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The influence of superposition and eccentric loading on the bearing capacity of shallow foundations Van Baars, Stefan in Computations and Materials in Civil Engineering (2016), 1(3), 121-131 In 1920 Prandtl published an analytical solution for the bearing capacity of a centric loaded strip footing on a weightless in-finite half-space. Reissner (1924) extended this solution for a surrounding ... [more ▼] In 1920 Prandtl published an analytical solution for the bearing capacity of a centric loaded strip footing on a weightless in-finite half-space. Reissner (1924) extended this solution for a surrounding surcharge and Keverling Buisman (1940) for the soil weight. Terzaghi (1943) wrote this as a superposition of three separate bearing capacity components for the cohesion, surcharge and soil-weight. The first question is to what ex-tent the currently used components are correct. The second question is to what extent the superposition is correct, because the failure mechanisms for these three components are not the same. A number of finite element calculations show that there is indeed an error, which is luckily not too large and leads to predictions on the safe side. Meyerhof (1953) extended the equation of Terzaghi with correction factors for the shape of the footing and the inclination of the load. For eccentric loading however, there are no correction factors. The common practice is to reduce the contact area of the foundation such that its centroid coincides with that of the load, which means that, the area of the foundation outside the effective area, is completely neglected. Therefore the third question is, if this reduction of the foundation area is an accurate method to describe the reduction of the bearing capacity due to eccentric loading. A number of finite element calculations show that this is indeed the case. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 36 (6 UL)Shear strength and stiffness degradation of geomaterials in cyclic loading Pytlik, Robert Stanislaw ; Van Baars, Stefan in Soils and Rocks (2016), 39(3), 273-283 Cyclic loading on civil structures can lead to a reduction of strength and stiffness in the loaded materials. The life span of many cyclically loaded structures such as wind turbines, high-speed train ... [more ▼] Cyclic loading on civil structures can lead to a reduction of strength and stiffness in the loaded materials. The life span of many cyclically loaded structures such as wind turbines, high-speed train tracks and bridges strongly depends on the foundation. The soils and rocks in the foundation can be subjected to cyclic loads from natural and human sources. In order to evaluate the fatigue behaviour of geomaterials, this paper presents static and cyclic triaxial test results for several geomaterials. It was concluded that cyclic loading on different geomaterials can cause different types of effects. The shear strength of cohesionless crumbled limestone increases during cyclic loading; while for cohesive materials, such as gypsum and mortar, the strength decreases. The strength decrease can be seen as a degradation of the cohesion. The most significant factor in the cohesion reduction was found to be the number of applied cycles. It was also noticed that the friction angle for sands does not reduce under cyclic loading. A fatigue limit was not found for cohesive geomaterials; neither a dependence of the strength reduction on the cyclic loading ratios. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 UL)A 3D shear material damping model for man-made vibrations of the ground Macijauskas, Darius ; Van Baars, Stefan in 13th Baltic Sea Region Geotechnical Conference (2016, September) Man-made vibrations from different types of sources are usually measured on the surface of the ground or building. The measured signal is always the superposition of all travelling basic waves. For a ... [more ▼] Man-made vibrations from different types of sources are usually measured on the surface of the ground or building. The measured signal is always the superposition of all travelling basic waves. For a homogeneous half space there are three basic waves – the Compressional (P-wave), Shear (S-wave) and Rayleigh wave (R-wave). Depending on the measuring equipment, only the accelerations or velocities in time of the superposed wave can be measured, but not the distribution of the individual basic waves. Additional problems are that each of the basic waves has its own velocity, besides the body and surface waves have different attenuation laws. By using the rules of superposition of harmonic waves and also the propagation laws of the P-, S- and R-waves, it should be theoretically possible to split the measured superposed signal into the basic waves, because mathematically a system of equations can be assembled which describes the displacements at multiple measuring points in time. In this paper this problem has been solved for a homogenous, elastic and isotropic soil, which is disturbed by a harmonically oscillating disc on the surface. A numerical simulation was performed using a finite element method. The displacements in time were recorded in 10 points on the surface and a system of superposed equations was assembled and solved. The findings prove that each of the three basic waves has its own phase shift with the source, something which was not known before. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 UL)100 Year Prandtl’s Wedge - Intermediate report Van Baars, Stefan Report (2016) The biggest problem for a shallow foundation, just as any other type of foundation, is a failure due to an overestimation of the bearing capacity. This means that the correct prediction of the bearing ... [more ▼] The biggest problem for a shallow foundation, just as any other type of foundation, is a failure due to an overestimation of the bearing capacity. This means that the correct prediction of the bearing capacity of the foundation is often the most important part of the design of a civil structure. That is why the publication of Prandtl in 1920 about the hardness of a plastic body, was a major step in solving the bearing capacity of shallow foundations, although it is well possible that he never realised this, because his solution was not made for civil engineering purposes, but for mechanical purposes. Over the last 100 year, a lot of extensions have been made, for example with inclination factors and shape factors, and many laboratory experiments have been done and also many numerical calculations have been made. Some even try to extrapolate the failure mechanism for shallow foundations to the failure mechanism around the tip of a pile. All this scientific work leads back to the first publication made by Ludwig Prandtl in 1920. This intermediuate report “100 Year Prandtl’s wedge” has been made for all those who are interested in these fundamentals of foundation engineering and their history. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 68 (9 UL)Failure mechanisms and corresponding shape factors of shallow foundations Van Baars, Stefan in Atalar (Ed.) Proceedings of 4th International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (2016, June) In 1920 Prandtl published an analytical solution for the bearing capacity of a maximum strip load on a weightless infinite half-space. This solution was extended by Reissner in 1924 with a surrounding ... [more ▼] In 1920 Prandtl published an analytical solution for the bearing capacity of a maximum strip load on a weightless infinite half-space. This solution was extended by Reissner in 1924 with a surrounding surcharge. In the 1940s, Keverling Buisman and Terzaghi extended the Prandtl-Reissner formula for the soil weight. Since then several people proposed equations for the soil-weight bearing capacity factor. In 1963 Meyerhof was the first to write the formula for the (vertical) bearing capacity of shallow foundations with both inclination factors and shape factors. The failure mechanisms belonging to the cohesion bearing capacity factor and the surcharge bearing capacity factor is for an infinite (2D) strip footing a Prandtl-wedge failure mechanism, but according to Finite Element Modelling (FEM) the failure mechanism belonging to the soil-weight bearing capacity factor is not. It looks more like a global failure mechanism. This means that the assumed superposition in the Terzaghi equation, and in the Meyerhof equation, is not automatically allowed. Additional FEM calculations show that in the case of a finite strip footing, and especially of round footings, the failure mechanism is again very different, and leads to much lower shape factors as factors based on a Prandtl-wedge failure mechanism. In fact the third direction, i.e. the tangential direction, which plays no important role in the failure mechanism for infinite strip footings, starts to play a major role in the failure mechanism and in the magnitude of the bearing capacity of the strip footing [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 38 (0 UL)Advanced Soil Mechanics Van Baars, Stefan Book published by Epubli (2016) Advanced Soil Mechanics This book Advanced Soil Mechanics is part of the education of Civil Engineering at the faculty of Science, Technology and Communication of the University of Luxembourg. This book ... [more ▼] Advanced Soil Mechanics This book Advanced Soil Mechanics is part of the education of Civil Engineering at the faculty of Science, Technology and Communication of the University of Luxembourg. This book can be seen as a continuation of introductory courses of Soil Mechanics. This book contains the major principles and design methods used in Geotechnical Engineering, such as for soil improvement, geotextiles, tunnelling, shallow and pile foundations, sheet piles, anchors, struts, dewatering and safe design. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 95 (8 UL)The influence of the shaft friction and pile shape on the pile tip bearing capacity Van Baars, Stefan in The 17th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting Reykjavik Iceland 25th - 28th of May 2016 (2016, May) In 1920 Prandtl published an analytical solution for the bearing capacity of a maximum strip load on a weightless infinite half-space, based on a sliding soil part, with three sliding zones, which is ... [more ▼] In 1920 Prandtl published an analytical solution for the bearing capacity of a maximum strip load on a weightless infinite half-space, based on a sliding soil part, with three sliding zones, which is nowadays called the Prandtl wedge. This solution was extended by Reissner in 1924 with a surrounding surcharge. Keverling Buisman (1940) , and many researchers after him, extended the Prandtl-Reissner formula for the soil weight, but this part can be neglected for the deep pile foundations. It was Terzaghi (1943) who wrote the formula with bearing capacity factors and Meyerhof (1953) who started to write this formula with both inclination factors and shape factors. Because of the this development for shallow foundations , many researchers thought that failure of a pile tip in a deep sand layer will also show a Prandtl-wedge type of failure and that the stresses on the pile tip are constant and depend only on the shape factor, the friction angle of the soil and the vertical effective stress near the pile tip ( ), so not on the shape and size of the pile tip. This means that a Cone Penetration Test gives the average stress of a real pile and can in principle be used without a reduction for calculating the bearing capacity of a pile, just as Boonstra (1940) showed with his field test and just as the method of Van Mierlo & Koppejan (1952) assume and also many more recent predicting models do. The problem is that many researchers (Jardine et al, 2005, Lehane et al, 2005, Clausen et al, 2005) and recent field tests show that bearing capacity design based on unreduced Cone Penetration Test data are more than 30% too high (Van Tol et al. , 1994, 2010, 2012). Therefore all this has been modelled and studied, as far as possible, with Finite Element Modelling (Plaxis 2D axial-symmetric) . Many remarkable results were found. The shape and size of the pile tip did not matter indeed. But the currently used surcharge shape factor is incorrect. There is also no Prandtl-wedge type of failure at the pile tip, but a zone of plasticity, but still the surcharge bearing capacity factor of Reissner is correct. Also the stresses below the pile tip are not constant, but higher near the centre of the pile. Additional calculations show that the pile shaft friction does not influence the stresses at the pile tip, but the normal stresses of the pile tip do influence the shear stresses along the shaft. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 43 (4 UL)The Bearing Capacity of Footings on Cohesionless Soils Van Baars, Stefan in The Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (2015), 20 In 1920 Prandtl published an analytical solution for the bearing capacity of a maximum strip load on a weightless infinite half-space. This solution was extended by Reissner in 1924 with a surrounding ... [more ▼] In 1920 Prandtl published an analytical solution for the bearing capacity of a maximum strip load on a weightless infinite half-space. This solution was extended by Reissner in 1924 with a surrounding surcharge. Keverling Buisman (1940) extended the Prandtl-Reissner formula for the soil weight. It was Terzaghi (1943) who wrote this in the form which is nowadays used. Since then several people proposed equations for the soil-weight bearing capacity factor. In this paper, we show that all those equations assume a Prandtl failure mechanism, while Finite Element Modelling (FEM) of strip footings on cohesion less materials proofs a global failure mechanism. Also these equations result in a higher bearing capacity than found with FEM. This means that the currently used equations for the soil-weight bearing capacity factor, and also the corresponding shape factor, are inaccurate and unsafe. Therefore new equations for the soil-weight bearing capacity factor, the soil-weight shape factor and the surcharge shape factor have been presented in this paper. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 43 (3 UL)Laboratory tests on Dutch limestone (Mergel) Pytlik, Robert Stanislaw ; Van Baars, Stefan in Schubert, W.; Kluckner, A. (Eds.) Future Development of Rock Mechanics - Proceedings of the ISRM Regional Symposium EUROCK 2015 & 64th Geomechanics Colloquium (2015, October 09) In this note, results of triaxial laboratory tests on very weak sedimentary limestone from the construction of the “Geusselt A2” tunnel in Maastricht in the Netherlands are presented. The main purpose of ... [more ▼] In this note, results of triaxial laboratory tests on very weak sedimentary limestone from the construction of the “Geusselt A2” tunnel in Maastricht in the Netherlands are presented. The main purpose of the triaxial tests was to evaluate the strength of this rock. Particularly interesting was that the strength parameters obtained in the laboratory, were much lower than what was expected after preliminary visual inspections. The two most popular models in soil and rock mechanics, the Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown failure criteria, were used to estimate the strength parameters and both did not give satisfying results. Still the Mohr-Coulomb model is the best model to use. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 65 (7 UL)Triaxiaalproeven op Limburgse mergel leveren verassende resultaten Pytlik, Robert Stanislaw ; Van Baars, Stefan in Geotechniek (2015), 3(19), 10-13 De civiele werken van de A2-tunnel in Maastricht zijn onlangs voltooid. Tijdens de bouw werd de Limburgse mergel in de bouwput als een stijve, stevige grondlaag beoordeeld, terwijl het na het verwijderen ... [more ▼] De civiele werken van de A2-tunnel in Maastricht zijn onlangs voltooid. Tijdens de bouw werd de Limburgse mergel in de bouwput als een stijve, stevige grondlaag beoordeeld, terwijl het na het verwijderen als een cohesieloos zand werd aangezien. Om het sterktegedrag van deze mergel beter te begrijpen is door de Universiteit van Luxemburg aanvullend onderzoek gedaan. Uit triaxiaalproeven blijkt verrassenderwijze dat de sterkteparameters van verkruimelde mergel weinig afwijken van intacte mergel. De toplaag van de mergel heeft een zeer kleine cohesie en een grote hoek van inwendige wrijving. Alhoewel hierdoor de mergel onder druk zeer sterk is, is de mergel vrijwel niet in staat om trek op te nemen. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 57 (7 UL)PROPAGATION OF HARMONICAL VIBRATIONS IN PEAT Macijauskas, Darius ; Van Baars, Stefan in International Journal of GEOMATE (2014), 7(2), 1101-1106 In order to check the reliability of man-made vibration prediction methods, vibration tests were performed on one of polders in the North-West of the Netherlands. The polder was chosen because it has a ... [more ▼] In order to check the reliability of man-made vibration prediction methods, vibration tests were performed on one of polders in the North-West of the Netherlands. The polder was chosen because it has a rather homogenous, thick and soft peat top layer. Here sufficient harmonical vibrations could be generated by a rather small shaker. The shaker was designed and manufactured in order to produce harmonical vibrations at the soil surface. It consists of two counter rotating electric vibrators (with rotating eccentric masses) in order to produce a vertically oscillating force. For the recordings of the vibrations, six 2D or 3D geophones were placed on the soil surface and one 2D geophone was placed on top of the shaker. The measured vibration amplitudes of the vertically oscillating shaker were compared with 1. Two different analytical methods used for the design of vibrating machine foundations, 2. The Confined Elasticity approach and 3. The Finite Element Method, for which Plaxis 2D software was used. Also the measured vibration amplitudes at the soil surface were compared with Barkan-Bornitz’s solution and Finite Element Modeling. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 71 (8 UL)The inclination and shape factors for the bearing capacity of footings Van Baars, Stefan in Soils and Foundations (2014) In 1920 Prandtl published an analytical solution for the bearing capacity of a maximum strip load on a weightless infinite half-space. Prandtl subdivided the sliding soil component into three zones: two ... [more ▼] In 1920 Prandtl published an analytical solution for the bearing capacity of a maximum strip load on a weightless infinite half-space. Prandtl subdivided the sliding soil component into three zones: two triangle zones on the edges and a wedge shaped zone in between the triangle zones that has a logarithmic spiral form. The solution was extended by Reissner in 1924 with a surrounding surcharge. Nowadays a more extended version of Prandtl’s formula exists for the bearing capacity. This extended formulation has an additional bearing capacity coefficient for the soil weight and has additional correction factors for inclined loads and for non-infinite strips loads. This extended version is in some countries known as “The equation of Meyerhof”, and in other countries as “The equation of Brinch Hansen”, because both men have separately published solutions for these additional correction factors. In this paper, we numerically solve for the stresses in the wedge zone and derive the corresponding bearing capacity coefficients and inclination and shape factors. The inclination factors are also analytically solved for. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 75 (6 UL)Fatigue of geomaterials Pytlik, Robert Stanislaw ; Van Baars, Stefan in Oka, Fusao; Murakami, Akira; Uzuoka, Ryosuke (Eds.) et al Computer Methods and Recent Advances in Geomechanics (2014, September 23) Detailed reference viewed: 55 (12 UL)Landslides in urban areas of Luxembourg, caused by weak Rheatian Clay Van Baars, Stefan ; ; in Lollino; Manconi; Guzzetti (Eds.) et al Engineering Geology for Society and Territory Volume 5 (2014, September) Luxembourg is geologically divided into two parts: Oesling in the North and Gut-land in the Middle and South. Oesling is part of the Ardennes plateau. Gutland was formed in the Triassic and Jurassic ages ... [more ▼] Luxembourg is geologically divided into two parts: Oesling in the North and Gut-land in the Middle and South. Oesling is part of the Ardennes plateau. Gutland was formed in the Triassic and Jurassic ages and is much younger than Oesling. It consists mainly of sedimentary rocks. Luxembourg has a variety of interesting, weak or problematic soils, such as the swelling gypsum layers, the layered schists of Wiltz and especially the weak Keu-per-Rhaetian-clay. The Rhaetian clay layer is mostly rather thin and is found at a relatively constant altitude and the band where it comes to the surface is identified by the varying erosion erratically found throughout Gutland. Approximately two third of all landslides are found along this line. Hence it was decided to investigate the Rhaetian clay in the geotechnical laboratory of the University of Luxembourg. Samples were taken from a pit at Rue de Mühlenbach on the north side of the city of Luxembourg and from a sliding slope of a building pit in Schutrange. The friction angle was found to be 8° at Mühlenbach and 3° at Schuttrange, which are both record low friction angles, which explains the high number of landslides in Luxembourg. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 UL)Vibrations due to hydroshield tunnelling Van Baars, Stefan in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2014 (2014, June) The Hubertus tunnel in Den Hague, the Netherlands, is a 1.5 km long bored tunnel, mostly below groundwater level, constructed with a hydro-shield Tunnel Boring Machine in 2006 and 2007. The vibrations due ... [more ▼] The Hubertus tunnel in Den Hague, the Netherlands, is a 1.5 km long bored tunnel, mostly below groundwater level, constructed with a hydro-shield Tunnel Boring Machine in 2006 and 2007. The vibrations due to the tunnelling have been recorded both inside the tunnel and at ground surface. No harmful vibrations were observed while the Hubertus tunnel was being bored, although unexpected vibration nuisance did occur. This is an effect that is widely known when tunnelling in rock, but was not expected when tunnelling in beach sand. Analyses of the recorded vibrations showed that the vibrations were mainly caused by the trembling motion of the TBM in the sand as a result of the stick-slip effect. This creates shear waves along the TBM shaft and pressure waves at the bore front. Both waves travel in an axial direction. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 UL)Seismic Techniques for Surveying the Underground of Shallow Foundations Van Baars, Stefan in Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture (2014), 8(5), 604-612 For civil structures founded on shallow foundations, the ground underneath the foundation often holds the greatest risks of the total structure. This can be due to of a very soft soil layer, an ... [more ▼] For civil structures founded on shallow foundations, the ground underneath the foundation often holds the greatest risks of the total structure. This can be due to of a very soft soil layer, an inhomogeneous subsurface or a hidden dangerous object. It would be most favorable when a cheap and quick kind of seismic “tap-and-listen” technique can be used to detect those risks. The problem is however that an applied pulse or blast always creates a combination of compression-, shear- and surface waves. These types of waves have different wave velocities and will return therefore at different time intervals. For a shallow subsurface technique, all these waves will overlap, which makes the interpretation very hard. Both the single pulse technique and the single-frequency, multiple wave technique (constant vibration) have been studied, but both techniques have their limitations. It can be concluded from finite element calculations that it will be difficult or even impossible to design good seismic techniques for surveying the underground of shallow foundations for hidden shallow objects like water pipelines, undetonated bombs, dead bodies, coffins, potholes, etc.. The main reason is that the relative amount of reflected energy is simply too low in comparison to the energy of the still present original wave. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 39 (5 UL)The soil of Luxembourg and the weak Rhaetian clay Van Baars, Stefan in Cahier Scientifique - Revue Technique Luxembourgeoise (2014), 2013(2), 34-37 Luxembourg is geologically divided into two parts: Oesling in the North and Gutland in the Middle and South. Oesling is part of the Ardennes plateau. Gutland was formed in the Triassic and Jurassic ages ... [more ▼] Luxembourg is geologically divided into two parts: Oesling in the North and Gutland in the Middle and South. Oesling is part of the Ardennes plateau. Gutland was formed in the Triassic and Jurassic ages and is much younger than Oesling. It consists mainly of sedimentary rocks. Luxembourg has a variety of interesting, weak or problematic soils, such as the swelling gypsum layers, the layered schists of Wiltz and especially the weak Keuper-Rhaetian-clay. The Rhaetian clay layer is mostly rather thin and is found at a relatively constant altitude and the band where it comes to the surface is identified by the varying erosion erratically found throughout Gutland. Approximately two third of all landslides are found along this line. Hence it was decided to investigate the Rhaetian clay in the geotechnical laboratory of the University of Luxembourg. Samples were taken from a pit at Rue de Mühlenbach on the north side of the city of Luxembourg and from a sliding slope of a building pit in Schutrange. The friction angle was found to be phi = 8° at Mühlenbach and phi = 13° at Schuttrange, which are both record low friction angles, which explains the high number of landslides in Luxembourg. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 80 (6 UL)The landslide of Kirf; a chain of governance failures Van Baars, Stefan ; ; et al in Zhang et al (Ed.) Geotechnical Safety and Risk IV (2014, January) In January 2011 a landslide occurred in the German village of Kirf, which is between the town Saarburg and the border of Luxembourg. This slope failure caused a destruction of a federal main road over 50 ... [more ▼] In January 2011 a landslide occurred in the German village of Kirf, which is between the town Saarburg and the border of Luxembourg. This slope failure caused a destruction of a federal main road over 50 meters. Stability calculations were made by a geotechnical consulting company, commissioned from the Federal Road Administration, in order to design the repair works and also to find out what really had happened. These calculations showed remarkably high safety factors. Nevertheless the consulting company blamed the families of the four houses down the slope for the failure, because they had made gabion walls in the toe of the slope. A research team of the University of Luxembourg discovered that this hilly area originally was called “On the slide” and has never been stabile according to their own calculations. So, the real question is why so many apparently uncorrelated mistakes were made in a single case. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 29 (4 UL)Decomposition of measured ground vibrations into basic soil waves Macijauskas, Darius ; Van Baars, Stefan in Pietruszczak, Stan; Pande, Gyan (Eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Computational Geomechanics (ComGeo III), Krakow, Poland, 21-23 August, 2013 (2013, August 21) Man-made vibrations from different types of sources are usually measured on the surface of the ground or building. The measured signal is always the superposition of all travelling basic waves. For a ... [more ▼] Man-made vibrations from different types of sources are usually measured on the surface of the ground or building. The measured signal is always the superposition of all travelling basic waves. For a homogeneous half space there are three basic waves – the Compressional (P-wave), Shear (S-wave) and Rayleigh wave (R-wave). Depending on the measuring equipment, only the accelerations or velocities in time of the superposed wave can be measured, but not the distribution of the individual basic waves. Additional problems are that each of the basic waves has its own velocity, besides the body and surface waves have different attenuation laws. By using the rules of superposition of harmonic waves and also the propagation laws of the P-, S- and R-waves, it should be theoretically possible to split the measured superposed signal into the basic waves, because mathematically a system of equations can be assembled which describes the displacements at multiple measuring points in time. In this paper this problem has been solved for a homogenous, elastic and isotropic soil, which is disturbed by a harmonically oscillating disc on the surface. A numerical simulation was performed using a finite element method. The displacements in time were recorded in 10 points on the surface and a system of superposed equations was assembled and solved. The findings prove that each of the three basic waves has its own phase shift with the source, something which was not known before. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 96 (19 UL)De Luxemburgse bodem en de zwakke Rhät klei Van Baars, Stefan ; ; in Geotechniek (2013) Luxemburg kent zeer interessante, zwakke en problematische bodemsoorten zoals de zwellende gips, de gelaagde schist van Wiltz en vooral de zwakke Keuper-Rhät-klei. Die laatste komt als een dun laagje in ... [more ▼] Luxemburg kent zeer interessante, zwakke en problematische bodemsoorten zoals de zwellende gips, de gelaagde schist van Wiltz en vooral de zwakke Keuper-Rhät-klei. Die laatste komt als een dun laagje in een groot deel van het land aan de oppervlakte. Ongeveer 2/3de deel van alle grondafschuivingen spelen zich hier af. Vandaar dat besloten is om de Rhät-klei te onderzoeken. Uit triaxiaalproeven die in het geotechnisch laboratorium van de Universiteit van Luxemburg gedaan zijn, blijkt dat deze klei een zeer kleine hoek van inwendige wrijving heeft en daardoor tot de zwakste kleien ter wereld gerekend mag worden. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 UL) |
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