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See detailLived Histories of Science Education in Modern Luxembourg: Interactions between Global Policies, National Curriculum and Local Practices.
Reuter, Bob UL; Schreiber, Catherina

Scientific Conference (2017, August 23)

The current paper is part of a larger research project, that seeks to gain insights into the policy and curricular reform of science education in Luxembourg’s primary schools through a state of the art ... [more ▼]

The current paper is part of a larger research project, that seeks to gain insights into the policy and curricular reform of science education in Luxembourg’s primary schools through a state of the art approach that integrates research in educational sciences (interviews and classroom observations) with research in the history of education (interviews and document analyses). Beginning with the premise that “science education” as a school discipline is the product of culturally shaped expectations, we examine the interface of international and national educational policy with local educational practice through the lens of primary school science education in Luxembourg (from 1920 through the present). This papers focuses on the historical analysis of science education and policy changes in modern Luxembourg using (1) a document-based historical analysis of curricula, textbooks and public discourses and (2) interviews with curriculum developers from the 1980s and 1990s and with key participants in science education in Luxembourg to examine the lived practices in a local context. In the synergy of the different approaches, local analysis of historically shaped notions of science education can be integrated with a transnational global perspective. Our analysis shows, among other findings, that the science education curriculum was conceived as a response to a variety of specific national educational needs (e.g. environmental protection, love of nature, scientific rational thinking, economy development, technological progress, social progress, demographic changes and challenges). But at the same time, it was covertly in line with international “scientization” policies (e.g. Drori & Meyer, 2009) building on transnational ideas such as the “spiral curriculum”. The analysed educational reform is thus a relevant example to understand culturally and historically embedded perspectives of what “science” is, and how this shapes ideals of “science education” as a discipline in school. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the uses of ICT in education: A national survey study
Reuter, Bob UL; Busana, Gilbert UL; Linckels, Serge

Scientific Conference (2016, November 23)

This study aims at documenting current educational technology practices in Luxembourgish public schools and to better understand them in terms of various internal/proximal and external/distal enabling ... [more ▼]

This study aims at documenting current educational technology practices in Luxembourgish public schools and to better understand them in terms of various internal/proximal and external/distal enabling factors and barriers. It is supposed to serve as a guide for current digital education policies, strategies and actions and to assess their effects in the near and mid-term future. Therefore, an online survey was designed and deployed to all primary and secondary school teachers asking (mostly multiple choice) questions about a variety of proximal and distal influence factors and about ICT-supported pedagogical practices of teachers. Results show that teachers are willing to integrate ICT in education, that they are aware of its importance, that they feel comfortable to use ICT in everyday, but not prepared to use them for educational purposes. ICT-supported teaching remains rather teacher-centered. This has important implications for teacher training and on digital education strategies to be implemented. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of iPads in Kindergarten: An exploratory survey study
Reuter, Bob UL; Busana, Gilbert UL

Scientific Conference (2016, September 06)

The educational technology support team of the city of Luxembourg deployed 60 iPads, in a pilot phase during the school year 2014-2015, in around 120 Kindergarten classes. In order to assess whether this ... [more ▼]

The educational technology support team of the city of Luxembourg deployed 60 iPads, in a pilot phase during the school year 2014-2015, in around 120 Kindergarten classes. In order to assess whether this deployment was well received by teachers and whether it was worth extending it, we did an exploratory survey study that asked Kindergarten teachers about their reactions to the provided iPads. Moreover, we wanted to contribute to the existing body of research on enabling and hindering factors for the integration of ICT in education (Ertmer, 2005; Pelgrum, 2011). We did send out an email to about 210 Kindergarten teachers inviting them to participate in our study and answer various questions about their use or not of the provided iPads. A mix of open and closed questions were used. We first asked them whether they had used the iPads or not and depending on their answers they received a slightly different version of our survey. Both groups of respondents were asked to answer some questions not directly linked to the use of iPads in education: their gender, their age, the length of their work experience, how many children they have in their class, how competent they feel with using digital tools, what digital tools they use privately and for what purposes they use them, what digital tools (other than iPads) they use in their classes and for what purposes they use them, what they consider to be good teaching in Kindergarten. Those who said they had indeed used the iPads were then asked how they had prepared themselves before using the iPads in class, why and for what purposes and for which learning & teaching activities they had used them (Leclercq & Poumay 2005), what they had expected from their use, what problems, issues and challenges they had faced, if they would want to use them more / differently in the future, what they would need to wore more / better with iPads and whether they would be willing to offer professional development sessions to other teachers. Those who said they did not use the provided iPads were asked why they did not use the iPads, if they had thought about the use of iPads in education, if they had heard about it from colleagues, under which conditions they might consider to use them, how they would prepare themselves in case they would plan to use iPads in their class, if they wanted to visit colleagues and observe how they use them, for what purposes and activities they might want to use them, how they would use them, and what effects they would expect the iPads to have on their pupils and on their teaching. Overall, 91 teachers filled out the survey, 63 claiming they had (at least once) used the provided iPads in their class and 28 saying they never used them. Results will be presented at the conference and discussed in terms of teacher believes about the usefulness of tablets and digital technologies (Tondeur, Hermans, van Braak & Valcke, 2008), and more specifically how first-order and second-order barriers impact Kindergarten teachers decisions to integrate mobile ICT in their classrooms, or not (Lui & Pange, 2015). [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a strategic integration of digital technologies into classrooms
Reuter, Bob UL

Speeches/Talks (2016)

Many people think that we need simply need to provide schools with more digital technologies in order to enhance learning outcomes. However, access to the tools is not enough, teachers need to know how to ... [more ▼]

Many people think that we need simply need to provide schools with more digital technologies in order to enhance learning outcomes. However, access to the tools is not enough, teachers need to know how to use these tools in effective ways. I will propose a number of theoretical and practical concepts useful for a strategic integration of digital technologies into teaching. The objective of my presentation will be double in the sense that I want to provide teachers with the conceptual tools to (1) better understand the use of digital media and technologies for learning & teaching purposes in educational settings and (2) better plan and design ICT-enriched learning & teaching activities, grounded in learning sciences and connected to specific local contexts. I will present some examples of pedagogical practices that used such a strategic integration of ICT approach in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailFostering Reflective Thinking About Information In 5th Graders With Blogs: How Helpful Are Learning Supports?
Thoss, Jennifer; Reuter, Bob UL

in EAPRIL Conference Proceedings (2016, March), (2), 246-257

This study is about fostering media and information literacy and, more precisely, reflective thinking about information in 5th graders. A learning scenario integrating weblogs into a class by providing ... [more ▼]

This study is about fostering media and information literacy and, more precisely, reflective thinking about information in 5th graders. A learning scenario integrating weblogs into a class by providing learning tasks, learning supports and learning resources was elaborated and tested. The class was divided into a test group and a control group, which did not receive learning supports. Over five weeks the pupils ́ degree of reflection was measured by analysing their blog entries by means of pre- defined evaluation criteria. We also observed them while blogging and recorded our impressions. The results showed that, against our expectation, the pupils of the test group were less reflexive in their entries than the ones of the control group. However, we observed that the test group pupils verbally expressed many reflections, which they did not write down. This suggests that our learning scenario comprised of learning tasks, resources and supports promoted reflective thinking about information of all the pupils even if this is not recognisable in their entries. [less ▲]

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See detailFostering reflective thinking about information in 5th graders with blogs: how helpful are learning supports?
Thoss, Jennifer; Reuter, Bob UL

Scientific Conference (2015, November 25)

This study is about fostering media and information literacy and, more precisely, reflective thinking about information in 5th graders. A learning scenario integrating weblogs into a class by providing ... [more ▼]

This study is about fostering media and information literacy and, more precisely, reflective thinking about information in 5th graders. A learning scenario integrating weblogs into a class by providing learning tasks, learning supports and learning resources was elaborated and tested. The class was divided into a test group and a control group, which did not receive learning supports. Over five weeks the pupil´s degree of reflection was measured by analysing their blog posts by means of pre-defined evaluation criteria. We also observed them while blogging and recorded our impressions. The results showed that, against our expectation, the pupils of the test group were less reflexive in their posts than the ones of the control group. However, we observed that the test group pupils verbally expressed many reflections, which they did not write down in their posts. This suggests that our learning scenario comprised of learning tasks, resources and supports promoted reflective thinking about information of all the pupils even if this is not recognisable in their posts. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematizing science as a primary school discipline: Learning from contingencies and diversities
Schreiber, Catherina UL; Siry, Christina UL; Reuter, Bob UL et al

Poster (2015, September 03)

This paper puts the idea of a contingent nature of science at its fore, asking what we as researchers can learn from seemingly irreconcilable differences in our approaches and interpretations to past ... [more ▼]

This paper puts the idea of a contingent nature of science at its fore, asking what we as researchers can learn from seemingly irreconcilable differences in our approaches and interpretations to past, present and future developments in science education. To do so, we aim to explore the potentials of multi-perspectivity in an academic self-experiment. The idea is to problematize science as a school discipline from different theoretical, disciplinary and methodological standpoints. By taking one concrete example of a Luxembourgian primary school curriculum document, four researchers will independently apply their individual lenses on science as a school discipline. Concretely, the coverage of the hedgehog as a “characteristic animal” in our primary school curriculum will be commented on in historical, sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. This concrete curricular example is seemingly defined and non disputable as a content theme in primary school science education in Luxembourg, and is also to be found in international curriculum policy documents. Yet a seemingly proven fact can be interpreted in multiple ways, not only to bridge controversies, as it is done so often, but as exploring the differences in a self-reflective manner. Through such multiple interpretations, we are specifically looking for inconsistencies between the four different narratives, instead of focusing on consensual conclusions or firm and consistent patterns. Instead we will follow a multi-layered approach to research in order to undertake a métissage approach to analyzing a component of the science pedagogical practice, allowing the different understandings on the Luxembourgian science curriculum to remain and complement each other in a complex manner. [less ▲]

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See detailWe are all natural-born (conspiracy) theorists: Versuch einer evolutionspsychologischen Annäherung an das Phänomen „Verschwörungstheorie“
Reuter, Bob UL

Article for general public (2015)

Wie lässt sich diese Anziehungskraft von Konspirationstheorien auf uns Menschen erklären? Wie kommt es, dass homo sapiens – der wissende Mensch – solchen absurden „Theorien“ verfallen kann? Ich möchte ... [more ▼]

Wie lässt sich diese Anziehungskraft von Konspirationstheorien auf uns Menschen erklären? Wie kommt es, dass homo sapiens – der wissende Mensch – solchen absurden „Theorien“ verfallen kann? Ich möchte hier versuchen, diesen Fragen aus der Sicht der (evolutionären) Psychologie nachzugehen. Meine These: Wir Menschen sind alle, von Natur aus, (potentielle) Konspirationstheoretiker. [less ▲]

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See detailProject Based Learning - A Teaser
Reuter, Bob UL; Busana, Gilbert UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Project-Based Learning (PBL) is currently one of the big buzz words in education. To some it is like a "magical wand” that transforms everything and turns dull classes into rich and deep learning ... [more ▼]

Project-Based Learning (PBL) is currently one of the big buzz words in education. To some it is like a "magical wand” that transforms everything and turns dull classes into rich and deep learning experiences. Others think that PBL is just a waste of time and that the return on investment is not worth trying. In order to give you a better understanding of this pedagogical approach, we will (1) define what Project-Based Learning is, (2) what it is not, (3) what scientific research tells us when it works and when it does not work, (4) which educational challenges teachers and students have to face when using PBL in classes and (5) which theories of learning & teaching help us explain and understand why and how PBL works. Finally, we will give you a very personal account of PBL based on our teaching experiences in a higher education setting. [less ▲]

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See detailUn outil d'évaluation formative et de remédiation pour les cours de tableur
Dondelinger, Serge; Reuter, Bob UL

Scientific Conference (2015, January 28)

Il est proposé de présenter la conception d’une application web destinée à des fins d’évaluation formative dans le domaine des formules de tableur. La vocation première de l’outil proposé est ... [more ▼]

Il est proposé de présenter la conception d’une application web destinée à des fins d’évaluation formative dans le domaine des formules de tableur. La vocation première de l’outil proposé est l’utilisation dans le cadre des cours de tableur dispensés dans l’enseignement secondaire luxembourgeois. L’outil ne se limite pas à une évaluation formative du savoir et savoir-faire des élèves en matière de formules de tableur mais intègre également, dans l’optique d’une régulation interactive des apprentissages, des éléments d’aide et de remédiation. L’évaluation automatisée permettra en effet de proposer aux élèves des éléments qui devraient les aider à surmonter leurs difficultés individuelles, au moment-même où elles sont détectées. L’objectif visé par la recherche est la conception, elle-même fondée sur des principes théoriques avérés, ainsi que la réalisation d’un outil de régulation des apprentissages qui devrait permettre aux élèves de progresser sans l’intervention directe de l’enseignant et de manière plus efficace que par le biais d’alternatives plus classiques. L’approche didactique implémentée se base sur le constat que la construction d’une formule de tableur peut être considérée comme problème, tel que défini en psychologie cognitive, et nécessite a priori plusieurs étapes de réflexion de la part de l’élève. L’outil est en cours de réalisation et pourra être présenté lors du colloque. Les phases ultérieures du projet prévoient une évaluation par des experts pour validation didactique ainsi qu’une expérimentation pédagogique en salle de classe. [less ▲]

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See detailHerausforderung “Mobiles Lernen”: Konzepte und Entwicklungslinien
Reuter, Bob UL

Article for general public (2015)

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See detail“Alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen?” Zum strategischen Einsatz von mobilen Technologien im Unterricht
Reuter, Bob UL; Busana, Gilbert UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

“Alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen?” Zum strategischen Einsatz von mobilen Technologien im Unterricht

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See detailDie Grundlagen effektiven Lernens: Zeit und sinnvolle Wiederholung
Reuter, Bob UL

Article for general public (2014)

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See detailWhat can schools, teachers and learners learn from implicit learning research?
Reuter, Bob UL

Scientific Conference (2014, May 27)

Implicit learning research has shown us that we learn all the time, that we learn even when we have no intention to learn, no awareness of the fact that we are learning or no awareness of what we are ... [more ▼]

Implicit learning research has shown us that we learn all the time, that we learn even when we have no intention to learn, no awareness of the fact that we are learning or no awareness of what we are learning (Reber, 1967; Cleeremans, Destrebecqz, & Boyer, 1998; Reuter, 2013). However in schools and in school-oriented formal learning settings, we are supposed to build up a different type of knowledge that we can explicitly (most often verbally) remember and apply to new situations (Bloom, 1956). This distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge may however not be so clear-cut, for theoretical, methodological and empirical reasons, and, more importantly, it may not be very useful when applying basic cognitive science to educational practices. On the contrary, we want to invite teachers (and learners) to rather think of learning as a set of complex processes, where so-called implicit and explicit learning processes, more often than not, interactively work together to construct personal knowledge in our brains. Therefore we recommend using teaching strategies that foster both types of knowledge bases, so that explicit learning can efficiently build upon the results of implicit learning processes. [less ▲]

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See detailMahara@bsce.uni.lu: expériences vécues et leçons apprises
Reuter, Bob UL

Presentation (2014, March 13)

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See detailTrügerisches Gedächtnis
Reuter, Bob UL

Article for general public (2014)

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See detailVers une intégration stratégique des technologies digitales à l’école
Reuter, Bob UL; Busana, Gilbert UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

Dans cette présentation nous allons tenter de proposer un certain nombre de concepts théoriques et pratiques que nous jugeons utiles pour toute personne désireuse de se lancer dans l’aventure d’une ... [more ▼]

Dans cette présentation nous allons tenter de proposer un certain nombre de concepts théoriques et pratiques que nous jugeons utiles pour toute personne désireuse de se lancer dans l’aventure d’une intégration stratégique des technologies digitales à l’école. Ces concepts et scénarios sont issus et nourris de nos recherches empiriques, de nos lectures de textes scientifiques et didactico-pédagogiques et de nos propres expériences en tant qu’enseignants à l’université. L’objectif de notre présentation sera double. Nous souhaitons fournir des instruments de pensée qui permettront 1) de (mieux) comprendre l’utilisation et l’intégration des technologies d’apprentissage et d’enseignement dans les contextes scolaires et 2) de planifier et de réaliser cette utilisation de façon plus consciente, plus réfléchie. Ainsi nous proposons de mettre en évidence les défis posés à l’école par la révolution digitale et de les rendre reconnaissables comme opportunités pour l’école de demain en fournissant des éléments conceptuels et théoriques pouvant informer, voire guider l’action et la réflexion didactico-pédagogiques. Nous proposons donc de fournir quelques outils psychologiques susceptibles de vous aider à marcher les chemins passionnants mais semés d’embûches qui mènent vers une intégration stratégique, réussie et satisfaisante des technologies digitales dans votre pratique au quotidien. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing University Students’ Learning, Engagement and Satisfaction in a Blended Learning Environment: An Action Research Study
Reuter, Bob UL; Busana, Gilbert UL

Scientific Conference (2013, September 27)

With the study reported here, two lecturers in Educational Technology tried to find out how they could improve their university students’ learning, their course engagement and their overall course ... [more ▼]

With the study reported here, two lecturers in Educational Technology tried to find out how they could improve their university students’ learning, their course engagement and their overall course satisfaction by systematically planning, observing and reflecting their teaching practices. For institutional reasons, they had been forced to switch from small-group seminars to large-group lectures in 2010-2011 and had since observed (1) relatively important declines in students’ knowledge and understanding (Bloom, 195 ), (2) low levels of student engagement during the lectures and (3) mixed levels of course satisfaction. During the winter semester 2012-2013 they thus wanted to explore various blended learning and interactive lecturing activities and to assess their effects. The aims of this research study are thus (1) to design and implement a meaningful and reasonable blended learning environment for students and (2) to roughly appraise its effects. Therefore an action-research process was established according emmis Mc aggart’s (1990) cyclical action-research model, where each cycle contains 4 steps: plan, action, observe and reflect. In addition, an intervention research process was also put in place to collect quantitative data about student learning, engagement and satisfaction. Planning, acting, observing and reflecting were done by the two lecturers. Oral presentations were prepared collaboratively; while one of the two lecturers delivered the presentation, the other one acted as the researcher, observing classroom activities, and implementing interactive learning activities; reflecting was done collaboratively after each lecture by writing down impressions. Several presentations were recorded (using a lecture recording software) and made available online for revision. Quantitative data were collected (1) from students’ actions in an online learning environment (moodle), comprising their viewing of various resources and their posting to assignments, and (2) from students’ scores at the final exam. Student satisfaction with the course had to be very generally assessed with the help of an optional anonymous course satisfaction survey set up by the university and could thus not be crossed with other types of data collected. Collected data are currently being analysed and will be presented at the conference. This research should help to better understand how university lecturing, often described as boring by students and leading to rather poor student performances, can be (1) enriched with the help of interactive and multimedia activities, as well as (2) extended by online learning activities. The objective is thus to contribute to the design of blended learning environments which (1) foster more sustainable learning in students, i.e. improving retention of knowledge and deepening understanding, and (2) lead to more responsible teaching, i.e. helping teachers to care about their students’ learning, engagement and satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect and Indirect Measures of Learning in Visual Search
Reuter, Bob UL

Doctoral thesis (2013)

In this thesis, we will explore direct and indirect measures of learning in a visual search task commonly called contextual cueing. In the first part, we present a review of the scientific literature on ... [more ▼]

In this thesis, we will explore direct and indirect measures of learning in a visual search task commonly called contextual cueing. In the first part, we present a review of the scientific literature on contextual cueing, in order to give the readers of this thesis a better general idea of existing evidence and open questions within this relatively new research field. The aims of our own experimental studies presented in the succeeding chapters are the following ones: (1) to replicate and extend the findings described in the various papers by Marvin Chun and various colleagues on contextual cueing of visual attention; (2) to explore the nature of memory representations underlying the observed learning effects, especially whether learning is actually implicit and whether memory representations are distinctive, episodic and instance-based or rather distributed, continuous and graded; (3) to extend the study of contextual cueing to more realistic visual stimuli, in order to test its robustness across various situations and validate its adaptive value in ecologically sound conditions; and (4) to investigate whether such knowledge about the association between visual contexts and “meaningful” locations can be (automatically) transferred to other tasks, namely a change detection task. In a first series of four experiments, we tried to replicate the documented contextual cueing effect using a wide range of various direct measures of learning (tasks that are supposed to be related to explicit knowledge) and we systematically varied the distinctiveness of context configurations to study its effect on both direct and indirect measures of learning. We also ran a series of neural network simulations (briefly described in the general discussion of this thesis), based on a very simple association-learning mechanism, that not only account for the observed contextual cueing effect, but also yield rather specific predictions about future experimental data: contextual cueing effects should also be observed when repetitions of context configurations are not perfect, i.e., the networks were able to react to slightly distorted versions of repeating contexts in a similar way than they did to completely identical contexts. Human participants, we conjectured, should therefore (if the simple connectionist model captures some relevant aspects of the contextual cueing effect) become faster at detecting targets surrounded by context configurations that are only partially identical from trial to trial compared to those trials where the context configurations were randomly generated. These predictions were tested in a second series of experiments using pseudo-repeated context configurations, where some distractor items were either displaced from trial to trial or their orientation changed, while conserving their global layout. In a third series of experiments, we used more realistic images of natural landscapes as background contexts to establish the robustness of the contextual cueing effect as well as its ecological relevance claimed by Chun and colleagues. We furthermore added a second task to these experiments to study whether the acquired knowledge about the background-target location associations would (automatically) transfer to another visual search task, namely a change detection task. If participants have learned that certain locations of the repeated images are “important”, since they contain the target item to look for, then changes occurring at those specific locations should lead to less “change blindness” than changes occurring at other irrelevant locations. We used two different types of instructions to introduce this second task after the visual search task, where we either stressed the link between the two tasks, i.e., telling them that remembering the “important” locations for each image could be used to find the changes faster, or we simply told them to perform the second task without any reference to the first one. We will close this thesis with a general discussion, combining findings based on our review of the existing research literature and findings based on our own experimental explorations of the contextual cueing effect. By this we will discuss the implications of our empirical studies for the scientific investigation of contextual cueing and implicit learning, in terms of theoretical, empirical and methodological issues. [less ▲]

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See detailL'évaluation des compétences scientifiques au 21eme siècle : cadre conceptuel et prototypes pour une évaluation transformée-par-ordinateur
Weinerth, Katja UL; Reuter, Bob UL; Porro, Vincent et al

in Actes du 24e colloque international de l'ADMEE-Europe (2012)

En parallèle à l’évolution récente de l’enseignement des sciences (vers des modes d’enseignement basée sur la découverte guidée ou autonome), on observe une course aux nouvelles méthodes d’évaluation des ... [more ▼]

En parallèle à l’évolution récente de l’enseignement des sciences (vers des modes d’enseignement basée sur la découverte guidée ou autonome), on observe une course aux nouvelles méthodes d’évaluation des compétences scientifiques. Nous proposons ici un cadre conceptuel que nous avons développé et que nous utilisons actuellement pour guider le développement d’un environnement informatique d’apprentissage et d’évaluation intégré, qui pourra être utilisé (1) pour offrir aux apprenants une large panoplie de situations d’apprentissage relativement authentiques, implémentant l’ensemble des activités de l’investigation scientifique et (2) pour évaluer leurs connaissances du processus d’investigation scientifique, pour évaluer leurs compétences « en action » et pour évaluer comment ils appliquent leurs connaissances d’un domaine scientifique donné. Ce cadre conceptuel sera illustré à l’aide de prototypes d’items d’évaluation développés pour des ordinateurs mobiles à écran tactile. [less ▲]

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