References of "Schmidt, Alexander F. 50003022"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDevelopment of a Cued Pro- and Antisaccade Paradigm: An Indirect Measure to Explore Automatic Components of Sexual Interest
Oberlader, Verena A.; Ettinger, Ulrich; Banse, Rainer et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (in press)

We developed a cued pro- and antisaccade paradigm (CPAP) to explore automatic components of sexual interest. Heterosexual participants (n = 32 women, n = 25 men) had to perform fast eye movements towards ... [more ▼]

We developed a cued pro- and antisaccade paradigm (CPAP) to explore automatic components of sexual interest. Heterosexual participants (n = 32 women, n = 25 men) had to perform fast eye movements towards and away from sexually relevant or irrelevant stimuli across a congruent (i.e. prosaccade towards sexually relevant stimuli, antisaccade away from sexually irrelevant stimuli) and an incongruent condition (i.e. prosaccade towards sexually irrelevant stimuli, antisaccade away from sexually relevant stimuli). We hypothesized that pro- and antisaccade performance would be influenced by the sexual interest-specific relevance of the presented stimulus (i.e., nude female or male stimulus) and the instructed task (i.e., pro- or antisaccade) and, thus, differ meaningfully between conditions. Results for prosaccades towards sexually relevant stimuli in the congruent condition showed that error rates were lower and latencies were shorter compared with prosaccades towards sexually irrelevant stimuli in the incongruent condition, but only for male participants. In addition, error rates for antisaccades away from sexually irrelevant stimuli in the congruent condition were lower than for antisaccades away from sexually relevant stimuli in the incongruent condition, for both female and male participants. Latencies of antisaccades, however, did not differ between conditions. In comparison with established indirect sexual interest paradigms, the CPAP benefits from measuring highly automated processes less prone to deliberate control. To this end, the CPAP could be applied to explore the interplay of early automatic and deliberate components of sexual information processing. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Meta-Analysis of Viewing Time Measures of Sexual Interest in Children
Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Babchishin, Kelly M.; Lehmann, Robert J. B.

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (in press)

Due to unobtrusiveness and ease of implementation, viewing time (VT) measures of sexual interest in children have sparked increasing research interest in forensic contexts over the last two decades. The ... [more ▼]

Due to unobtrusiveness and ease of implementation, viewing time (VT) measures of sexual interest in children have sparked increasing research interest in forensic contexts over the last two decades. The current study presents two meta-analyses of VT measures adapted to assess pedophilic interest to determine their discrimination between sexual offenders against children (SOC) and non-SOC groups as well as convergent validity (associations with other measures of sexual interest in children). On average, VT measures showed moderate discrimination between criterion groups (fixed-effect d = 0.60, 95% CI [0.51, 0.68], N = 2,705, k = 14) and significant convergent validity with self-reports, penile plethysmography, Implicit Association Tests and offence behavioral measures ranging from r =.18 to r = .38. VT measures, however, provided better discrimination for adults (fixed-effect d = 0.78, 95% CI [0.64, 0.92]) than adolescent samples (fixed-effect d = 0.50, 95% CI [0.40, 0.61]), Qbetween = 9.37, p = .002. Moreover, using pedophilic difference scores within adult samples substantially increased VT measures’ validity (fixed-effect d = 1.03, 95% CI [0.82, 1.25], N = 414, k = 7). Results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and applied implications for forensic contexts. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 133 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn the comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection of indirect questioning techniques
Hoffmann, Adrian; Waubert de Puiseau, Berenike; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL et al

in Behavior Research Methods (in press)

On surveys that assess sensitive personal attributes, indirect questioning aims at increasing respondents’ willingness to answer truthfully by protecting confidentiality. However, the assumption that ... [more ▼]

On surveys that assess sensitive personal attributes, indirect questioning aims at increasing respondents’ willingness to answer truthfully by protecting confidentiality. However, the assumption that subjects understand questioning procedures fully and trust them to protect their privacy is tested rarely. In a scenario-based design, we compared four indirect questioning procedures in terms of comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection. All indirect questioning techniques were found less comprehensible for respondents than a conventional direct question used for comparison. Less-educated respondents experienced more difficulties when confronted with any indirect questioning technique. Regardless of education, the Crosswise Model was found most comprehensible among the four indirect methods. Indirect questioning was perceived to increase privacy protection in comparison to a direct question. Unexpectedly, comprehension and perceived privacy protection did not correlate. We recommend assessing these factors separately in future evaluations of indirect questioning. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 99 (2 UL)
Full Text
See detailAggression in the perspective of the Reflective-Impulsive Model: Testing predictions using indirect measures
Banse, Rainer; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Imhoff, Roland

in Deutsch, Roland; Gawronski, Bertram; Hofmann, Wilhelm (Eds.) Reflective and impulsive determinants of human behavior (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRisk factors for sexual offending in men working with children - a community-based survey
Turner, Daniel; Hoyer, Jürgen; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (2016), 45(7), 1851-1861

Identifying risk factors for sexual abuse in men who work with children and who have already abused a child could lead to more appropriate screening and prevention strategies and is thus of major ... [more ▼]

Identifying risk factors for sexual abuse in men who work with children and who have already abused a child could lead to more appropriate screening and prevention strategies and is thus of major scientific and societal relevance. A total of 8,649 German men from the community were assessed in an extensive anonymous and confidential online survey. Of those, 37 (0.4%) could be classified as child sexual abusers working with children, 90 (1.0%) as child sexual abusers not working with children, and 816 (9.4%) as men who work with children and who have not abused a child. We assessed the impact of working with children as an individual risk factor for self-reported child sexual abuse and compared personal factors, pedophilic sexual fantasies, deviant sexual behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and hypersexuality among the three groups. Most interestingly, working with children was significantly associated with a self-reported sexual offense against children, however, it explained only three percent of its variance. Child sexual abusers working with children admitted more antisocial and more sexually deviant behaviors than child sexual abusers not working with children and than men working with children who have not abused a child. Our findings support some of the suggestions made by other researchers concerning factors that could be considered in applicants for child- or youth-serving institutions. However, it has to be pointed out that the scientific basis still seems premature. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 85 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailWorking conditions indicative of work-related anger
Steffgen, Georges UL; Sischka, Philipp UL; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL

Scientific Conference (2016, July 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (9 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailValidity of Content-Based Techniques to Distinguish True and Fabricated Statements: A Meta-Analysis
Oberlader, Verena A.; Naefgen, Christoph; Koppehele-Goseel, Judith et al

in Law and Human Behavior (2016), 40(4), 440-457

Within the scope of judicial decisions, approaches to distinguish between true and fabricated statements have been of particular importance since ancient times. Although methods focusing on “prototypical” ... [more ▼]

Within the scope of judicial decisions, approaches to distinguish between true and fabricated statements have been of particular importance since ancient times. Although methods focusing on “prototypical” deceptive behavior (e.g., psychophysiological phenomena, nonverbal cues) have largely been rejected with regard to validity, content-based techniques constitute a promising approach and are well established within the applied forensic context. The basic idea of this approach is that experience-based and non-experience-based statements differ in their content-related quality. In order to test the validity of the most prominent content-based techniques, Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) and Reality Monitoring (RM), we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis on English- and German-language studies. Based on a variety of decision criteria, 56 studies were included revealing an overall effect size of g = 1.03 (95% CI [0.78, 1.27], Q = 420.06, p < .001, I² = 92.48%, N = 3429). There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of CBCA and RM. Additionally, we investigated a number of moderator variables such as characteristics of participants, statements, and judgment procedures, as well as general study characteristics. Results showed that the application of all CBCA criteria outperformed any incomplete CBCA criteria set. Furthermore, statement classification based on discriminant functions revealed higher discrimination rates than decisions based on sum scores. Finally, unpublished studies showed higher effect sizes than studies published in peer-reviewed journals. All results are discussed in terms of their significance for future research (e.g., developing standardized decision rules) and practical application (e.g., user training, applying complete criteria set). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 247 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Luxembourg Workplace Mobbing Scale: Psychometric properties of a short instrument in three different languages
Steffgen, Georges UL; Sischka, Philipp UL; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL et al

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (2016)

Workplace mobbing is a serious phenomenon that is costly to organizations and has various negative consequences of those targeted. The main purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a new ... [more ▼]

Workplace mobbing is a serious phenomenon that is costly to organizations and has various negative consequences of those targeted. The main purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a new short scale of workplace mobbing experience in three different language versions (German, French, Luxembourgish). Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews in a sample of 1500 employees working in Luxembourg (aged from 17 to 64; 52.7 % male) that was representative of the commuter structure of Luxembourg’s workforce. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the newly developed 5-item scale has good psychometric properties and partial scalar measurement invariance for the three different language versions. Internal consistency was satisfactory (α = .73). Correlations and hierarchical regression analysis with different working condition scales and psychological health scales confirm the construct validity of the new questionnaire. Although the present findings are preliminary in nature, they nevertheless support the reliability and validity of the scale and its use in psychological research. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 342 (23 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHow common is males’ self-reported sexual interest in prepubescent children?
Dombert, Beate; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Banse, Rainer et al

in Journal of Sex Research (2016), 53(2), 214-223

Consistent evidence exists for sexual interest in children in non-clinical/non-forensic male populations. However, prevalences for community males’ self-reported sexual interest in children involving ... [more ▼]

Consistent evidence exists for sexual interest in children in non-clinical/non-forensic male populations. However, prevalences for community males’ self-reported sexual interest in children involving prepubescent children have been based on indiscriminate definitions including postpubescent individuals, age-restricted samples, and/or small convenience samples. The present research assessed males’ self-reported sexual interest in children (including child prostitution and child sex tourism) on community level and examined the link between strictly defined sexual fantasies and behaviors involving prepubescent children. In an online survey of 8,718 German males 4.1% reported sexual fantasies involving prepubescent children, 3.2% sexual offending against prepubescent children, and 0.1% a pedophilic sexual preference. Sexual fantasies involving prepubescent children were positively related to sexual offending against prepubescent children. Sexual interest in children was associated with subjectively perceived need for therapeutic help. In contrast to findings from forensic samples, men who exclusively reported child pornography use were identified as a subgroup differing from contact sexual offenders against prepubescent children and men who committed both child pornography and contact sexual offenses against prepubescent children. The empirical link between child-related sexual fantasies and sexual victimization of prepubescent children and high levels of subjective distress from this inclination underscore the importance of evidence-based child sexual abuse prevention approaches in the community. Findings are discussed in terms of their relation to pedophilic disorder. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 759 (8 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStigma-Related Stress and its Correlates among Men with Pedophilic Sexual Interests
Jahnke, Sara; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Geradt, Max et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (2015), 44(8), 2173-2187

Despite decades of research on the adverse consequences of stereotyping and discrimination for many stigmatized groups, little is known about how people with pedophilia perceive and react to stigma. In ... [more ▼]

Despite decades of research on the adverse consequences of stereotyping and discrimination for many stigmatized groups, little is known about how people with pedophilia perceive and react to stigma. In this article, we present a framework that outlines how stigma-related stress might negatively affect emotional and social areas of functioning, cognitive distortions, and the motivation to pursue therapy, all of which may contribute to an increased risk of sexual offending. We tested our hypotheses in an online survey among self-identified German-speaking people with pedophilia (N = 104) using a wide range of validated indicators of social and emotional functioning (Brief Symptom Inventory-53, UCLA Loneliness Scale, Emotion Subscale of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Fear of Negative Evaluation-5, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Specific risk factors such as self-efficacy, cognitive distortions and the motivation to seek treatment were also assessed. In line with our hypotheses, fear of discovery generally predicted reduced social and emotional functioning. Contrary to our predictions, perceived social distance and fear of discovery were not linked to self-efficacy, cognitive distortions, or treatment motivation. Results were controlled for the effects of confounding variables (e.g, age, educational level, social desirability, relationship status). We critically evaluate the empirical contribution of this study to research on stigma and child sex offenses, including a discussion of the results in light of the potential indirect effects that public stigma may have on the overall risk for sexual offenses. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 184 (16 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre sex drive and hypersexuality associated with pedophilic interest and child sexual abuse in a male community sample?
Klein, Verena; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Turner, Daniel et al

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(7), 0129730

Although, much is currently known about hypersexuality (in form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially ... [more ▼]

Although, much is currently known about hypersexuality (in form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets (TSO) and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and antisociality. There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and antisociality. Nevertheless, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered as particularly antisociality and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual offending against prepubescent children. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 205 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIndirect Measures in Forensic Contexts
Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Banse, Rainer; Imhoff, Roland

in van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Ortner, Tuulia M. (Eds.) Behavior-Based Assessment in Psychology: Going Beyond Self-Report in the Personality, Affective, Motivation, and Social Domains (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 112 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIndirect Measurement of Sexual Orientation: Comparison of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure, Viewing Time, and Choice Reaction Time Tasks
Rönspies, Jelena; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Melnikova, Anna et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (2015), 44(5), 1483-1492

The present study was conducted to validate an adaptation of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as an indirect latency-based measure of sexual orientation. Furthermore, reliability and ... [more ▼]

The present study was conducted to validate an adaptation of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as an indirect latency-based measure of sexual orientation. Furthermore, reliability and criterion validity of the IRAP were compared to two established indirect measures of sexual orientation: a Choice Reaction Time task (CRT) and a Viewing Time (VT) task. A sample of 87 heterosexual and 35 gay men completed all three indirect measures in an online study. The IRAP and the VT predicted sexual orientation nearly perfectly. Both measures also showed a considerable amount of convergent validity. Reliabilities (internal consistencies) reached satisfactory levels. In contrast, the CRT did not tap into sexual orientation in the present study. In sum, the VT measure performed best, with the IRAP showing only slightly lower reliability and criterion validity, whereas the CRT did not yield any evidence of reliability or criterion validity in the present research. The results were discussed in the light of specific task properties of the indirect latency-based measures (task-relevance vs. task-irrelevance). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 107 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEgo depletion moderates the influence of automatic and controlled precursors of reactive aggression: A double dissociation
Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Zimmermann, Philipp S.; Banse, Rainer et al

in Social Psychology (2015), 46(3), 132-141

From a dual-systems perspective, it has been proposed that predictive validity of whether individuals act out or stifle their reactive aggression will be maximized if (a) automatic and (b) controlled ... [more ▼]

From a dual-systems perspective, it has been proposed that predictive validity of whether individuals act out or stifle their reactive aggression will be maximized if (a) automatic and (b) controlled precursors of aggression are assessed and (c) situational boundaries in favor of acting out or restraining oneself are specified. In the present research we experimentally manipulated participants’ self-regulatory resources in an ego depletion paradigm and subsequently measured reactive aggression in the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. Assessing automatic and controlled precursors of reactive aggression via an Implicit Association Test of Aggressiveness (Agg-IAT) and a self-report reactive aggressiveness questionnaire, respectively, we demonstrated a theoretically expected double dissociation: Reactive aggression of ego depleted individuals was associated with the indirect measure (Agg-IAT) whereas non-depleted participants’ reactive aggression correlated with the direct measure (self-report). The results corroborate the usefulness of both direct and indirect measures of aggressiveness and point to boundary conditions of these measures’ criterion validity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 108 (7 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Sexualized-Body-Inversion-Hypothesis Revisited: Valid Indicator of Sexual Objectification or Methodological Artifact?
Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Kistemaker, Lisa M.

in Cognition (2015), 134(1), 77-84

Recently, Bernard, Gervais, Allen, Campomizzi, and Klein (2012) reported that individuals were less able to recognize inverted vs. upright pictures of sexualized men as compared to women. Based on their ... [more ▼]

Recently, Bernard, Gervais, Allen, Campomizzi, and Klein (2012) reported that individuals were less able to recognize inverted vs. upright pictures of sexualized men as compared to women. Based on their formulation of the sexualized-body-inversion hypothesis (SBIH) it was concluded that sexualized women as compared to men are perceived in a more object-like manner supporting sexual objectification (SO) of females – independent from observer gender. We challenge this interpretation and hypothesize that the originally reported effect is the result of a methodological artifact due to gender-symmetry and stimuli setup-symmetry confounds in the original stimulus set. We tested this theoretically more parsimonious account in a methodologically stricter and extended conceptual replication of the putative SO-effect. Results from two studies showed that the original stimulus set indeed suffered from symmetry confounds and that these are necessary boundary-conditions in order for the hypothetical SO-effect to occur. It is concluded that the SBIH as postulated by Bernard et al. (2012) is based on a methodological artifact and cannot be related to SO but symmetry detection. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (5 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailValidation of direct and indirect measures of preference for sexualized violence
Larue, Daniela; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Imhoff, Roland et al

in Psychological Assessment (2014), 26(4), 1173-1183

Individuals differ in the extent to which they are interested in sexualized violence as displayed in the frequent but not ubiquitous sexual interest in consensual acts of violent sexual roleplay and ... [more ▼]

Individuals differ in the extent to which they are interested in sexualized violence as displayed in the frequent but not ubiquitous sexual interest in consensual acts of violent sexual roleplay and violent pornographic media in the normal population. The present research sought to develop and validate a multi-method asessment battery to measure individual differences in the preference for sexualized violence (PSV). Three indirect measures (Implicit Association Test, Semantic Misattribution Paradigm, Viewing Time) were combined in an online study with 107 men and 103 women. Participants with and without an affiliation with sadomasochistic sexual interest groups were recruited on corresponding internet platforms. Results revealed that all three indirect measures converged in predicting self-reported sexual interest in non-consensual sexuality. Specifically, for men all indirect measures were related to non-consensual sadistic sexual interest, whereas for women an association with masochistic sexual interest was found. Stimulus artefacts versus genuine gender differences are discussed as potential explanations of this dissociation. An outlook on the usability of the assessment battery in applied settings is delivered. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 104 (15 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExploring the Interplay of Trait Self-Control and Ego Depletion: Empirical Evidence for Ironic Effects
Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Gerstenberg, Friederike X. R.

in European Journal of Personality (2014), 28(5), 413-424

Trait self-control (TSC) has been conceptualized as a general and abstract ability to exert self-regulation across multiple domains that has mostly beneficial effects. However, its relationship to ... [more ▼]

Trait self-control (TSC) has been conceptualized as a general and abstract ability to exert self-regulation across multiple domains that has mostly beneficial effects. However, its relationship to situational depletion of self-regulatory resources has received little attention. We systematically explore the interplay of trait and situational self-control in two studies (total N = 264). In contrast with a positive view of TSC, the results show greater ego depletion effects for high (vs. low) self-control abilities across such diverse domains as candy consumption (Study 1), risk-taking behaviour (Study 2) and achievement motivation (Study 2). It is proposed that these ironic effects are attributable to high-TSC individuals' less frequent active inhibition of impulses in everyday life and their resulting lack of experience in resisting acute temptations. A third study (N> = 358) corroborated this general reasoning by showing that TSC is indeed associated with less frequent impulse inhibition in daily routines. Our data point to a downside of dispositional self-control in ego depletion paradigms. Other explanations and potential future avenues for resolving inconsistent findings across the literature are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (5 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDirect and Indirect Measures of Sexual Maturity Preferences Differentiate Subtypes of Child Sexual Abusers
Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris et al

in SEXUAL ABUSE-A JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND TREATMENT (2014), 26(2), 107-128

To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement ... [more ▼]

To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measureswe replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (9 UL)