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See detailCellular organization of adult neurogenesis in the Common Marmoset.
Bunk, Eva C.; Stelzer, Sandra; Hermann, Sven et al

in Aging Cell (2011), 10(1), 28-38

Adult neurogenesis within the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle (LV) has been most intensely studied within the brains of ... [more ▼]

Adult neurogenesis within the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle (LV) has been most intensely studied within the brains of rodents such as mice and rats. However, little is known about the cell types and processes involved in adult neurogenesis within primates such as the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Moreover, substantial differences seem to exist between the neurogenic niche of the LV between rodents and humans. Here, we set out to use immunohistochemical and autogradiographic analysis to characterize the anatomy of the neurogenic niches and the expression of cell type-specific markers in those niches in the adult common marmoset brain. Moreover, we demonstrate significant differences in the activity of neurogenesis in the adult marmoset brain compared to the adult mouse brain. Finally, we provide evidence for ongoing proliferation of neuroblasts within both the SGZ and SVZ of the adult brain and further show that the age-dependent decline of neurogenesis in the hippocampus is associated with a decrease in neuroblast cells. [less ▲]

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See detailPioglitazone reverses down-regulation of cardiac PPARgamma expression in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.
Pelzer, Theo; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi et al

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2005), 329(2), 726-32

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) plays a critical role in peripheral glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in non-diabetic animal models ... [more ▼]

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) plays a critical role in peripheral glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in non-diabetic animal models. The functional role of PPARgamma in the diabetic heart, however, is not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac gene expression, metabolic control, and cardiac glucose uptake in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF fa/fa) and lean ZDF rats (+/+) treated with the high affinity PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone or placebo from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia as well as lower cardiac PPARgamma, glucose transporter-4 and alpha-myosin heavy chain expression levels were detected in diabetic ZDF rats compared to lean animals. Pioglitazone increased body weight and improved metabolic control, cardiac PPARgamma, glut-4, and alpha-MHC expression levels in diabetic ZDF rats. Cardiac [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was not detectable by micro-PET studies in untreated and pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats but was observed after administration of insulin to pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats. PPARgamma agonists favorably affect cardiac gene expression in type-2 diabetic rats via activation and up-regulation of cardiac PPARgamma expression whereas improvement of impaired cardiac glucose uptake in advanced type-2 diabetes requires co-administration of insulin. [less ▲]

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