References of "Puglisi, Marina"
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See detailA Pobreza e a Mente: Perspectiva da Ciência Cognitiva
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Tourinho, Carlos; Puglisi, Marina et al

Report (2015)

Nós procuramos entender por que a pobreza é um obstáculo para o desenvolvimento e o rendimento escolar das crianças. Munidos deste conhecimento, podemos oferecer evidências robustas que podem ser ... [more ▼]

Nós procuramos entender por que a pobreza é um obstáculo para o desenvolvimento e o rendimento escolar das crianças. Munidos deste conhecimento, podemos oferecer evidências robustas que podem ser utilizadas pelas autoridades educacionais em nossa sociedade para quebrar este vínculo. Este estudo utiliza dados multidimensionais de 355 brasileiros, alunos do 1° e 2° anos do Ensino Fundamental I, provenientes de diferentes origens e escolas. O objetivo foi verificar como as crianças adquirem as habilidades cognitivas que auxiliam na aprendizagem. Foram utilizados dados obtidos a partir de testes cognitivos, bem como entrevistas e questionários preenchidos por pais, professores e alunos. O estudo sugere que, embora o baixo nível socioeconômico exerça um forte impacto negativo sobre o desenvolvimento cognitivo de uma criança, uma educação de boa qualidade nos primeiros anos de vida pode contornar esse problema. Os resultados encontrados dão suporte à hipótese de que as experiências que as crianças têm no início da vida afetam o desenvolvimento do cérebro. Uma base cognitiva sólida é crucial para o aprendizado e é um fator fundamental para quebrar o ciclo da pobreza, para promover o desenvolvimento econômico e reduzir as desigualdades sociais. Assim, fazemos as seguintes sugestões para futuras pesquisas e elaboração de políticas públicas: - Investimento em Educação Infantil (creches e pré-escolas) pode ser a maneira mais eficaz para reduzir as desigualdades e promover a mobilidade social ascendente. - Capacitação de professores sobre aprendizagem com base nos preceitos da ciência cognitiva para dar-lhes uma maior consciência do porquê de alguns alunos apresentarem comportamento difícil e/ou dificuldades de aprendizagem. - Elaboração de políticas públicas baseadas em evidências científicas. Políticos e profissionais devem trabalhar em conjunto com cientistas no intuito de desenvolver programas com maiores probabilidades de sucesso. [less ▲]

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See detailExecutive functions and Specific Language Impairment (SLI) A cross-cultural study with bi- and monolingual children from low income families in Luxembourg, Portugal, and Brazil
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Puglisi, Marina; Cruz-Santos, Anabela et al

Scientific Conference (2014, July 16)

Research questions. Our aim was to (a) seek cross-cultural evidence for executive functioning deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI); (b) explore whether a similar pattern of ... [more ▼]

Research questions. Our aim was to (a) seek cross-cultural evidence for executive functioning deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI); (b) explore whether a similar pattern of deficits emerges in monolingual and bilingual children with SLI from low income families. Methods. We present data on bilingual and monolingual children from Luxembourg, Portugal, and Brazil who all speak Portuguese as their first language and were tested on the same battery of language and executive function measures. The data from 124 eight-year-olds from five different groups was analyzed: (1) 15 Portuguese-Luxembourgish bilingual children from Luxembourg with SLI (Bi-SLI); (2) 33 typically developing Portuguese-Luxembourgish bilingual children from Luxembourg (Bi-TD); (3) 33 typically developing monolinguals from Portugal (Mo-TD/Pt); (4) 18 monolinguals from Brazil with SLI (Mo-SLI); (5) 25 typically developing monolinguals from Brazil (Mo-TD/Br). Groups were matched on chronological age, socioeconomic status, and nonverbal intelligence. Children completed a range of measures tapping vocabulary, grammar, verbal and visuospatial working memory, and cognitive control. Results. Despite significant differences in their language and verbal working memory performance (SLI<TD), groups exhibited comparable performance on visuospatial working memory tasks. On cognitive control the following pattern emerged: Mo-TD/Pt < Bi-TD; Bi-SLI = Mo-TD/Pt; Mo-SLI < Mo-TD/Br. Conclusion. The study provides no evidence of domain-general deficits in working memory in SLI. Visuospatial working memory difficulties might not be specific to SLI but represent one of many risk factors that can compromise language learning. Our data is consistent with the position that a bilingual experience stimulates the development of cognitive control that is involved in dealing with conflicting information. Notably, our results indicate that mechanisms of cognitive control might be deficient in monolingual but not in bilingual children with SLI raising the possibility that bilingualism might represent a protective factor against some of the cognitive limitations in SLI. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language Minority Children with an Immigrant Background
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Baldassi, Martin; Puglisi, Marina et al

Scientific Conference (2014, July 03)

The study explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language minority children. Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant ... [more ▼]

The study explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language minority children. Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first- and second-language vocabulary (comprehension and production), executive-loaded working memory (counting recall and backward digit recall), and verbal short-term memory (digit recall and nonword repetition). Cross-linguistic task performance was compared within individuals. The language minority children were also compared with multilingual language majority children from Luxembourg and Portuguese-speaking monolinguals from Brazil without an immigrant background matched on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and nonverbal reasoning. Results showed that (a) verbal working memory measures involving numerical memoranda were relatively independent of test language and cultural status; (b) language status had an impact on the repetition of high- but not on low-wordlike L2 nonwords; (c) large cross-linguistic and cross-cultural effects emerged for productive vocabulary; (d) cross-cultural effects were less pronounced for vocabulary comprehension with no differences between groups if only L1-words relevant to the home context were considered. The study indicates that linguistic and cognitive assessments for language minority children require careful choice among measures to ensure valid results. Implications for testing culturally and linguistically diverse children are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailExecutive functioning and reading achievement in school: a study of Brazilian children assessed by their teachers as “poor readers”
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Abreu, Neander; Nikaedo, Carolina et al

in Frontiers in Psychology [=FPSYG] (2014), 5

This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A ... [more ▼]

This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A particular focus was to explore the executive function profile of children whose classroom reading performance was judged below standard by their teachers and who were matched to controls on chronological age, sex, school type (private or public), domicile (Salvador/BA or São Paulo/SP) and socioeconomic status. Children completed a battery of 12 executive function tasks that were conceptual tapping cognitive flexibility, working memory, inhibition and selective attention. Each executive function domain was assessed by several tasks. Principal component analysis extracted four factors that were labeled “Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility,” “Interference Suppression,” “Selective Attention,” and “Response Inhibition.” Individual differences in executive functioning components made differential contributions to early reading achievement. The Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility factor emerged as the best predictor of reading. Group comparisons on computed factor scores showed that struggling readers displayed limitations in Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, but not in other executive function components, compared to more skilled readers. These results validate the account that working memory capacity provides a crucial building block for the development of early literacy skills and extends it to a population of early readers of Portuguese from Brazil. The study suggests that deficits in working memory/cognitive flexibility might represent one contributing factor to reading difficulties in early readers. This might have important implications for how educators might intervene with children at risk of academic under achievement. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific language impairment in language minority children from low-income families
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Cruz-Santos, Anabela; Puglisi, Marina

in Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology (2014, May), 56(S3), 7-23

Background: This study seeks to determine whether executive functioning represents an area of difficulty for bilingual children with SLI and if so, which specific executive processes are affected. Methods ... [more ▼]

Background: This study seeks to determine whether executive functioning represents an area of difficulty for bilingual children with SLI and if so, which specific executive processes are affected. Methods: The data from 81 eight-year-olds from the following groups was analyzed: (1) 15 Portuguese-Luxembourgish bilinguals from Luxembourg with an SLI diagnosis; (2) 33 typically developing Portuguese-Luxembourgish bilinguals from Luxembourg; (3) 33 typically developing Portuguese-speaking monolinguals from Portugal. Groups were matched on first language, ethnicity, chronological age, socioeconomic status, and nonverbal intelligence. Children completed tests tapping: expressive and receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, verbal and visuospatial working memory, selective attention and interference suppression. Results: The bilingual SLI group performed equally well to their typically developing peers on measures of visuospatial working memory but had lower scores than both control groups on tasks of verbal working memory. On measures of selective attention and interference suppression, typically developing children who were bilingual outperformed their monolingual counterparts. For selective attention, performance of the bilingual SLI group did not differ significantly from the controls. For interference suppression the bilingual SLI group performed significantly less well than typically developing bilinguals but not monolinguals. Discussion: The study indicates that although bilingual children with SLI do not demonstrate the same advantages in selective attention and interference suppression as typically developing bilinguals, they do not lag behind typically developing monolinguals in these domains of executive functioning. This finding raises the possibility that bilingualism might represent a protective factor against some of the cognitive limitations that are associated with SLI in monolinguals. [less ▲]

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