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See detailMedroxyprogesterone acetate but not drospirenone ablates the protective function of 17 beta-estradiol in aldosterone salt-treated rats.
Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi; Hu, Kai; Schafer, Andreas et al

in Hypertension (2006), 48(5), 994-1001

Controversial results obtained from human and animal studies on the prevention of heart disease by estrogens and progestins warrant a better understanding of nuclear hormone receptor function and ... [more ▼]

Controversial results obtained from human and animal studies on the prevention of heart disease by estrogens and progestins warrant a better understanding of nuclear hormone receptor function and interaction. To address this issue and taking into account that effects of synthetic progestins are not only referable to action through the progesterone receptor but may also be mediated by other steroid receptors, we characterized cardiovascular function and inflammatory gene expression in aldosterone salt-treated rats on long-term administration of 17beta-estradiol, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and drospirenone, a new progestogen exhibiting antimineralocorticoid activity. The complex pattern of cardiovascular injury in ovariectomized Wistar rats induced by chronic aldosterone infusion plus a high-salt diet was significantly attenuated in sham-ovariectomized rats and by coadministration of 17beta-estradiol in ovariectomized animals after 8 weeks of continuous treatment. The beneficial role of 17beta-estradiol on blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, vascular osteopontin expression, perivascular fibrosis, and impaired NO-dependent relaxation of isolated aortic rings was completely abrogated by coadministration of medroxyprogesterone acetate. In contrast, drospirenone was either neutral or additive to 17beta-estradiol in protecting against aldosterone salt-induced cardiovascular injury and inflammation. The current results support the hypothesis of complex interactions among estrogen, progesterone, glucocorticoid, androgen, and mineralocorticoid receptor signaling in cardiovascular injury and inflammation. Novel progestins, such as drospirenone, confer superior effects compared with medroxyprogesterone acetate in a model of aldosterone-induced heart disease because of its antimineralocorticoid properties. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of vascular tone in animals overexpressing the sarcolemmal calcium pump.
Schuh, Kai; Quaschning, Thomas; Knauer, Sebastian et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2003), 278(42), 41246-52

The mechanisms governing vascular smooth muscle tone are incompletely understood. In particular, the role of the sarcolemmal calcium pump PMCA (plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase), which ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms governing vascular smooth muscle tone are incompletely understood. In particular, the role of the sarcolemmal calcium pump PMCA (plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase), which extrudes Ca2+ from the cytosol, and its importance compared with the sodium/calcium exchanger remain speculative. To test whether the PMCA is a regulator of vascular tone, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing the human PMCA4b under control of the arterial smooth muscle-specific SM22alpha promoter. This resulted in an elevated systolic blood pressure compared with littermate controls. In PMCA-overexpressing mice, endothelium-dependent relaxation of norepinephrine-preconstricted aortic rings to acetylcholine did not differ from wild type controls (76 +/- 8% versus 79 +/- 8% of maximum relaxation; n = 12, n.s.). De-endothelialized aortas of transgenic mice exhibited stronger maximum contraction to KCl (100 mmol/liter) compared with controls (86 +/- 6% versus 68 +/- 7% of reference KCl contraction at the beginning of the experiment; p <0.05). Preincubation of de-endothelialized vessels with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor l-NAME (l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester) (10-5 mol/liter) resulted in a stronger contraction to KCl (p <0.05 versus without l-NAME), thus unmasking vasodilatory effects of inherent NO production. Maximum contraction to KCl after preincubation with l-NAME did not differ between PMCA mice and controls. In analogy to the results in PMCA-overexpressing mice, contractions of de-endothelialized aortas of neuronal NOS-deficient mice to KCl were significantly increased compared with controls (151 +/- 5% versus 131 +/- 6% of reference KCl contraction; p <0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest a model in which the sarcolemmal Ca2+ pump down-regulates activity of the vascular smooth muscle Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent neuronal NOS by a functionally relevant interaction. Therefore, the PMCA represents a novel regulator of vascular tone. [less ▲]

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