken into account when examining the validity of BHT as a measure of distress tolerance. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAtypical modulation of startle in women in face of aversive bodily sensations
Ceunen, Erik UL; Vlaeyen, Johan; Van Diest, Ilse

in International Journal of Psychophysiology (2013), 88(2), 157-163

Eye blink startle magnitude is assumed to be higher in threatening contexts. A scarce amount of studies suggest that this does not hold true when startle is measured during perceived threats to ... [more ▼]

Eye blink startle magnitude is assumed to be higher in threatening contexts. A scarce amount of studies suggest that this does not hold true when startle is measured during perceived threats to homeostatic integrity. The present study was set up to describe the startle response pattern to a selection of interoceptive stimuli. Female subjects (N = 36) were exposed once to 90 s of continued (1) cold pain, (2) inhalation of a gas mixture of 7.5% CO2, and (3) breathing against an inspiratory and expiratory resistive load. Each stimulus was preceded and followed by a 90 second period of rest, respectively labeled baseline and recovery. Even after correcting eye blink startle responses for habituation, a decreased startle amplitude was evident during these stimuli. Results suggest that startle amplitude during aversive stimulation is inversely correlated with perceived fearfulness for women, although further studies are necessary to corroborate this interpretation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAccuracy and awareness of perception: Related, yet distinct (commentary on Herbert et al., 2012)
Ceunen, Erik UL; Van Diest, Ilse; Vlaeyen, Johan

in Biological Psychology (2013), 92(2), 423-427

Herbert and colleagues (2012) state that changes in autonomic activity following a specific type of interoceptive sensation, intensifies general interoceptive awareness. This conclusion is being ... [more ▼]

Herbert and colleagues (2012) state that changes in autonomic activity following a specific type of interoceptive sensation, intensifies general interoceptive awareness. This conclusion is being critically examined and reformulated. A distinction is made between Interoceptive Awareness (IAw) and Interoceptive Accuracy (IAc); awareness not necessarily implying accuracy. Given the heterogeneity of interoceptive sensations, we emphasize to abstain from concluding that heartbeat perception tasks can be considered as a measure of OVERALL IAw or OVERALL IAc until this has been more elaborately investigated. Results are reinterpreted to indicate that homeostatic challenges which lead to an increase in ionotropic cardiac activity, lead to an increased cardioceptive accuracy, and perhaps increased cardioceptive awareness. However, the findings do not provide conclusive evidence that such challenges increase other types of IAc, nor that they increase OVERALL IAw. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether homeostatic challenges leading to negative inotropic cardiac activity, would similarly lead to changes in accuracy of heartbeat perception. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 503 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLearning to fear obstructed breathing: Comparing interoceptive and exteroceptive cues
Pappens, Meike; Van den Bergh, Omer; Vansteenwegen, Debora et al

in Biological Psychology (2013), 92(1), 36-42

The present study investigated interoceptive fear conditioning (IFC) to an interoceptive and exteroceptive conditional stimulus (CS) with a severe respiratory load applied for 30 s as the unconditional ... [more ▼]

The present study investigated interoceptive fear conditioning (IFC) to an interoceptive and exteroceptive conditional stimulus (CS) with a severe respiratory load applied for 30 s as the unconditional stimulus (US). CSs were another, weak respiratory load in the intero-IFC study (N = 74), and a neutral picture in the extero-IFC study (N = 42). CSs preceded the US in the paired groups, whereas the unpaired groups received the same number of unpaired CSs and USs. We measured startle blink EMG, self-reported fear and respiration. In the intero-IFC study, the CS-load was associated with larger startle blinks and a smaller decrease in respiratory rate and tidal volume in the paired compared to the unpaired group. In the extero-IFC study, the CS-picture evoked an increase in tidal volume and self-reported fear only in the paired group. In addition, startle potentiation during the CS-picture was greater for the paired than for the unpaired group. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (0 UL)