References of "Schächinger, Hartmut"
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See detailParental divorce is associated with an increased risk to develop mental disorders in women
Schaan, Violetta UL; Schulz, André UL; Schächinger, Hartmut et al

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2019), 257(1), 91-99

Background: Parental divorce has been associated with reduced well-being in young adults. It is, however, unclear whether this finding is clinically relevant as studies using structural clinical ... [more ▼]

Background: Parental divorce has been associated with reduced well-being in young adults. It is, however, unclear whether this finding is clinically relevant as studies using structural clinical interviews are missing. This study, therefore, investigated if young adults with divorced parents are at risk to develop mental disorders. Furthermore, differences in parental care, social connectedness, chronic stress and traumatic experiences between children of divorced and non-divorced parents were investigated. Methods: 121 women (mean age: 23 years) were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIV Axis I (i.e., major mental disorders) and II (i.e., personality disorders) Disorders and asked to complete questionnaires assessing parental care, social connectedness (loneliness, attachment anxiety and avoidance), chronic stress, childhood trauma and depression. Results: Young adults of divorced parents had a higher risk for Axis I but not Axis II disorders as compared to young adults of non-divorced parents. Participants from divorced families as compared to non-divorced families reported more depression, loneliness, childhood trauma, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, chronic stress and less parental care. Limitations: Due to the cross-sectional design of this study, conclusions about causality remain speculative. Conclusion: The increased vulnerability of children of divorced parents to develop mental disorders, and to experience more chronic stress, loneliness, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and traumatic experiences during childhood is alarming and highlights the importance of prevention programs and psycho-education during the process of parental divorce. Parental support with regard to adequate caregiving is needed to help parents to better support their children during and after their divorce. [less ▲]

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See detailVisceral-afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, but not urinary urge, affect startle eye blink
Schulz, André UL; Schilling, Thomas M.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2019), 199(1), 165-172

The aim of the current study was to investigate if startle methodology is suitable to reflect urinary urgency. Eighteen healthy men were tested on two separate days, each including an ingestion of fluid ... [more ▼]

The aim of the current study was to investigate if startle methodology is suitable to reflect urinary urgency. Eighteen healthy men were tested on two separate days, each including an ingestion of fluid until 80% of the subjective urge to micturate was reached. EMG responses to acoustic startle stimuli were assessed before and after micturition, as well as in the early and late cardiac cycle phases (230 vs. 530 ms after a cardiac R-wave). Sonographic assessment confirmed bladder-filling status. Emotional arousal, stress, urge and unpleasantness ratings, as well as mean blood pressure were higher before than after micturition. Startle eye blink responses were lower during the early than during the late cardiac cycle phase, but were not affected by bladder filling status. We conclude that startle methodology is suitable for the investigation of afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, but not to reflect urinary urgency. This result may be due to different neurophysiological mechanisms underlying afferent signals from the bladder compared to other visceral organs or interference with affective states or sympathetic activation associated with bladder filling. Notwithstanding, the present research protocol of fluid intake, sonographic assessment of the bladder, and subjective reports, can be applied to examine visceral-afferent signals from the bladder. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly life adversity associates with increased depressive symptoms and few active T cells in adulthood
Elwenspoek, Martha; Schaan, Violetta UL; Hengesch, Xenia et al

Poster (2016, June)

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See detailEffects of basal and acute cortisol on cognitive flexibility in an emotional task switching paradigm in men
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Arlt, Lea Esther; Roelofs et al

in Hormones and Behavior (2016), 81

The stress hormone cortisol is assumed to influence cognitive functions. While cortisol-induced alterations of declarative memory in particular are well-investigated, considerably less is known about its ... [more ▼]

The stress hormone cortisol is assumed to influence cognitive functions. While cortisol-induced alterations of declarative memory in particular are well-investigated, considerably less is known about its influence on executive functions. Moreover, most research has been focused on slow effects, and rapid non-genomic effects have not been studied. The present study sought to investigate the impact of acute cortisol administration as well as basal cortisol levels on cognitive flexibility, a core executive function, within the non-genomic time frame. Thirty-eight healthy male participants were randomly assigned to intravenously receive either cortisol or a placebo before performing a task switching paradigm with happy and angry faces as stimuli. Cortisol levels were measured at six points during the experiment. Additionally, before the experiment, basal cortisol measures for the cortisol awakening response were collected on three consecutive weekdays immediately following awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min after. First and foremost, results showed a pronounced impact of acute and basal cortisol on reaction time switch costs, particularly for angry faces. In the placebo group, low basal cortisol was associated with minimal switch costs, whereas high basal cortisol was related to maximal switch costs. In contrast, after cortisol injection, basal cortisol levels showed no impact. These results show that cognitive flexibility-enhancing effects of acute cortisol administration are only seen in men with high basal cortisol levels. This result supports the context dependency of cortisol administration and shows the relevance of taking basal cortisol levels into account. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking sense of what you sense: Disentangling interoceptive awareness, sensibility and accuracy
Forkmann, Thomas; Scherer, Anne; Meessen, Judith et al

in International Journal of Psychophysiology (2016), 109(1), 71-80

Garfinkel and Critchley (2013) recently proposed a three level model of interoception. Only few studies, however, have empirically tested this theoretical model thus far. The present study aimed at ... [more ▼]

Garfinkel and Critchley (2013) recently proposed a three level model of interoception. Only few studies, however, have empirically tested this theoretical model thus far. The present study aimed at investigating (1) the central assumptions of this model, i.e. that Accuracy, Sensibility and Awareness are distinguishable facets of interoception and that Interoceptive Accuracy is the basic level of interoception, and (2) whether cardiovascular activation (as indexed by heart rate) is differentially related to the three facets of interoception. Analyses were conducted on a total sample of N=159 healthy participants (118 female [74.2%]; mean age = 23.9 years, SD = 3.3, range = 19-45) who performed either the heartbeat tracking task, the heartbeat discrimination task or both. The results suggest that Accuracy, Sensibility and Awareness are empirically distinct facets of interoception, showing no correlation when based on heartbeat tracking, but moderate correlations when based on heartbeat discrimination. The assumption that Interoceptive Accuracy is the basic level of interoception could only be partially confirmed. Instead, we conclude that the level of objective physiological states should be considered as the most basic level of interoceptive signal processing. [less ▲]

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See detailCold pressor stress induces opposite effects on cardioceptive accuracy dependent on assessment paradigm
Schulz, André UL; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Sütterlin, Stefan UL et al

in Biological Psychology (2013), 93(1), 167-174

Interoception depends on visceral afferent neurotraffic and central control processes. Physiological arousal and organ activation provide the biochemical and mechanical basis for visceral afferent ... [more ▼]

Interoception depends on visceral afferent neurotraffic and central control processes. Physiological arousal and organ activation provide the biochemical and mechanical basis for visceral afferent neurotraffic. Perception of visceral symptoms occurs when attention is directed toward body sensations. Clinical studies suggest that stress contributes to the generation of visceral symptoms. However, during stress exposure attention is normally shifted away from bodily signals. Therefore, the net effects of stress on interoception remain unclear. We, therefore, investigated the impact of the cold pressor test or a control intervention (each n = 21) on three established laboratory paradigms to assess cardioceptive accuracy (CA): for the Schandry-paradigm, participants were asked to count heartbeats, while during the Whitehead-tasks subjects were asked to rate whether a cardiac sensation appeared simultaneously with an auditory or visual stimulus. CA was increased by stress when attention was focused on visceral sensations (Schandry), while it decreased when attention was additionally directed toward external stimuli (visual Whitehead). Explanations for these results are offered in terms of internal versus external deployment of attention, as well as specific effects of the cold pressor on the cardiovascular system. [less ▲]

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See detailKurzzeitige Nahrungsdeprivation erhöht Herzschlag-evozierte Potenziale (HEPs) als Indikatoren für kortikale Verarbeitung kardial-interozeptiver Prozesse
Schulz, André UL; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S.; Strelzyk, Florian et al

in Trierer Psychologische Berichte (2013), 38(1), 52-53

Interozeption – die Wahrnehmung von Körpervorgängen – spielt bei der Regulation des Essverhaltens möglicherweise eine entscheidende Rolle. Nahrungsdeprivation hat eine Reihe von metabolischen und ... [more ▼]

Interozeption – die Wahrnehmung von Körpervorgängen – spielt bei der Regulation des Essverhaltens möglicherweise eine entscheidende Rolle. Nahrungsdeprivation hat eine Reihe von metabolischen und endokrinologischen Konsequenzen. Bei kurzzeitiger Nahrungsdeprivation zeigt sich eine Erhöhung des sympathischen Tonus, welche dafür verantwortlich sein könnte, dass sich die Interozeptionsgenauigkeit gegenüber kardialer Stimuli gleichzeitig erhöht. Die physiologischen Grundlagen von Interozeption sind die Übermittlung von viszeral-afferenten neuronalen Signalen, während die Wahrnehmung dieser Signale die Lenkung der Aufmerksamkeit auf diese Signale erfordert. Bisherige Ergebnisse gehen auf Leistungen in Herzschlagdetektionsaufgaben zurück. Obwohl diese Methoden mehrfach validiert wurden, sind sie wahrscheinlich ungeeignet dazu, die viszeral-afferente Signalübermittlung und Aufmerksamkeitslenkung auf diese Signale voneinander zu trennen. Daher hatte die vorliegende Studienreihe zum Ziel, den Einfluss von kurzzeitiger Nahrungsdeprivation auf Herzschlag-evozierte Potenziale (HEPs) in Ruhebedingung zu untersuchen. Die HEPs gelten als psychophysiologischer Indikator für die kortikale Verarbeitung kardial-interozeptiver Prozesse. Bislang ist unbekannt, ob metabolische und endokrinologische Prozesse HEPs modulieren können. In einer ersten Studie wurden 16 gesunden Männern (Alter: 23,8 [2,1] Jahre) intravenös sowohl das Stresshormon Cortisol, als auch eine Placebo-Substanz verabreicht. Es zeigte sich, dass Cortisol bei offenen Augen kurzfristig zu einer höheren HEP-Amplitude führte, als bei geschlossenen Augen (p = .03). Daraus kann man ableiten, dass endokrinologische Prozesse das Potenzial haben, die HEP-Amplitude zu modulieren. In der folgenden Studie wurden 16 gesunde Frauen (Alter: 22,6 [1,9] Jahre) sowohl nach standardisierter Nahrungsaufnahme, als auch nach 18-stündiger Nahrungsdeprivation getestet. Es zeigte sich eine Erhöhung der HEP-Amplitude nach Nahrungsdeprivation (p = .02). Gleichzeitig konnten keine Veränderungen der Herzrate, noch der Herzratenvariabilität beobachtet werden. Unsere Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass Nahrungsdeprivation die kortikale Verarbeitung afferenter Signale aus dem kardiovaskulären System intensiviert, was nicht durch eine höhere sympathische Aktivität erklärt werden kann. Mögliche physiologische Signalwege und Implikationen für die Ätiologie von Essstörungen werden diskutiert. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased basal mechanical pain sensitivity but decreased perceptual wind-up in a human model of relative hypocortisolism
Kuehl, Linn; Michaux, Gilles; Richter, Steffen et al

in Pain (2010)

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