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See detailLegal Design for the General Data Protection Regulation. A Methodology for the Visualization and Communication of Legal Concepts
Rossi, Arianna UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

Privacy policies are known to be impenetrable, lengthy, tedious texts that are hardly read and poorly understood. Therefore, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) introduces provisions to enhance ... [more ▼]

Privacy policies are known to be impenetrable, lengthy, tedious texts that are hardly read and poorly understood. Therefore, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) introduces provisions to enhance the transparency of such documents and suggests icons as visual elements to provide “in an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner a meaningful overview of the intended processing.” The present dissertation discusses how design, and in particular legal design, can support the concrete implementation of the GDPR’s transparency obligation. Notwithstanding the many benefits that visual communication demonstrably provides, graphical elements do not improve comprehension per se. Research on graphical symbols for legal concepts is still scarce, while both the creation and consequent evaluation of icons depicting abstract or unfamiliar concepts represent a challenge. More- over, precision of representation can support the individuals’ sense-making of the meaning of graphical symbols, but at the expense of simplicity and us- ability. Hence, this research proposed a methodology that combines semantic web technologies with principles of semiotics and ergonomics, and empirical methods drawn from the emerging discipline of legal design, that was used to create and evaluate DaPIS, the Data Protection Icon Set meant to support the data subjects’ navigation of privacy policies. The icon set is modeled on PrOnto, an ontological representation of the GDPR, and is organized around its core modules: personal data, roles and agents, processing operations, processing purposes, legal bases, and data subjects’ rights. In combination with the description of a privacy policy in the legal standard XML Akoma Ntoso, such an approach makes the icons machine-readable and semi-automatically retrievable. Icons can thus serve as information markers in lengthy privacy statements and support the navigation of the text by the data subject. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Words to Images Through Legal Visualization
Rossi, Arianna UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Pagallo, Ugo; Palmirani, Monica; Casanovas, Pompeu (Eds.) et al AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems: AICOL International Workshops 2015–2017: AICOL-VI@ JURIX 2015, AICOL-VII@ EKAW 2016, AICOL-VIII@ JURIX 2016, AICOL-IX@ ICAIL 2017, and AICOL-X@ JURIX 2017, Revised Selected Papers (2018)

One of the common characteristics of legal documents is the absolute preponderance of text and their specific domain language, whose complexity can result in impenetrability for those that have no legal ... [more ▼]

One of the common characteristics of legal documents is the absolute preponderance of text and their specific domain language, whose complexity can result in impenetrability for those that have no legal expertise. In some experiments, visual communication has been introduced in legal documents to make their meaning clearer and more intelligible, whilst visualizations have also been automatically generated from semantically-enriched legal data. As part of an ongoing research that aims to create user-friendly privacy terms by integrating graphical elements and Semantic Web technologies, the process of creation and interpretation of visual legal concepts will be discussed. The analysis of current approaches to this subject represents the point of departure to propose an empirical methodology that is inspired by interaction and human-centered design practices. [less ▲]

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See detailLegal Design Patterns for Privacy
Haapio, Helena; Hagan, Margaret; Palmirani, Monica et al

in Data Protection / LegalTech Proceedings of the 21st International Legal Informatics Symposium IRIS 2018 (2018)

Fulfilling the legal requirements of mandated disclosure is a challenge in many contexts. Privacy communication is no exception, especially for those who seek to effectively inform individuals about the ... [more ▼]

Fulfilling the legal requirements of mandated disclosure is a challenge in many contexts. Privacy communication is no exception, especially for those who seek to effectively inform individuals about the use of their data. Lawyers across countries and industries are facing recurring problems when (re)writing privacy notices and terms. Visual and interactive design patterns have been suggested as the solution, yet our analysis shows that they are lacking on most privacy policies. This indicates the need for standardization and an actionable pattern library, which we propose in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailLegal Ontology for Modelling GDPR Concepts and Norms
Palmirani, Monica; Bartolini, Cesare UL; Martoni, Michele et al

in JURIX 2018 proceedings (2018)

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See detailPrOnto: Privacy Ontology for Legal Reasoning
palmirani, monica; Martoni, Michele; Rossi, Arianna UL et al

in International Conference on Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective (2018)

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See detailA Methodological Framework to Design a Machine-Readable Privacy Icon Set
Palmirani, Monica; Rossi, Arianna UL; Martoni, Michele et al

in Schweighofer, Erich (Ed.) Data Protection / LegalTech Proceedings of the 21st International Legal Informatics Symposium IRIS 2018 (2018)

The GDPR suggests icons to convey data practices in a more straightforward way. Although vi- sualizations to represent legal terms have many benefits, there is fear that they could be misrep- resented by ... [more ▼]

The GDPR suggests icons to convey data practices in a more straightforward way. Although vi- sualizations to represent legal terms have many benefits, there is fear that they could be misrep- resented by designers and misinterpreted by individuals, thus hindering instead of facilitating the comprehension. In order to solve these issues, we present a methodology to generate legal visual representations that is based on an analysis of legal requirements, on an ontological representation of the legal knowledge, and on an iterative, multi-stakeholder design approach, followed by empirical evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailA Visualization Approach for Adaptive Consent in the European Data Protection Framework
Rossi, Arianna UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Edelmann, Noella; Parycek, Peter (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government (2017)

For the first time in the history of European data protection law, the use of visualizations and especially of icons is explicitly suggested as a way to improve the comprehensibility of the information ... [more ▼]

For the first time in the history of European data protection law, the use of visualizations and especially of icons is explicitly suggested as a way to improve the comprehensibility of the information about data handling practices provided to the data subjects, which plays a crucial role to obtain informed consent. Privacy icon sets have already been developed, but they differ in the kinds of information they depict and in the perspectives they embed. Moreover, they have not met widespread adoption, one reasons being that research has shown that possibility of misinterpretation of these symbols exist. Our research relies on legal Semantic Web technologies and on principles drawn from legal design and Human Computer Interaction to propose visualizations of privacy policies and consent forms. The final aim is to enhance the communication of data practices to users and to support their decision about whether to give or withhold consent [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (3 UL)