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See detailStructure and energetics of benzene adsorbed on transition-metal surfaces: density-functional theory with van der Waals interactions including collective substrate response
Liu, Wei; Ruiz, Victor G.; Zhang, Guo-Xu et al

in NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS (2013), 15

The adsorption of benzene on metal surfaces is an important benchmark system for hybrid inorganic/organic interfaces. The reliable determination of the interface geometry and binding energy presents a ... [more ▼]

The adsorption of benzene on metal surfaces is an important benchmark system for hybrid inorganic/organic interfaces. The reliable determination of the interface geometry and binding energy presents a significant challenge for both theory and experiment. Using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), PBE+vdW (van der Waals) and the recently developed PBE+vdW(surf) (density-functional theory with vdW interactions that include the collective electronic response of the substrate) methods, we calculated the structures and energetics for benzene on transition-metal surfaces: Cu, Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, Rh and Ir. Our calculations demonstrate that vdW interactions increase the binding energy by more than 0.70 eV for physisorbed systems (Cu, Ag and Au) and by an even larger amount for strongly bound systems (Pd, Pt, Rh and Ir). The collective response of the substrate electrons captured via the vdW(surf) method plays a significant role for most substrates shortening the equilibrium distance by 0.25 angstrom for Cu and decreasing the binding energy by 0.27 eV for Rh. The reliability of our results is assessed by comparison with calculations using the random-phase approximation including renormalized single excitations and the experimental data from temperature-programmed desorption microcalorimetry measurements and low-energy electron diffraction. [less ▲]

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See detailToward Low-Temperature Dehydrogenation Catalysis: Isophorone Adsorbed on Pd(111)
Liu, Wei; Savara, Aditya; Ren, Xinguo et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (2012), 3(5), 582-586

Adsorbate geometry and reaction dynamics play essential roles in catalytic processes at surfaces. Here we present a theoretical and experimental study for a model functional organic/metal interface ... [more ▼]

Adsorbate geometry and reaction dynamics play essential roles in catalytic processes at surfaces. Here we present a theoretical and experimental study for a model functional organic/metal interface: isophorone (C9H14O) adsorbed on the Pd(111) surface. Density functional theory calculations with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhoff (PBE) functional including van der Waals (vdW) interactions, in combination with infrared spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments reveal the reaction pathway between the weakly chemisorbed reactant (C9H14O) and the strongly chemisorbed product (C9H10O), which occurs by the cleavage of four C-H bonds below 250 K. Analysis of the TPD spectrum is consistent with the relatively small magnitude of the activation barrier derived from PBE+vdW calculations, demonstrating the feasibility of low-temperature dehydrogenation. [less ▲]

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See detailResolution-of-identity approach to Hartree-Fock, hybrid density functionals, RPA, MP2 and GW with numeric atom-centered orbital basis functions
Ren, Xinguo; Rinke, Patrick; Blum, Volker et al

in NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS (2012), 14

The efficient implementation of electronic structure methods is essential for first principles modeling of molecules and solids. We present here a particularly efficient common framework for methods ... [more ▼]

The efficient implementation of electronic structure methods is essential for first principles modeling of molecules and solids. We present here a particularly efficient common framework for methods beyond semilocal density-functional theory (DFT), including Hartree-Fock (HF), hybrid density functionals, random-phase approximation (RPA) second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and the GW method. This computational framework allows us to use compact and accurate numeric atom-centered orbitals (NAOs), popular in many implementations of semilocal DFT, as basis functions. The essence of our framework is to employ the `resolution of identity (RI)' technique to facilitate the treatment of both the two-electron Coulomb repulsion integrals (required in all these approaches) and the linear density-response function (required for RPA and GW). This is possible because these quantities can be expressed in terms of the products of single-particle basis functions, which can in turn be expanded in a set of auxiliary basis functions (ABFs). The construction of ABFs lies at the heart of the RI technique, and we propose here a simple prescription for constructing ABFs which can be applied regardless of whether the underlying radial functions have a specific analytical shape (e.g. Gaussian) or are numerically tabulated. We demonstrate the accuracy of our RI implementation for Gaussian and NAO basis functions, as well as the convergence behavior of our NAO basis sets for the above-mentioned methods. Benchmark results are presented for the ionization energies of 50 selected atoms and molecules from the G2 ion test set obtained with the GW and MP2 self-energy methods, and the G2-I atomization energies as well as the S22 molecular interaction energies obtained with the RPA method. [less ▲]

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See detailElectronic structure of dye-sensitized TiO 2 clusters from many-body perturbation theory
Marom, Noa; Moussa, Jonathan E.; Ren, Xinguo et al

in Physical Review. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2011), 84(24),

The development of new types of solar cells is driven by the need for clean and sustainable energy. In this respect dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are considered as a promising route for departing from ... [more ▼]

The development of new types of solar cells is driven by the need for clean and sustainable energy. In this respect dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are considered as a promising route for departing from the traditional solid state cells. The physical insight provided by computational modeling may help develop improved DSCs. To this end, it is important to obtain an accurate description of the electronic structure, including the fundamental gaps and level alignment at the dye-TiO2 interface. This requires a treatment beyond ground-state density functional theory (DFT). We present a many-body perturbation theory study, within the G(0)W(0) approximation, of two of the crystalline phases of dye-sensitized TiO2 clusters, reported by Benedict and Coppens, [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 2938 (2010)]. We obtain geometries in good agreement with the experiment by using DFT with the Tkatchenko-Scheffler van der Waals correction. We demonstrate that even when DFT gives a good description of the valence spectrum and a qualitatively correct picture of the electronic structure of the dye-TiO2 interface, G(0)W(0) calculations yield more valuable quantitative information regarding the fundamental gaps and level alignment. In addition, we systematically investigate the issues pertaining to G(0)W(0) calculations, namely: (i) convergence with respect to the number of basis functions, (ii) dependence on the mean-field starting point, and (iii) the validity of the assumption that the DFT wave function is a good approximation to the quasiparticle wave function. We show how these issues are manifested for dye molecules and for dye-sensitized TiO2 clusters. [less ▲]

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