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See detailSpatio-temporal activation of chromatin on the human CYP24 gene promoter in the presence of 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3
Väisänen, Sami; Dunlop, Thomas W.; Sinkkonen, Lasse UL et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (2005), 350(1), 65-77

The vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase gene (CYP24) is one of the most strongly induced genes known. Despite this, its induction by the hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25OH2D3) has been characterized ... [more ▼]

The vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase gene (CYP24) is one of the most strongly induced genes known. Despite this, its induction by the hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25OH2D3) has been characterized only partially. Therefore, we monitored the spatio-temporal, 1alpha,25OH2D3-dependent chromatin acetylation status of the human CYP24 promoter by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays with antibodies against acetylated histone 4. This was achieved by performing PCR on 25 contiguous genomic regions spanning the first 7.7 kb of the promoter. ChIP assays using antibodies against the 1alpha,25OH2D3 receptor (VDR) revealed that, in addition to the proximal promoter, three novel regions further upstream associated with VDR. Combined in silico/in vitro screening identified in three of the four promoter regions sequences resembling known VDREs and reporter gene assays confirmed the inducibility of these regions by 1alpha,25OH2D3)=. In contrast, the fourth VDR-associated promoter region did not contain any recognizable classical VDRE that could account for the presence of the protein on this region. However, re-ChIP assays monitored on all four promoter regions simultaneous association of VDR with retinoid X receptor, coactivator, mediator and RNA polymerase II proteins. These proteins showed a promoter region-specific association pattern demonstrating the complex choreography of the CYP24 gene promoter activation over 300 minutes. Thus, this study reveals new information concerning the regulation of the CYP24 gene by 1alpha,25OH2D3, and is a demonstration of the simultaneous participation of multiple, structurally diverse response elements in promoter activation in a living cell. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of the human cyclin C gene via multiple vitamin D3-responsive regions in its promoter
Sinkkonen, Lasse UL; Malinen, Marjo; Saavalainen, Katri et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2005), 33(8), 2440-51

The candidate human tumor suppressor gene cyclin C is a primary target of the anti-proliferative hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3], but binding sites for the 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 ... [more ▼]

The candidate human tumor suppressor gene cyclin C is a primary target of the anti-proliferative hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3], but binding sites for the 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR), so-called 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 response elements (VDREs), have not yet been identified in the promoter of this gene. We screened various cancer cell lines by quantitative PCR and found that the 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 inducibility of cyclin C mRNA expression, in relationship with the 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) gene, was best in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. To characterize the molecular mechanisms, we analyzed 8.4 kb of the cyclin C promoter by using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) with antibodies against acetylated histone 4, VDR and its partner receptor, retinoid X receptor (RXR). The histone 4 acetylation status of all 23 investigated regions of the cyclin C promoter did not change significantly in response to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, but four independent promoter regions showed a consistent, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent association with VDR and RXR over a time period of 240 min. Combined in silico/in vitro screening identified in each of these promoter regions a VDRE and reporter gene assays confirmed their functionality. Moreover, re-ChIP assays monitored simultaneous association of VDR with RXR, coactivator, mediator and RNA polymerase II proteins on these regions. Since cyclin C protein is associated with those mediator complexes that display transcriptional repressive properties, this study contributes to the understanding of the downregulation of a number of secondary 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-responding genes. [less ▲]

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