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See detailProinsulin, GLP-1, and glucagon are associated with partial remission in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes
Kaas, A.; Max Andersen, M. L.; Fredheim, S. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(1), 51-58

Objective: Proinsulin is a marker of beta-cell distress and dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and transplanted islets. Proinsulin levels are elevated in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Our aim ... [more ▼]

Objective: Proinsulin is a marker of beta-cell distress and dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and transplanted islets. Proinsulin levels are elevated in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to assess the relationship between proinsulin, insulin dose-adjusted haemoglobin A1c (IDAA1C), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, and remission status the first year after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Methods: Juvenile patients (n = 275) were followed 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis. At each visit, partial remission was defined as IDAA1C ≤9%. The patients had a liquid meal test at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month visits, which included measurement of C-peptide, proinsulin, GLP-1, glucagon, and insulin antibodies (IA). Results: Patients in remission at 6 and 12 months had significantly higher levels of proinsulin compared to non-remitting patients (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0002). An inverse association between proinsulin and IDAA1C was found at 1 and 6 months (p = 0.0008, p = 0.0022). Proinsulin was positively associated with C-peptide (p < 0.0001) and IA (p = 0.0024, p = 0.0068, p < 0.0001) at 1, 6, and 12 months. Glucagon (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.02) as well as GLP-1 (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.002) were significantly lower in remitters than in non-remitters at 6 and 12 months. Proinsulin associated positively with GLP-1 at 1 month (p = 0.004) and negatively at 6 (p = 0.002) and 12 months (p = 0.0002). Conclusions: In type 1 diabetes, patients in partial remission have higher levels of proinsulin together with lower levels of GLP-1 and glucagon compared to patients not in remission. In new onset type 1 diabetes proinsulin level may be a sign of better residual beta-cell function. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. [less ▲]

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See detailTarget setting in intensive insulin management is associated with metabolic control: The Hvidoere Childhood Diabetes Study Group Centre Differences Study 2005
Swift, P. G. F.; Skinner, T. C.; De Beaufort, Carine UL et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2010), 11(4), 271-278

Objective: To evaluate glycaemic targets set by diabetes teams, their perception by adolescents and parents, and their influence on metabolic control.Methods: Clinical data and questionnaires were ... [more ▼]

Objective: To evaluate glycaemic targets set by diabetes teams, their perception by adolescents and parents, and their influence on metabolic control.Methods: Clinical data and questionnaires were completed by adolescents, parents/carers and diabetes teams in 21 international centres. HbA1c was measured centrally.Results: A total of 2062 adolescents completed questionnaires (age 14.4 ± 2.3 yr; diabetes duration 6.1 ± 3.5 yr). Mean HbA 1c = 8.2 ± 1.4% with significant differences between centres (F = 12.3; p < 0.001) range from 7.4 to 9.1%. There was a significant correlation between parent (r = 0.20) and adolescent (r = 0.21) reports of their perceived ideal HbA1c and their actual HbA1c result (p < 0.001), and a stronger association between parents' (r = 0.39) and adolescents' (r = 0.4) reports of the HbA1c they would be happy with and their actual HbA1c result. There were significant differences between centres on parent and adolescent reports of ideal and happy with HbA1c (8.1 < F > 17.4;p < 0.001). A lower target HbA1c and greater consistency between members of teams within centres were associated with lower centre HbA1c (F = 16.0; df = 15; p < 0.001).Conclusions: Clear and consistent setting of glycaemic targets by diabetes teams is strongly associated with HbA1c outcome in adolescents. Target setting appears to play a significant role in explaining the differences in metabolic outcomes between centres. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S. [less ▲]

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See detailNew definition for the partial remission period in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes
Mortensen, H. B.; Hougaard, P.; Swift, P. et al

in Diabetes Care (2009), 32(8), 1384-1390

OBJECTIVE - To find a simple definition of partial remission in type 1 diabetes that reflects both residual β-cell function and efficacy of insulin treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 275 ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE - To find a simple definition of partial remission in type 1 diabetes that reflects both residual β-cell function and efficacy of insulin treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 275 patients aged <16 years were followed from onset of type 1 diabetes. After 1, 6, and 12 months, stimulated C-peptide during a challenge was used as a measure of residual β-cell function. RESULTS - By multiple regression analysis, a negative association between stimulated C-peptide and A1C (regression coefficient -0.21, P < 0.001) and insulin dose (-0.94, P < 0.001) was shown. These results suggested the definition of an insulin dose-adjusted A1C (IDAA1C) as A1C (percent) + [4 × insulin dose (units per kilogram per 24 h)]. A calculated IDAA1C ≤9 corresponding to a predicted stimulated C-peptide >300 pmol/l was used to define partial remission. The IDAA1C ≤9 had a significantly higher agreement (P < 0.001) with residual β-cell function than use of a definition of A1C ≤7.5%. Between 6 and 12 months after diagnosis, for IDAA1C ≤9 only 1 patient entered partial remission and 61 patients ended partial remission, for A1C ≤7.5% 15 patients entered partial remission and 53 ended, for a definition of insulin dose ≤0.5 units · kg-1 · 24 h-1 5 patients entered partial remission and 66 ended, and for stimulated C-peptide (>300 pmol/l) 9 patients entered partial remission and 49 ended. IDAA1C at 6 months has good predictive power for stimulated C-peptide concentrations after both 6 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS - A new definition of partial remission is proposed, including both glycemic control and insulin dose. It reflects residual β-cell function and has better stability compared with the conventional definitions. © 2009 by the American Diabetes Association. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: The Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes
Åman, J.; Skinner, T. C.; De Beaufort, Carine UL et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2009), 10(4), 234-239

Background: The Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes has demonstrated persistent differences in metabolic outcomes between pediatric diabetes centers. These differences cannot be accounted for by ... [more ▼]

Background: The Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes has demonstrated persistent differences in metabolic outcomes between pediatric diabetes centers. These differences cannot be accounted for by differences in demographic, medical, or treatment variables. Therefore, we sought to explore whether differences in physical activity or sedentary behavior could explain the variation in metabolic outcomes between centers. Methods: An observational cross-sectional international study in 21 centers, with demographic and clinical data obtained by questionnaire from participants. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were assayed in one central laboratory. All individuals with diabetes aged 11-18 yr (49.4% female), with duration of diabetes of at least 1 yr, were invited to participate. Individuals completed a self-reported measure of quality of life (Diabetes Quality of Life - Short Form [DQOL-SF]), with well-being and leisure time activity assessed using measures developed by Health Behaviour in School Children WHO Project. Results: Older participants (p < 0.001) and females (p < 0.001) reported less physical activity. Physical activity was associated with positive health perception (p < 0.001) but not with glycemic control, body mass index, frequency of hypoglycemia, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The more time spent on the computer (r = 0.06; p < 0.05) and less time spent doing school homework (r = -0.09; p < 0.001) were associated with higher HbA1c. Between centers, there were significant differences in reported physical activity (p < 0.001) and sedentary behavior (p < 0.001), but these differences did not account for center differences in metabolic control. Conclusions: Physical activityis strongly associated with psychological well-being but has weak associations with metabolic control. Leisure time activity is associated with individual differences in HbA1c but not with intercenter differences. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S. [less ▲]

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See detailAre family factors universally related to metabolic outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes?
Cameron, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.; De Beaufort, Carine UL et al

in Diabetic Medicine : A Journal of the British Diabetic Association (2008), 25(4), 463-468

Aims: To assess the importance of family factors in determining metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes in 19 countries. Methods: Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes aged 11-18 years, from 21 ... [more ▼]

Aims: To assess the importance of family factors in determining metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes in 19 countries. Methods: Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes aged 11-18 years, from 21 paediatric diabetes care centres, in 19 countries, and their parents were invited to participate. Questionnaires were administered recording demographic data, details of insulin regimens, severe hypoglycaemic events and number of episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Adolescents completed the parental involvement scale from the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youth - Short Form (DQOLY-SF) and the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire (DFRQ). Parents completed the DFRQ and a Parental Burden of Diabetes score. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was analysed centrally on capillary blood. Results: A total of 2062 adolescents completed a questionnaire, with 2036 providing a blood sample; 1994 parents also completed a questionnaire. Family demographic factors that were associated with metabolic outcomes included: parents living together (t = 4.1; P < 0.001), paternal employment status (F = 7.2; d.f. = 3; P < 0.001), parents perceived to be over-involved in diabetes care (r = 0.11; P < 0.001) and adolescent-parent disagreement on responsibility for diabetes care practices (F = 8.46; d.f. = 2; P < 0.001). Although these factors differed between centres, they did not account for centre differences in metabolic outcomes, but were stronger predictors of metabolic control than age, gender or insulin treatment regimen. Conclusions: Family factors, particularly dynamic and communication factors such as parental over-involvement and adolescent-parent concordance on responsibility for diabetes care appear be important determinants of metabolic outcomes in adolescents with diabetes. However, family dynamic factors do not account for the substantial differences in metabolic outcomes between centres. © 2008 The Authors. [less ▲]

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