References of "Steffgen, Georges 50003143"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOverestimation of physical activity among young people: Does age and gender play a role?
Eckelt, Melanie UL; Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Steffgen, Georges UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, June 22)

Background and purpose: Due to the continuous decrease of physical activity (PA) of people in industrialized countries (Kohl et al., 2012), PA behavior and its psychological foundations has become a key ... [more ▼]

Background and purpose: Due to the continuous decrease of physical activity (PA) of people in industrialized countries (Kohl et al., 2012), PA behavior and its psychological foundations has become a key issue in health-related research. Studies show that most people tend to overesti-mate their habitual PA (Skender et al., 2016), however, there is very little research on the role of demographic variables in this respect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether age and/or gender affect the (over)estimation of PA among children and adolescents. Methods: Data of 75 students (38 girls and 37 boys, 10 to 18 years) of various primary and sec-ondary schools were randomly included in the study. Habitual PA was assessed through an online self-report questionnaire (Schmidt et al., 2017) as well as by wearing an accelerometer (Acti-Graph GT3X-BT) over seven consecutive days. A multiple regression analysis was used to ana-lyze the impact of age and gender on the accuracy of PA estimation. Results: The students reported being active for at least 60 minutes on average on 4,0 ± 2,1 days per week, whereas the accelerometer data verify only 1,8 ± 1,6 days per week. Thus, a majority of 76% of the children and adolescents overestimated and 9% underestimated their PA. Almost 15% were correct in their PA estimation. However, results of the regression analysis indicate neither an effect of age ( = .003, p > .1) nor of gender ( = -.070, p > .1). Conclusions: Overestimation of PA is common not only among adults but also among children and adolescents. However, this misperception appears to be independent of age and gender, at least in the age group considered here. Future studies should examine further demographic and psychological variables in order to explain why most of the people significantly overestimate their habitual PA. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMotivationsregulation im Sportunterricht und ihre Relevanz für die körperliche Aktivität in der Freizeit
Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Eckelt, Melanie UL; Bund, Andreas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, May 30)

Hintergrund: Angesichts der kontinuierlichen Abnahme der körperlichen Aktivität von Kindern und Jugendlichen erweist sich die Stärkung der Motivation im Sportunterricht als ein bedeutsamer Ansatz zur ... [more ▼]

Hintergrund: Angesichts der kontinuierlichen Abnahme der körperlichen Aktivität von Kindern und Jugendlichen erweist sich die Stärkung der Motivation im Sportunterricht als ein bedeutsamer Ansatz zur Sportaktivierung (Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2005). Die Selbstbestimmungstheorie (Deci & Ryan, 2000) postuliert, dass ein eher intrinsischer Regulationstyp sowie ein autonomie-förderndes Klima im Sportunterricht die Intention körperlicher Aktivität steigern. Basierend auf dem trans-kontextuellen Modell (Hagger, Chatzisarantis, Culverhouse, & Biddle, 2003) wird in der vorliegenden Studie geprüft, ob der motivationale Regulationstyp aus dem Sportunterricht selbigen hinsichtlich der körperlichen Aktivität im Freizeitbereich vorhersagen kann. Methode: 264 Schüler von 11 bis 21 Jahren (52.6% Mädchen) aus Luxemburg nahmen an der Studie teil. Neben der Bedürfnisunterstützung (Autonomie, Geselligkeit und Kompetenz; Standage, Duda, & Ntoumis, 2005), dem Regulationstyp im Sportunterricht (BPNES; Vlachopoulos, Ntoumanis, & Smith, 2010) sowie zur körperlichen Aktivität in der Freizeit (BREQ-II; Markland & Tobin, 2004) wurde auch die Intention zu körperlicher Aktivität erfasst (Hagger, et al. 2003). Ergebnisse: Eine SEM-Analyse belegt einen signifikanten Zusammenhang zwischen dem intrinsischen Regulationstyp im Sportunterricht und der intrinsischen Regulation zur körperlichen Aktivität in der Freizeit. Letztere erweist sich hierbei als positiver Prädiktor der Intentionsbildung. Zudem geht die Unterstützung der drei Grundbedürfnisse durch den Sportlehrer mit einer signifikant höheren intrinsischen Regulation sowie niedrigeren Amotivation im Sportunterricht einher. Schlussfolgerung: Die Befunde zeigen auf, dass ein intrinsischer Regulationstyp im Sportunterricht kontextübergreifend mit dem Regulationstyp im Freizeitbereich zusammenhängt, welcher wiederum die Aktivitätsintention erhöht. Die Implikationen dieser Befunde für den Sportunterricht werden im Rahmen des Vortrags diskutiert. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCompetence support in physical education: a predictor towards a more self-determined physical activity behavior?
Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Eckelt, Melanie UL; Bund, Andreas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, May 22)

Objectives: Given a widespread continuous decrease in children’s and adolescents’ physical activity (PA), the potential of physical education (PE) in promoting young people’s PA motivation and behavior ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Given a widespread continuous decrease in children’s and adolescents’ physical activity (PA), the potential of physical education (PE) in promoting young people’s PA motivation and behavior has become a key issue. Research in line with the trans-contextual model highlights the support of perceived autonomy in PE as a significant predictor for self-determined PA behavior in a leisure-time (LT) context (Hagger et al., 2003). However, the impact of competence and relatedness support still remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of support during PE, differentiated into three basic needs for behavioral regulation in PE and LT. It was expected that, in addition to perceived autonomy, competence and relatedness would be relevant predictors. Method: 244 students (139 girls) from Luxembourg, ranging from 11 to 21 years, participated in the study. Via a digital questionnaire, the scales need support (perceived autonomy, competence and relatedness; Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2005), basic needs (BPNES; Vlachopoulos, Ntoumanis, & Smith, 2010), and external and intrinsic motivation in PE (PLOC-R; Vlachopoulos et al., 2011) as well as in LT (BREQ-II; Markland & Tobin, 2004) were applied in the classroom. With regard to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985), the attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and intentions toward PA were assessed (Hagger et al., 2003). Results: A SEM analysis showed that competence support in PE was the major predictor for self-determined behavior in PE, while perceived autonomy produced mixed findings. Relatedness support had a negative effect on external regulated behavior in PE. In accordance with the assumptions of the trans-contextual model, similar behavioral regulations in PE and LT were found. Furthermore, a more self-determined behavior in LT predicted higher attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control towards PA, which increased the intention of doing sports. Discussion: Results suggest that the children’s perceived support of competence from the teacher during PE is an important factor to increase self-determined PA behavior. Further intervention programs may focus on improving the perception of competence during PE in order to increase motivation. In addition, these findings underline the importance for future research to consider the different roles of perceived support of competence, autonomy and relatedness in PE. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detail5. Forschungsbericht zur Weiterentwicklung des Arbeitsqualitätsindexes in Luxemburg
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Der „Quality of Work Index Luxembourg“ (QoW)-Survey, der von der Universität Luxemburg und der luxemburgischen Chambre des Salariés konzipiert wurde (Steffgen, Kohl, 2013; Sischka, Steffgen, 2015, 2016 ... [more ▼]

Der „Quality of Work Index Luxembourg“ (QoW)-Survey, der von der Universität Luxemburg und der luxemburgischen Chambre des Salariés konzipiert wurde (Steffgen, Kohl, 2013; Sischka, Steffgen, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2019), wurde 2018 zum sechsten Mal durchgeführt. Ziel des Surveys ist es, die erlebte Arbeitssituation und -qualität luxemburgischer Arbeitnehmer zu erfassen. Der vorliegende Bericht dokumentiert die psychometrische Testung der Güte des aktuellen Erhebungsinstruments. In einem ersten Schritt erfolgt eine Beschreibung der Befragungsumstände sowie eine demographische Beschreibung der Stichprobe. Da die Erhebung 2018 als Mixed-Mode-Design – telefonische als auch Online-Befragung – durchgeführt wurde, wird auch analysiert, ob Stichprobenunterschiede zwischen den beiden Erhebungsmodi auftreten. Außerdem wird geklärt, ob es hinsichtlich demographischer Eigenschaften der Befragten, hinsichtlich der QoW-Skalen oder hinsichtlich verschiedener Well-Being-Maße zu systematischen Ausfällen seit der letzten Welle gekommen ist. Dann werden die Items der QoW- und Well-Being-Skalen auf fehlende Werte untersucht und es erfolgt eine Beschreibung der Items mittels verteilungsbeschreibender Maßzahlen und Balkendiagramme. In einem nächsten Schritt werden die Skalen mittels verschiedener Reliabilitätsstatistiken (Cronbach’s Alpha, Korrelationsanalysen der Items) sowie Koeffizienten zur Beschreibung der Skalenverteilung überprüft. Außerdem werden die Zusammenhänge der Skalen mittels Korrelationsanalysen überprüft. Im Anschluss daran wird die unterstellte Faktorenstruktur mittels konfirmatorischer Faktoren-analysen getestet. Die QoW-Skalen werden außerdem auf verschiedene Well-Being-Skalen regressiert, um deren Relevanz für den QoW-Index zu prüfen. Ebenso werden einige Längsschnitt-Regressionsanalysen durchgeführt, um zu überprüfen ob einige Arbeitsbedingungen längerfristige Effekte auf das Well-Being der Arbeitnehmer aufweisen. Die QoW-Befragung 2018 hat außerdem das Schwerpunktthema „Work-Life-Balance“ behandelt. Die Güte der Skalen zu diesem Thema wird ebenfalls geprüft. Im Anschluss werden dann Korrelationen mit den QoW- und Well-Being-Skalen berechnet. Abschließend wird das gesamte Erhebungsinstrument zusammenfassend diskutiert und Emp-fehlungen bezüglich zukünftiger Befragungen gegeben. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 UL)
Full Text
See detailWeshalb wechseln Arbeitnehmer ihren Arbeitgeber?
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

4,4% der Befragten des Quality of Work Survey hat zwischen den Erhebungen 2017 und 2018 den Arbeitgeber gewechselt. Vor allem die jüngsten Arbeitnehmer (16 bis 24 Jahre) sowie Arbeitnehmer mit einer ... [more ▼]

4,4% der Befragten des Quality of Work Survey hat zwischen den Erhebungen 2017 und 2018 den Arbeitgeber gewechselt. Vor allem die jüngsten Arbeitnehmer (16 bis 24 Jahre) sowie Arbeitnehmer mit einer befristeten Arbeitsstelle wechselten eher ihren Arbeitgeber. Je geringer Partizipation und Feedback, je höher Mobbing, und je geringer Einkommenszufriedenheit, Ausbildungs- und Beförderungsmöglichkeiten ausfallen, desto höher die Wahrscheinlichkeit eines Arbeitgeberwechsels. Arbeitnehmer, die den Arbeitgeber gewechselt haben, weisen dann im Mittel einen Zuwachs an Wohlbefinden auf. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 UL)
See detailLerneffekte interaktiver Medien bei Kindern und Jugendlichend
Melzer, André UL; Happ, Christian; Steffgen, Georges UL

Report (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 UL)
Full Text
See detail4. Forschungsbericht zur Weiterentwicklung des Arbeitsqualitätsindexes in Luxemburg
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Der Survey zu dem „Quality of Work Index Luxembourg“ (QoW), der von der Universität Luxemburg und der luxemburgischen Chambré des Salariés entwickelt wurde (Steffgen, Kohl, 2013; Sischka, Steffgen, 2015 ... [more ▼]

Der Survey zu dem „Quality of Work Index Luxembourg“ (QoW), der von der Universität Luxemburg und der luxemburgischen Chambré des Salariés entwickelt wurde (Steffgen, Kohl, 2013; Sischka, Steffgen, 2015, 2016, 2017), wurde 2017 bereits zum fünften Mal mittels einer telefonischen Befragung durchgeführt. Ziel des Index ist es, die erlebte Arbeitssituation und -qualität luxemburgischer Arbeitnehmer zu erfassen. Der vorliegende Bericht dokumentiert die psychometrische Testung der Güte des aktuellen Erhebungsinstruments. Dazu erfolgt zunächst eine Beschreibung der für die Skalen genutzten Items, die Überprüfung der internen Konsistenz der jeweiligen Skala mittels verschiedener Reliabilitätsstatistiken (Cronbach’s Alpha, Korrelationsanalysen der Items) sowie Koeffizienten zur Beschreibung der Skalenverteilung. Konfirmatorische Faktorenanalysen dienen dazu, zu testen, ob die Items auf den a priori festgelegten Faktoren laden und ob sich die unterstellte Faktorenstruktur auch in den Daten zeigt. Außerdem werden die Zusammenhänge der Skalen mittels Korrelationsanalysen über-prüft. Die QoW-Skalen werden außerdem auf verschiedene Well-Being-Skalen regressiert, um deren Relevanz für den QoW-Index zu prüfen. Da der QoW Survey teilweise als Panelbefragung durchgeführt wird, wird außerdem geklärt, ob es hinsichtlich demographischer Eigenschaften der Befragten, hinsichtlich der QoW-Skalen oder hinsichtlich verschiedener Well-Being-Maße zu systematischen Ausfällen seit der letzten Welle gekommen ist. Ebenso werden einige Längsschnitt-Regressionsanalysen gerechnet, um zu überprüfen, ob einige Arbeitsbedingungen längerfristige Effekte auf das Well-Being der Arbeitnehmer aufweisen. Die QoW-Befragung 2017 hat außerdem das Schwerpunktthema „Digitalisierung“ behandelt. Die Themenblöcke werden mittels Latenter Profile-Analysen untersucht. Im Anschluss wird überprüft ob sich die extrahierten Profile hinsichtlich der QoW- und der Well-Being-Skalen unterscheiden. Abschließend wird das gesamte Erhebungsinstrument zusammenfassend diskutiert und Empfehlungen bezüglich der weiteren Entwicklung der Skalen gegeben. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailGender differences with regard to physical activity motivation and behavior in physical education and leisure time
Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Eckelt, Melanie UL; Bund, Andreas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, January)

Objectives: Given a widespread continuous decrease in children’s and adoles-cents’ physical activity (PA), the potential of physical education (PE) in promoting young people’s PA motivation and behavior ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Given a widespread continuous decrease in children’s and adoles-cents’ physical activity (PA), the potential of physical education (PE) in promoting young people’s PA motivation and behavior has become a key issue in research. Based on the self-determination theory (SDT) of Deci and Ryan (1985), the present study aimed to ex-amine gender differences with regard to PA motivation and behavior during PE and lei-sure time (LT). Previously, girls were found to be more self-determined than boys (Wil-liams & Deci, 1996), but showed lower self-reported PA and were meeting the PA guide-lines of the WHO to a lesser extent (Trost et al., 2002). Method: 244 students (139 girls and 125 boys) from 11 to 21 years participated in the study. PA motivation was assessed via a digital questionnaire containing the scales need support (Standage, Duda and Ntoumanis, 2005), basic needs (BPNES; Vlachopou-los, Ntoumanis & Smith, 2010), external and intrinsic motivation in PE (PLOC-R; Vla-chopoulos et al., 2011) and in LT (BREQ-II; Markland & Tobin, 2004). PA behavior was measured through a self-report questionnaire (Schmidt, Will, Henn, Reimers & Woll, 2016). Additionally, 76 students (38 girls and 38 boys) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X-BT) over seven consecutive days to measure PA behavior objectively, too. Results: With regard to PA motivation, girls reported a lower fulfillment in the basic need of competence during PE and scored higher in the external motivation during PE and LT than boys. In contrast, boys reported higher rates of intrinsic motivation during PE and LT. Concerning PA behavior, boys showed higher PA than girls for self-reported and objectively measured PA in PE and LT. Independently of gender, higher levels of intrinsic motivation were associated with increased self-reported PA. Discussion: In conflict with previous findings, girls reported a lower intrinsic motiva-tion in PA than boys. As girls simultaneously show lower self-reported and objectively measured PA, future intervention programs should focus on strengthening the more in-ternally driven behavior of girls in order to foster regular PA. Key Reference: Deci, E.L. & Ran, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behav-ior. New York: Plenum Press. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 124 (24 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailÄrgerbezogene kognitive Verhaltenstherapie eines Jugendlichen in der Heimunterbringung. Eine Fallgeschichte.
Reiser, Manon; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Verhaltenstherapie (2019), 29(2), 118-128

Jugendliche aus stationären Einrichtungen (z.B. Heime) sind häufig von der Chronifizierung einer psychischen Störung bedroht [Schmid, 2007]. Unter anderem aufgrund von Traumatisierungen sind ... [more ▼]

Jugendliche aus stationären Einrichtungen (z.B. Heime) sind häufig von der Chronifizierung einer psychischen Störung bedroht [Schmid, 2007]. Unter anderem aufgrund von Traumatisierungen sind externalisierende Verhaltensprobleme, z.B. wiederholter unangemessener Ärgerausdruck, festzustellen, die einen Behandlungserfolg in Frage stellen. Erforderlich ist es daher problematische Ärgerreaktionen von Jugendlichen zu thematisieren, und den Umgang mit Ärger zu verändern. In dieser Falldarstellung wird die Umsetzung eines 10-wöchigen kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutischen Ärgerbewältigungstrainings [Schwenkmezger et al., 1999] bei einem fremdplatzierten verhaltensauffälligen Jugendlichen aufgezeigt [Steffgen et al., 2014]. Die eingesetzten testdiagnostischen Verfahren belegen, dass die Bereitschaft zu aggressiven Verhaltensweisen sowie des nach außen gerichteten Ärgerausdrucks reduziert, und die Ärgerkontrolle erhöht wurde. Insgesamt konnte die Wirksamkeit der programmgestützten Intervention am Einzelfall nachgewiesen werden. Jugendliche in der Heimunterbringung können somit durch die Teilnahme an einer Ärgerintervention Nutzen ziehen, indem sie lernen ihre Emotionsregulation zu optimieren, um dadurch ihre soziale Kompetenz zu erhöhen. Ihre gesellschaftliche Eingliederung ließe sich dadurch erleichtern. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 170 (4 UL)
Full Text
See detailWorin liegen die Chancen und Risiken der verstärkten Nutzung von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien außerhalb des Arbeitsplatzes?
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Rund 11% der Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg können der Gruppe zugeordnet werden, die häufig Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien nutzt, um fern von ihrer organisationalen Arbeitsstelle zu arbeiten ... [more ▼]

Rund 11% der Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg können der Gruppe zugeordnet werden, die häufig Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien nutzt, um fern von ihrer organisationalen Arbeitsstelle zu arbeiten. Insbesondere bei männlichen und höher gebildeten Arbeitnehmern sowie bei Managern und Arbeitnehmern in akademischen Berufen ist dieser Anteil an Nutzern stärker ausgeprägt. Diese Arbeitsplatz fernen Nutzer von Informationstechnologien geben im Durchschnitt ein höheres Maß an Autonomie und Partizipation bei der Arbeit an, sind jedoch verstärkt von problematischen psychosozialen Arbeitsbedingungen (z.B. Mobbing, Work-Life-Konflikte) sowie Burnout betroffen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCompetition and Workplace Bullying. The moderating role of passive avoidant leadership style.
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2018, November 02)

The aim of the study was to test if competition is a potential risk factor for the occurrence of workplace bullying and if this association depends on the level of passive avoidant leadership style. We ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to test if competition is a potential risk factor for the occurrence of workplace bullying and if this association depends on the level of passive avoidant leadership style. We proposed that competition and passive avoidant leadership style are positive related to workplace bullying exposure and perpetration. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the effect of competition on workplace bullying exposure and perpetration is moderated through passive avoidant leadership style. An online survey design was employed and data were collected among U.S. employees. The final sample consists of 1,408 respondents. Workplace bullying exposure and perpetration were cross-sectionally assessed via self-labeling and behavioral experience method. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that competition and passive avoidant leadership style are important predictors for workplace bullying exposure and perpetration. Furthermore, the results indicated that the effect of competition on workplace bullying exposure (measured via behavioral method) and self-labeled workplace bullying exposure and perpetration is moderated through passive avoidant leadership style. However, for workplace bullying perpetration (measured via behavioral method) no moderation effect was found. The findings underline the importance of the supervisor’s behavior in the occurrence of workplace bullying. Organizations may decrease workplace bullying incidents by training their supervisors to apply a more constructive leadership style. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (4 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFrustration inducing tasks as tools for assessing adolescent emotion regulation
Battistutta, Layla UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2018, November)

Adolescents can be at risk for the development of mental health symptoms which can be exacerbated by emotion regulation problems. Hence, empirically validated tools to assess emotion regulation among ... [more ▼]

Adolescents can be at risk for the development of mental health symptoms which can be exacerbated by emotion regulation problems. Hence, empirically validated tools to assess emotion regulation among adolescents in experimental settings are needed, but so far potential differences between already existing frustration inducing tasks are not well understood. The aim of the present study was thus to compare the efficacy of two non-verbal distress tolerance tasks – the Behavioural Indicator of Resiliency to Distress (BIRD, Lejuez et al.), and the Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (MPTP; Strong et al., 2003), in inducing frustration in a sample of 72 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 16. Adolescents’ subjective, physiological and behavioural emotion responses were assessed via self-report (PANAS-C; Laurent et al., 1999), heart rate monitoring and persistence on the task respectively, and associated with their self-reported emotion regulation difficulties (DERS-SF, Gullone & Taffe, 2012) as well as strategy use during the task (ERQ-state; Egloff et al., 2006). Both tasks were found to be subjectively frustrating, as evidenced by significant differences between pre- and post- reported negative affect. Beyond the similar self-reported psychological distress for both tasks, stronger negative physiological and behavioural reactions were however found for the BIRD task with higher heart rates as well as a tendency towards a shorter persistence on this task. The emotional responses were found to be correlated with adolescents reported difficulties, above all with their reported impulsiveness. Adolescents’ strategy use of reappraisal and suppression did not differ between tasks. Due to the similar self-reported negative affect after both tasks, these findings validate the use of both tasks in an adolescent population. In addition, they highlight potential differences between tasks in terms of emotion responses. These discrepancies should be taken into account in further studies due to their implications for the interpretation of findings. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDas Palux-Projekt in Luxemburg: Forschungsdesign und erste Ergebnisse einer Pilotstudie
Eckelt, Melanie UL; Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Steffgen, Georges UL et al

in Bartsch, Fabienne; Mombeck, Mona; Müller, Merle (Eds.) et al Tägliche Herausforderungen meistern - Sportlehrkräfte im Fokus (2018, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (12 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailComparing the efficacy of two frustration inducing tasks in the assessment of adolescent emotion regulation
Battistutta, Layla UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2018, September)

In adolescence, adequate emotion regulation skills help to promote resilience and prevent the development of mental health problems. To fully understand these emotion regulation mechanisms, empirically ... [more ▼]

In adolescence, adequate emotion regulation skills help to promote resilience and prevent the development of mental health problems. To fully understand these emotion regulation mechanisms, empirically validated tools are needed to be able to effectively induce and assess frustration among adolescents in experimental settings. However, the differences between the already existing frustration eliciting tools and their use with different adolescent age groups are not well understood. The present study thus set out to test the efficacy of two non-verbal, frustration inducing tasks in adolescence, also evaluating potential age differences and relating them to the use of emotion regulation strategies. Two computerized distress tolerance tasks were employed, including the Behavioural Indicator of Resiliency to Distress (BIRD; Lejuez et al., 2006), requiring children to free a bird from its cage, and the Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (MPTP; Strong et al., 2003), originally designed for adults and consisting of retracing a star as if seen in a mirror. Their efficacy in inducing frustration was compared in a sample of 72 adolescents, split into two different age groups (11-13; 14-16). Adolescents’ emotion responses were assessed on a subjective level via self-report of their positive and negative affect before and after the task (PANAS-C; Laurent et al., 1999), physiologically via continuous heart rate monitoring using a Polar H7 chest strap and behaviourally by assessing adolescents’ persistence on the last level. Additionally, self-report questionnaires allowed to assess adolescents’ habitual use of reappraisal and suppression (ERQ-CA; Gullone & Taffe, 2012) as well as their use during the tasks (ERQ-state, Egloff et al., 2006). Due to their previous use with different populations, differences between the two tasks in terms of their effectiveness in inducing frustration in an adolescent sample were expected. Furthermore, age differences were hypothesized to impact the use of emotion regulation strategies and lead to higher emotion responses in the younger group. Task and age differences were analysed with analyses of variance and revealed higher heart rates (F(4,59)=5.061, p<.001, ηp2=.255) for the BIRD task as well as a tendency towards a shorter persistence on this task (F(1,68)=3.920, p=.052, ηp2= .055). No task differences were found regarding adolescents’ subjective emotional responding (F<1, n.s.), with both tasks being psychologically distressing (F(1,68)= 22.484, p<.001, ηp2=.248). As for age differences, although the younger adolescents reported a higher habitual use of suppression in general (t(70)= 2.072, p< .05, d=.489), no age differences were found in terms of the strategies they used on both tasks (all Fs<1,n.s.), nor in regards to emotional responding (all Fs<1,n.s.). Due to the similar self-reported psychological distress for both tasks, these findings allow to empirically validate their use in an adolescent population aged 11 to 16. The BIRD might be advocated for further use with adolescents as it led to higher heart rates and shorter persistence beyond the produced subjective frustration. Further studies using frustration eliciting tools should be aware of any potential differences in emotional responses that might be produced using different tasks and the implications this could have for the interpretation of findings. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailHow working conditions influence work-related anger
Steffgen, Georges UL; Sischka, Philipp UL

Scientific Conference (2018, July 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (9 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPsychological contact violation or basic need frustration? Psychological mechanisms behind the effects of workplace bullying.
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2018, July 12)

Workplace bullying is a serious phenomenon that has serious detrimental effects on victim’s health, attitudes, and work-related behavior. However, research that examines the mechanisms behind these ... [more ▼]

Workplace bullying is a serious phenomenon that has serious detrimental effects on victim’s health, attitudes, and work-related behavior. However, research that examines the mechanisms behind these relations is still sparse. Two theories that may explain the links between workplace bullying and various negative outcomes are social exchange theory and self-determination theory. Drawing on these theories, we hypothesized that the relationship between workplace bullying and various outcomes is mediated by perceptions of psychological contract violation and the frustration of basic psychological needs (i.e. autonomy, competence, relatedness). Therefore, the aim of our study was to test these mediators separately and simultaneously to see whether they have an incremental mediation effect between workplace bullying and well-being, work satisfaction, engagement, performance, burnout, workplace deviance and turnover intentions. An online survey design was employed and data were collected among U.S. employees. The final sample consists of 1,408 respondents (56.6% females, n=798, age: M=37.3, SD =10.4). Single mediation analysis within a structural equation modeling framework revealed that psychological contract violation acted as a mediator for all outcome variables. Furthermore, basic need frustrations were also meaningfully mediators between workplace bullying and all outcomes, but different need frustration were differently linked with them. The multiple mediation analyses mainly supported the hypothesized importance of the mediators for the different outcomes. The study findings advance the field through identifying the most important mediators between workplace bullying and several outcome variables guiding possible interventions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 115 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCompetition and Workplace Bullying. The moderating role of passive avoidant leadership style.
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2018, June 06)

It has been argued that an organizational climate that is characterized by competition and envy may increase workplace bullying (Salin, 2003, 2015; Vartia, 1996). Employees may be tempted to gain a ... [more ▼]

It has been argued that an organizational climate that is characterized by competition and envy may increase workplace bullying (Salin, 2003, 2015; Vartia, 1996). Employees may be tempted to gain a relative advantage over their colleagues by setting them under pressure, isolating them, undermining or sabotaging their work (Kohn, 1992; Ng, 2017, Salin, 2003), in sum trying to bully them. This should be especially true, when supervisor exhibit a passive avoidant leadership style that is when supervisor are physically in post but fail to carry out their duties (Hoel, Glasø, Hetland, Cooper, & Einarsen, 2010). Therefore, the aim of our study was to test if competition is a potential risk factor for workplace bullying and if this association depends on the level of passive avoidant leadership style. We proposed that competition and passive avoidant leadership style are positive related to workplace bullying victimization and perpetration. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the effect of competition on workplace bullying victimization and perpetration is moderated through passive avoidant leadership style. Amazon Mechanical Turk was used to recruited employees. We followed recent recommendations using MTurk as participant recruiting system (Keith et al., 2017), e.g., prescreening for desired target population, fair payment (i.e. US$0.10 per estimated minute of participation; Chandler & Shapiro, 2016) and data screening methods for insufficient effort responding (McGonagle, Huang, & Walsh, 2016). The final sample consists of 1,411 respondents (56.6% females, n = 798). Respondents age ranged from 20 to 73 (M = 37.3; SD = 10.4). As the self-labelling method and the behavioral method to assess workplace bullying both have its shortcomings (Nielsen, Notelaers, & Einarsen, 2011), both approaches were used. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that competition and passive avoidant leadership style are important predictor for workplace bullying victimization and perpetration. Furthermore, the results indicated that the effect of competition on workplace bullying victimization (measured via behavioral method) and self-labelled workplace bullying victimization and perpetration is moderated through passive avoidant leadership style. However, for workplace bullying perpetration (measured via behavioral method) no moderation effect was found. These findings have important implications for employers that seek to end workplace bullying in their organization. The present study contributes to the workplace bullying literature in at least two ways. First, while recent research has focused on the main effects of competition (e.g., Salin, 2003) and passive avoidant leadership (e.g., Skogstad et al., 2007) on workplace bullying, the present study sheds light on the moderation effect of passive avoidant leadership style on the effect of competition on workplace bullying. Second, not only workplace bullying victimization but also perpetration is considered, that is still an under-researched topic. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 118 (7 UL)