References of "Schäfer, Markus 50002991"
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See detailA mechanical design model for steel and concrete composite members with web openings
Claßen, Martin; Kurz, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

in Engineering Structures (2019), Engineering Structures 197:109417(109417),

In web opening regions, a significant share of the global shear force is redistributed from the perforated web of the steel beam to the reinforced concrete (RC) slab. This redistribution leads to vertical ... [more ▼]

In web opening regions, a significant share of the global shear force is redistributed from the perforated web of the steel beam to the reinforced concrete (RC) slab. This redistribution leads to vertical forces in the shear connectors close to both edges of the opening and influences the internal forces in the steel beam and the RC slab over a length of approximately three times the opening length a0. The global shear failure in the web opening region is affected by the rather brittle behavior of the concrete and is either characterized by a diagonal shear cracking failure of the RC slab, or a local bending failure at the opening edges, or vertical connector failure (concrete break-out) at the ends of the opening. This paper is intended to clarify the structural behavior of web opening regions and proposes easy-to-use models that make it possible to analyze the local internal forces of each partial beam in a mechanically consistent manner. Based on these models, a novel design procedure is presented, that allows efficient design and dimensioning of web openings as well as prediction of shear resistance and failure mode. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of reinforcement to moment resistance of composite slabs
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL; Kurz, Wolfgang

in The 2019 World Congress on Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics (ASEM19) (2019, September 17)

Composite slabs lead to slim and economic structural solutions with a low selfweight. The determination of their moment resistance follows the regulations presented in EN 1994-1-1 (2004) which are based ... [more ▼]

Composite slabs lead to slim and economic structural solutions with a low selfweight. The determination of their moment resistance follows the regulations presented in EN 1994-1-1 (2004) which are based on plastic design methods. The current version of Eurocode 4 does not consider explicitly additional reinforcement in the ribs for sagging moment resistance. However, the construction industry requires this possibility in order to provide economical and flexible design. Regarding this situation, further investigations are necessary to prove the applicability of plastic design methods. In the case of high bottom reinforcement ratio, a deep position of the plastic neutral axis occurs, and concrete compression failure may happen before most parts of the profiled steel sheeting and reinforcement yield. This leads to an overestimation of the bending resistance according to the plastic design method. A parametric study, based on approximately 290.000 different combinations of various cross-section geometries and materials, is provided to compare the plastic moment resistance with the resistance determined by strain-limited design. The results show that limitations are necessary to be enabled for the general application of plastic design methods. [less ▲]

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See detailChancen und Herausforderungen für Stahl-Verbundkonstruktionen im modernen Geschossbau
Schäfer, Markus UL; Braun, Matthias

in Stahlbau (2019), 88(7),

Aus dem Trend der Urbanisierung und dem Anstieg von Investitionen in den Wirtschaftszentren Europas resultiert ein rasantes Wachstum. Damit einher geht eine immense Nachfrage nach entsprechenden ... [more ▼]

Aus dem Trend der Urbanisierung und dem Anstieg von Investitionen in den Wirtschaftszentren Europas resultiert ein rasantes Wachstum. Damit einher geht eine immense Nachfrage nach entsprechenden Nutzflächen sowie der zugehörigen Infrastruktur. In den großen Ballungsgebieten, den Hotspots der Wirtschaft, wird der Bedarf an Mehrgeschossbauten und Hochhäusern stark ansteigen.Dabei stellen sich neue Herausforderungen. Die Bauindustrie muss sich mit zukunftsorientierten Bauweisen unter Einbeziehung des Klimaschutzes und insbesondere der Ressourceneffizienz ernsthaft auseinandersetzen und neue Ansätze jenseits traditioneller Bauweisen finden. Da ca. 33 % des gesamten Rohstoffverbrauchs mit der Bauwirtschaft verbunden sind, müssen nachhaltige, effiziente und marktfähige Bautechnologien in den Fokus gerückt werden. Darüber hinaus gewinnt die Optimierung der Baustellenorganisation und Logistik sowie industrieller Vorfertigung vermehrt an Bedeutung... [less ▲]

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See detailPLASTIC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE BEAMS - ARE THERE ANY LIMITS?
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Braun et al

in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Steel and Aluminium Structures ICSAS19 (2019, July)

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 differentiate four ... [more ▼]

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 differentiate four different cross-section classes for the determination of moment resistance. For the plastic design of the moment resistance it is assumed, that each cross-sectional fibre can plastify without any limitation of the strains. For standard composite beams in case of sagging moments and a high-lying plastic neutral axis, plastic design and strain-limited design give similar results. In the case of sections with a large compression zone height xpl and limited rotation capacity, a concrete failure in the compression zone can occur before the plastic moment resistance Mpl,Rd, is reached. The strain limit design becomes decisive. This paper points out the impact of the concrete part on the design of composite beams. A parametric study comparing plastic and strain limited moment resistance of a considerable variety of cross-sections has been carried out to develop the beam design methods considering high compression zone height of next generation of Eurocodes. [less ▲]

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See detailZur dehnungsbegrenzten Momententragfähigkeit von Flachdecken in Verbundbauweise
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL

in Stahlbau (2019), 88(2019)(Heft 7),

Due to the demand for sustainable buildings and slim constructions, composite slim-floor systems become more important. The present European Codes do not include complete design rules for shallow-floor ... [more ▼]

Due to the demand for sustainable buildings and slim constructions, composite slim-floor systems become more important. The present European Codes do not include complete design rules for shallow-floor beams. For the design, additional regulations have to be considered for bending design and the classification of the cross-section. This article points out the limits for plastic bending design and its particularities. In den letzten Jahren hat die Slim-Floor-Bauweise zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen, dies ist nicht zuletzt auf die Forderung nach schlanken Konstruktionen und einer Optimierung des Bauablaufs zurückzuführen. Die Bemessung solcher Bauteile kann jedoch nicht allein auf Grundlage der europäischen Regelwerke für den Verbundbau erfolgen. Es gelten einige Besonderheiten, die durch ergänzende Bemessungsregeln zu erfassen sind. Umfangreiche Untersuchungen verdeutlichen, dass eine Einstufung der Rotationskapazität und die Festlegung der Querschnittsklasse nicht allein basierend auf der Klassifizierung des Stahlquerschnitts erfolgen können, da der Beton bei derartigen Systemen einen wesentlichen Einfluss auf das Tragverhalten nimmt. In diesem Beitrag werden die Besonderheiten für kompakte Slim-Floor-Querschnitte im Rahmen der Biegebemessung erläutert. [less ▲]

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See detailEntwicklung der Slim-Floor-Bauweise in Europa
Schäfer, Markus UL; BRaun, Matthias

in Stahlbau (2019), 88(2019)(7),

Slim-floor or also called shallow floor construction represents innovative composite beam systems for multi-storey buildings. These are rolled or welded steel profiles fully or partially integrated into ... [more ▼]

Slim-floor or also called shallow floor construction represents innovative composite beam systems for multi-storey buildings. These are rolled or welded steel profiles fully or partially integrated into the concrete slab. This construction method constitutes one of the most recent developments in steel-concrete composite construction and has become increasingly important in the last two decades. In this article, the construction method is explained as well as its development. [less ▲]

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See detailTragverhalten von CoSFB-Dübeln
Braun, Matthias; Obiala, Renata; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

in Stahlbau (2019), 88(2019)(Heft 7),

Slim-floor or shallow floor construction is characterized by the integration of a steel beam into a slab. The activation of a composite action between the steel section and the concrete slab leads to a ... [more ▼]

Slim-floor or shallow floor construction is characterized by the integration of a steel beam into a slab. The activation of a composite action between the steel section and the concrete slab leads to a significant increase of the bending capacity and the stiffness of the beam, allowing for larger beam spans. This paper presents a fundamentally new method for assessing the load-bearing capacity of CoSFB-Dowels, which ensures a composite action of a composite slim-floor beam (CoSFB). Based on detailed analysis of push-out tests, extensive numerical simulations were performed in order to identify the contribution of various parameters on the load-bearing capacity. Finally, an analytical formulation of the load-bearing capacity is presented, which has been derived by applying a simple second order plasticity approach. [less ▲]

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See detailProject Team SC4 T6 interim reports April 2019 Draft EN 1994-1-1
Schäfer, Markus UL; Banfi, Mike; Hicks, Stephen et al

Report (2019)

April draft of second generation for Eurocode 4: EN 1994-1-1; Outcome from SC4.T6

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See detailEuropean design code for composite structures in steel and concrete - Historical development and investigation in the second generation of Eurocode 4
Schäfer, Markus UL

in Steel Construction (2019), 12 (2019) Heft 2(02/2019), 70-81

The Eurocodes (EC) represent European norms (EN) for the design and construction of building and bridge structures. The development of these European design codes is carried out on behalf of the European ... [more ▼]

The Eurocodes (EC) represent European norms (EN) for the design and construction of building and bridge structures. The development of these European design codes is carried out on behalf of the European Union (EU) by the “European Committee for Standardization - CEN”. The Eurocodes have been in use for some years now. The motivation behind the development of the Eurocodes is the harmonization of the planning and design process for the structural components and construction elements of buildings and bridges all over Europe. Based on the experience gained through the use of the Eurocode conditions in recent years and many comments from industry, a revision of all parts of the Eurocode is currently in progress. The aim is to adapt the current design standards to the state of the art and research, to simplify the application and to harmonize the Eurocodes with each other. Finally, these modifications will be transferred to the second generation of European standards. An overview of the development phases and project teams is presented in this paper, accompanied by an insight into current standardization work and the technical discussions, mainly focusing on EN 1994-1-1. [less ▲]

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See detailEntwicklung der zweiten Generation des Eurocodes 4 - Neuerungen in der Bemessung für Verbundtragwerke aus Stahl und Beton
Schäfer, Markus UL; Mensinger, Martin

Scientific Conference (2018, October 11)

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See detailAVEC BNT - Analysis and Comparison of European and Chinese Design Codes - B. Script & Examples
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Bender, Michel et al

Book published by BNT (2018)

In recent years, half of the newly constructed building floor areas in the world are built in China, thus it is important and interesting to know the Chinese design codes for buildings and compare them ... [more ▼]

In recent years, half of the newly constructed building floor areas in the world are built in China, thus it is important and interesting to know the Chinese design codes for buildings and compare them with Eurocodes, which are one of the most advanced design codes in the world. Funded by “Erasmus+ Strategic Partnerships” the project “AVEC BNT” was started in 2016 to compare the design codes mainly related to concrete structures and composite structures. This script is the main intellectual outputs from this project. It comprises codes background analysis, direct codes terms comparison and design examples. The script covers most of the design topics related to design of concrete structures and composite structure for building design as well as the design basics such as safety concept. It is a common achievements of students, researchers and professors from different universities and instructions of different countries. The main work is done at University of Luxembourg especially for the design basics part and the design of composite structure of steel and concrete. For design of concrete structure part, University of Applied Science Trier (Germany) and Thei (Hong Kong, China) has offered great helps and contributed many parts. To conform with the goals of Erasmus+ to promote the cooperation and mobility with the EU’ partner countries and to promote the sustainable development of its partners in the field of higher education and contribute to achieving the objectives of the EU Youth Strategy, the script involves many student’s work. The students could participate in the project through either joining special courses offered by the project partners, as well as, doing a student project, bachelor or master thesis related to this project. Further more the students participated within the transnational teaching activity weeks. With the guidance, the students were able to learn and compare difference design methods by EuroCodes and Chinese design codes and to cooperate with their colleges from different countries. To achieve good quality of the final script, which can be used as additional information and learn material for other students and engineers to learn about Eurocodes and Chinese codes for structural design. Also the work was edited into a uniform formatting to make it constant in style and easy to read. Although, besides the contribution from students, many other topics were added to make the documents complete, it was not possible to cover every topic in the codes due to the limited time and resources. Thus, topics such as fire design, seismic design, bridge design, pre-stressed structures and others are not within the scope of the work. The scripts are divided into 7 sub chapters and many small topics. Each topic has two main documents for Eurocodes and Chinese codes. The main documents have same list of contents, which allows readers to compare the design aspects from the two codes systems easily side by side. Besides that, each topic is also provided with a general summary of comparison, which points out the most important difference and general overview of the design. In the documents not only the content of the codes but also the background information is discussed, which will help students and engineers to understand not only the difference of design but also the reasons behind it. [less ▲]

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See detailParticularities for plastic design of composite beams with deep plastic neutral axis
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL

in 12th Japanese-German Bridge Symposium (2018, September 04)

The demand for sustainable constructions increases the importance of composite structures as they lead to slim and economical solutions with a low self-weight of the structure. The determination of the ... [more ▼]

The demand for sustainable constructions increases the importance of composite structures as they lead to slim and economical solutions with a low self-weight of the structure. The determination of the moment resistance for composite beams follows the rules stated in EN 1994-1-1. Based on the slenderness c/t of the compressed parts of the steel-section, composite cross-sections are classified into four cross-section classes. This classification indirectly reflects the rotation capacity and susceptibility to local buckling. For class 1 and 2 cross-sections, the plastic moment resistance of the crosssection may be considered. Otherwise, an elastic design (for class 3) or an elastic design considering local buckling effects (for class 4) is necessary. If the plastic resistance of the cross-section is assumed, it is considered that each cross-section fibre may plastify without limitation of the strain values. For normal composite beams subjected to the sagging moments and with a high plastic neutral axis, the real moment resistance is quite greater than one obtained by the method of the plastic design. For sections with a large compression zone, xpl, a concrete failure in the compression zone can happen before the plastic moment resistance of the composite cross-section, Mpl,Rd, is reached. Strain limit design, therefore, becomes critical. EN 1994-1-1 provides a limitation of the plastic design resistance only for sections with steel grades S420 and S460. However, there is no guidance given for lower steel grades or the determination of the corresponding concrete compression force. This paper points out, that the rotation capacity of a composite section is dependent on the slenderness of steel crosssection parts and on the behaviour of the concrete part. A comparison of plastic and strain limited moment resistances as well as the analysis of partial shear diagram-based strain limited design results in new findings for the limits of plastic design methods. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Design Codes for Composite Beams of Steel and Concrete in Europe and China
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL; Santos-Ferreira, Katia

in 12th Japanese-German Bridge Symposium (2018, September 04)

The comparison gives an overview of the codes for the design of composite structures for buildings. Thereby the history, developments and general structures are illustrated first. Eurocode 4 (EN1994) is a ... [more ▼]

The comparison gives an overview of the codes for the design of composite structures for buildings. Thereby the history, developments and general structures are illustrated first. Eurocode 4 (EN1994) is a part of the Eurocodes, which are European harmonized design codes for buildings and bridges. In this paper, the equivalent Chinese codes are compared to the structure and contents of Eurocodes. EN1994-1-1, which is the first part of Eurocode 4 for general buildings, and JGJ138-2016 have similar design scopes, both cover topics of composite beams, columns, slabs, and connections. JGJ138-2016 also covers the design of composite shear walls and seismic design, while EN1994-1-1 considers more about durability and time effects. For the more technical comparison, the general design bases such as safety concept and design action effects are alike. The material property values by the two codes are mostly similar except for concrete. For structural members, the focus here is mainly on the comparison of composite beams in steel and concrete. The comparisons are explained with the help of parameter studies and theoretical comparisons. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of Eurocode 4
Schäfer, Markus UL

Presentation (2018, August 31)

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See detailBemessung nach Eurocode 4 und Sonderaspekte
Schäfer, Markus UL

Presentation (2018, August 31)

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See detailAktuelle Entwicklungen der Eurocode Normen
Schäfer, Markus UL

Presentation (2018, August 30)

https://www1.hochschule-trier.de/fileadmin/groups/11/bauingenieurwesen/News_Downloads/2018_Bauseminar/Flyer_zum_Trierer_Bauseminar.pdf

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See detailBemessung nach Eurocode 4 und Sonderaspekte
Schäfer, Markus UL

Presentation (2018, August 30)

https://www1.hochschule-trier.de/fileadmin/groups/11/bauingenieurwesen/News_Downloads/2018_Bauseminar/Flyer_zum_Trierer_Bauseminar.pdf

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See detailComparison of Eurocodes and the Chinese standards - Design basics and Design of Composite structure 
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

Presentation (2018, August 30)

https://www1.hochschule-trier.de/fileadmin/groups/11/bauingenieurwesen/News_Downloads/2018_Bauseminar/Flyer_zum_Trierer_Bauseminar.pdf

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See detailDesign according to Eurocode 4 and special aspects
Schäfer, Markus UL; Fodor, Jovan UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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