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See detailInklusive Bildung in der Schweiz: Zwischen globalen Normen und kantonalen Besonderheiten
Mejeh, Mathias; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Bildung & Erziehung (in press), 2018(4),

This paper discusses the institutionalization of inclusive education in Switzerland’s different regions. Various concepts of Neo-Institutionalism were applied to analyse institutional change in ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses the institutionalization of inclusive education in Switzerland’s different regions. Various concepts of Neo-Institutionalism were applied to analyse institutional change in Switzerland’s regionally-varying federal education systems. The key indicator is the school segregation rate of pupils in the 26 Kantone of Switzerland from 1999-2016. We find that inclusive education is differently understood and negotiated. In fact, no unified praxis across the Kantone follows from national inclusive education reforms. Between the global norm of inclusive education as a human right and the incremental, path-dependent change of complex education systems with their highly differentiated special education programs, we find not only mechanisms of decoupling, but also persistent educational inequalities. Evident in the paradoxical increase of segregation in some Kantone, we find no convergence towards inclusion across Switzerland’s regions. [less ▲]

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See detailDisability and Inequality in Educational Opportunities in Life Course Perspective
Powell, Justin J W UL; Pfahl, Lisa

in Becker, Rolf (Ed.) Research Handbook in Sociology of Education (in press)

Inclusive education has become a global norm, supported by the recognition of human rights, and now affects education policymaking and system development worldwide. While important contributions in ... [more ▼]

Inclusive education has become a global norm, supported by the recognition of human rights, and now affects education policymaking and system development worldwide. While important contributions in sociological research on education, disability, and inequality exist, those in life course perspective and international comparative perspectives are rarer. Studies of educational opportunities of children and youth with disabilities and disadvantages over the past several decades underscore the lack of systematic approaches to facilitate educational and social inclusion. Within the educational research field, sociological approaches to disability, to special educational needs, and to inclusive education emphasize such dimensions as exclusion/inclusion, segregation/integration, learning opportunities, in/equality, institutionalization, stigma, risk, and certification or credentials. To recognize and understand the causes and consequences of disability-related inequality requires in-depth dialogue and benefits from results of studies on different levels and within diverse cultural contexts. This article provides insights into disability and inequality in educational opportunities across Europe and an overview of research topics, results, and gaps. The sociology of education would increase its contribution were it to be more inclusive in analyzing the processes that affect educational opportunities and life chances of those who experience disablement in schooling. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Notwendigkeit inklusiver Bildung für die Erneuerung der Governancekonzepte: Deutschland und Luxemburg im Vergleich
Powell, Justin J W UL; Merz-Atalik, Kerstin

in Budde, Jürgen (Ed.) Inklusionsforschung im Spannungsfeld von Erziehungswissenschaft und Bildungspolitik (in press)

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung inklusiver Bildung – für Individuen und Gesellschaften gleichermaßen – wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteur*innen hervorgehoben sowie ... [more ▼]

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung inklusiver Bildung – für Individuen und Gesellschaften gleichermaßen – wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteur*innen hervorgehoben sowie zunehmend auch wissenschaftlich multidisziplinär diskutiert. Fragen der Steuerung, der Governance, hingegen, sind bisher im deutschsprachigen Raum nur wenig systematisch oder umfassend analysiert worden, obwohl mehrere Wissenschaftsdisziplinen sich zunehmend mit diesen Fragen auseinandersetzen. Während politikwissenschaftliche Analysen die Machtstrukturen, Pfadabhängigkeiten und Entscheidungsprozesse fokussieren haben soziologische Analysen die globale Diffusion von Diskursen und Normen sowie systembedingte Komplexitäten und Umsetzungsschwierigkeiten vielfältiger Reformen verdeutlicht. Die Erziehungswissenschaft, nicht nur in der deutsch-sprachigen Welt, hat sich lange Zeit schwer getan, sich eindeutig zu den brisanten bildungs- als auch sozialpolitischen Fragen der inklusiven Bildung – auch die zentrale Frage der Governance – zu positionieren, weil es das fundamentale Verhältnis von Allgemeiner und Sonderpädagogik hinterfragt sowie in letzter Konsequenz die Transformation des gegliederten und hochgradig selektiven Bildungswesen verlangt. Dieser Band beleuchtet eben dieses Spannungsverhältnis aus verschiedenen Perspektiven; in diesem Beitrag wird deshalb versucht, verschiedene Dimensionen der Governance auf der Forschungsagenda zu platzieren, wie auch in zwei konkreten Fällen – Deutschland und Luxemburg – zu vertiefen. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Education and the Exponential Rise of Science: Competition and Collaboration
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Scott, Robert; Buchmann, Marlis (Eds.) Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences (in press)

How we collaborate and compete to find solutions to the problems and challenges of our age vastly impacts our individual and group success and well-being. Interdependent, the institutions of education and ... [more ▼]

How we collaborate and compete to find solutions to the problems and challenges of our age vastly impacts our individual and group success and well-being. Interdependent, the institutions of education and science have dramatically expanded. Today, scientists in nearly all countries contribute to our shared stores of knowledge, with research universities the driving force behind unexpected pure exponential growth in scientific production. Competition—regional, national, organizational, and individual—has become more potent—with performance measures, comparative indicators, and formal evaluations continuously generated and used in decision-making. Simultaneously, collaboration across institutional, disciplinary, organizational, and cultural boundaries expands the possibilities of discovery and produces the most influential science. Competition and collaboration at the nexus of higher education and science demand enhanced attention as they shape the future of scientific innovation and production, with its understudied yet increasingly incontrovertible effects on individuals and societies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe New Institutionalism in Higher Education
Meyer, Heinz-Dieter; Powell, Justin J W UL

in David, M.E.; Amey, M.J. (Eds.) SAGE Encyclopedia of Higher Education (in press)

countries. It views educational institutions as a key producer of social cohesion by supplying the shared beliefs that generate shared cultural meanings. To most institutionalists, education (schools ... [more ▼]

countries. It views educational institutions as a key producer of social cohesion by supplying the shared beliefs that generate shared cultural meanings. To most institutionalists, education (schools, colleges, universities, but also home schooling, religious, and informal education) stands out as one of only a handful of key social institutions next to the family, the economy, religion, science, and government. Higher education takes its place in this nexus of institutions, as it globally expands in size and grows in strategic importance. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Global Triumph of the Research University: A Driving Force of Science Production
Baker, David P.; Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Powell, Justin J W UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

The demand for higher education in countries around the world has never been higher. This increase in education levels has generated many benefits to society, including more knowledgeable citizens ... [more ▼]

The demand for higher education in countries around the world has never been higher. This increase in education levels has generated many benefits to society, including more knowledgeable citizens, advanced economies, and enhanced longevity. We have also seen countries and universities invest heavily in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), including health (STEM+) research and scientific output. This has resulted in unexpected pure exponential growth in science production around the world. Increased competition, as well as boundary-spanning collaborations, drive unprecedented scientific advancement and technological innovation. In a book entitled The Century of Science: The Global Triumph of the Research University, we explore global scientific developments from the early 20th century to today. University-based research, especially, has risen globally to become the driving force of science production in STEM+ fields. Universities, with their multiple missions of research, teaching, and public service, are uniquely positioned to contribute to scientific output while simultaneously producing the next generation of scientists. [less ▲]

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See detailThe RAE/REF have engendered evaluation selectivity and strategic behaviour, reinforced scientific norms, and further stratified UK higher education
Marques, Marcelo UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Zapp, Mike UL et al

Article for general public (2018)

The UK’s periodic research assessment exercise has grown larger and more formalised since its first iteration in 1986. Marcelo Marques, Justin J.W. Powell, Mike Zapp and Gert Biesta have examined what ... [more ▼]

The UK’s periodic research assessment exercise has grown larger and more formalised since its first iteration in 1986. Marcelo Marques, Justin J.W. Powell, Mike Zapp and Gert Biesta have examined what effects it has had on the submitting behaviour of institutions, considering the intended and unintended consequences in the field of education research. Findings reveal growing strategic behaviour, including high selectivity of submitted staff, the reinforcement of scientific norms with respect to the format and methodological orientation of submitted research outputs, and an explicit concentration of funding. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Ideenfabrik. Universitäten als Produzenten von Wissen
Zimmermann, Julia Maria; Powell, Justin J W UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL

Article for general public (2018)

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See detailAwareness-raising, Legitimation or Backlash? Effects of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on Education Systems in Germany
Powell, Justin J W UL; Edelstein, Benjamin; Blanck, Jonna M.

in Resnik, Julia (Ed.) The Power of Numbers and Networks (2018)

Global discourse about human rights, education for all, and inclusive education has altered social norms relating to dis/ability and schooling, especially through awareness-raising, by legitimating ... [more ▼]

Global discourse about human rights, education for all, and inclusive education has altered social norms relating to dis/ability and schooling, especially through awareness-raising, by legitimating advocates' positions and by facilitating policy reforms. Affected by societal and educational change, special education systems and their participants have also transformed societies. Widespread recognition of education's impact--and of institutionalised discrimination that disabled pupils face--galvanises contemporary debates. If special education successfully provided learning opportunities to previously excluded pupils, the goal has shifted to inclusive education. In such settings, all children, regardless of their characteristics, attend neighbourhood schools where they are supported to reach their individual learning goals in diverse classrooms. This global ideal has gained legitimacy, as most countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN-CRPD), which mandates inclusive education, specifying facilitated access and meaningful educational opportunities. This has considerable implications for all learners. Examining the effects of the UN-CRPD in Germany, one of the most highly stratified and segregated education systems in Europe, provides a hard test case of the (potential) impact of this international charter on national education systems. To meet its mandate, Germany's 16 states ("Bundesländer") would have to radically reform their education systems, whose segregated structures remain antithetical to inclusive education. Examining education policy reform processes since the 1970s, we find contrasting path-dependent reactions: In Schleswig-Holstein, inclusive education has diffused broadly and attained broad legitimacy, but in Bavaria its development has stalled; school segregation remains pervasive. Below national level, the UN-CRPD's potential to affect the pace and scope of change depends considerably on the structures in place at ratification. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of Meyer, Heinz-Dieter (2017): The Design of the University: German, American, and “World Class”. Abingdon: Routledge
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Comparative Education Review (2018), 62(3), 451-454

By and large, we take our universities for granted. Indeed, the oldest have outlived political regimes of all kinds. This stimulating historical and comparative study exemplifies the importance of in ... [more ▼]

By and large, we take our universities for granted. Indeed, the oldest have outlived political regimes of all kinds. This stimulating historical and comparative study exemplifies the importance of in-depth experience and engagement with the cultural and structural environments in which some of the world’s greatest universities have over centuries incrementally developed and been embedded. This is crucial if we hope to understand the sources of their authority and myriad contributions to scientific knowledge and human flourishing. A neo-institutionalist scholar and multicultural citizen who fruitfully contributes to dialogues exploring core institutions in education and society on both sides of the Atlantic, Heinz-Dieter Meyer is uniquely placed to grapple with the complex processes of institutional learning and design that have made the German and American universities among the globally most productive. He also shows how they have influenced each other via the complex, yet crucial flows of inspired scholars and students carrying key idea(l)s with them for interpretation and application back home. The contributions of key actors, but also the outcomes of choices at critical junctures, such as the failure to establish a national state-funded university in the United States, take center stage in this engaging account of how the leaders of American universities adapted the German model, joining diverse concepts to design what has become the greatest uni-versity system in the world, yet one that remains nearly impossible to emulate due to the unique constellation of actors and institutional environment in which it developed. In eighteen chapters in four parts, The Design of the University: German, American, and “World Class” takes us from Göttingen and Berlin to Boston and to the world level as the scientific enterprise—and competition between scientists and the most crucial organizational form in which they conduct their experiments and make their arguments, the research university—becomes ever more global. Contributing to and inviting debate, Meyer’s main argument is that the American university has suc-ceeded based upon an institutional design—or, perhaps, a non-design—that on multiple levels facil-itates self-government and the identification of a niche within an extraordinarily large and differen-tiated higher education system. This is not a full-fledged historiographic treatment of a subject fa-vored by academics (permanently searching for reputational gains) and policymakers (as they in-creasingly launch research funding programs and evaluation systems to foster competition). Rather than a full-fledged sociology of science, this book creatively sketches the trajectories of German and American university development, emphasizing affinities as well as crucial differences, to ulti-mately argue that in fact “Humboldt’s most important ideas flourished in the American atmosphere of unrestricted institutional experimentation and vigorous self-government” (xiii). Interrogating what he calls the “design thinking” of eminent thinkers Adam Smith and Wilhelm von Humboldt, among others, Meyer traces the challenging, complex, and contingent learning processes in the adaptation of the German research university model to the American context, eventually becoming the most differentiated and “world-class” higher education system in the world. Asking about the reasons for the American university’s success, especially in comparison to the recent insti-tutional crisis of the German research university, albeit still extraordinarily productive, Meyer argues that this American meritocratic success story has institutional design (of self-government) at its heart. Enjoying the patronage of not one, but three major institutions—state, church, and market—the American university attained true autonomy and global preeminence through unparalleled wealth of patronage and an intricate system of checks and balances. In this line of argument, chart-ing the ascendancy from humble origins of what can hardly be called a system due its extraordinary diversity, Meyer concurs with David Labaree (2017), who’s A Perfect Mess [1] is a highly-suitable com-panion piece grounded in the history of American higher education. Contemporary architects of higher education policy globally, driven by the fantasy of “world class” labels, Meyer warns, have completely underestimated the “institutional, social, and political prerequisites that excellence in research and teaching require” (p. 4). Meyer begins his treatise, appropriately, in Göttingen, the site of Georgia Augusta University, where many leaders of American higher education, first and foremost Boston Brahmin George Ticknor, learned by doing, ensconced in a cosmopolitan center of learning and intellectual enlightenment. The blueprint included professionalized scholarship, the unification of research and teaching in seminars and lectures, freedom to choose among academic offerings, a vast library of scientific knowledge, and academic standing based on perpetual production of cutting-edge research judged by peers (p. 19). Instead of Adam Smith’s preferred instruments of competition, choice, and tuition-dependence, Wilhelm von Humboldt’s “design revolution” proposed “three unities” whose powerful integration could surpass the utilitarian logic prevalent then and now: “teaching and research; scien-tific discovery and moral formation (Bildung); scholarly autonomy and scholarly community” (p. 40). The book’s second part, on institutional learning, charts the institutional migration of the blueprint; the contested design options of Gymnasium, college, and graduate school (the latter ultimately the key to global preeminence); the lasting influence of Protestantism (here Meyer follows the arguments of Max Weber, Robert K. Merton, and Joseph Ben-David) and extraordinary educational philanthropy; the battle between those who would centralize, by establishing a national university, and those committed to local control; and finally the contrasting answers to the eternal question of vocational-ism—e.g., how should business be treated, as a sibling to medicine and law or as their distant cousin? The more education-enamored, democratically-inclined patrician elites of the American East Coast were, Meyer argues, radically different institution-builders than German scholars, French state nobility, or even Chinese mandarins: “No other class combined their respect for, and grand vision of, the civilizing role of learning with their economic resources and the realism needed to put their plans into practice” (p. 113). Building on philosophical and historical elaboration, the book’s third part on achieving self-government discusses the six American moves leading to institutional innovation. At organizational level, the German chair and institute give way to departments and discipline, the university presi-dent is no longer figurehead but chief executive, and independent boards of trustees, not govern-ment officials, have ultimate authority. The implications for individuals and organizations of these “design shifts” cannot be overstated. Anyone seeking to understand American higher education, with its phenomenal vertical and horizontal differentiation and on-going academic drift (“a snake-like procession” as David Riesman, to whom the book is dedicated, calls it), and its self-organized autonomy—supported by many philanthropists without the limiting control of a few state bureau-crats—will find this analysis illuminating. Embedded in civil society, “vigorous self-government is the historic design contribution of the American university” (p. 209)—and an achievement that must be guarded in an era in which university autonomy is at risk. In concluding, Meyer’s American opti-mistic and laudatory tone shifts back to Germanic critique and foreboding, identifying challenges and the contemporary struggles that threaten the unintentional masterpiece of institutional learning and diversity. Such justified hopes and fears must now give way to empirical studies of the extraor-dinary outputs in terms of scientific production and societal capabilities and well-being brought about by the continuous process of university Bildung—in Germany, the United States, and around the world. [1] David Labaree (2017), A Perfect Mess: The Unlikely Ascendancy of American Higher Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigning the (Most) Mobile University: The Centrality of International Student Mobility in Luxembourg’s Higher Education Policy Discourse
Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia Alicja UL; Karl, Ute; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Higher Education Policy (2018), 31(online first), 1-24

The nexus of national educational and migration policies and international student mobility (ISM) in Europe becomes strikingly visible in Luxembourg. ISM is central for higher education policy in ... [more ▼]

The nexus of national educational and migration policies and international student mobility (ISM) in Europe becomes strikingly visible in Luxembourg. ISM is central for higher education policy in Luxembourg, but also for larger questions of social integration and economic development. Based on a discourse analysis of the political debates surrounding the foundation of the University of Luxembourg in 2003, we analyse how and why ISM became a cornerstone of higher education policy in Luxembourg. Our findings reveal that, on the one hand, incoming student mobility — and the establishment of an international research university — was and is seen as a means of competing for the best and brightest, regionally and globally, and of securing human resources to satisfy a booming, internationalised labour market. On the other hand, outgoing student mobility has traditionally been viewed as the main mechanism to establish international networks across Europe and foster elites back home. Both incoming and outgoing mobility are thought necessary to establish and maintain a competitive and sustainable knowledge economy. Reconstructing the underlying rationales behind the support for ISM as the key to higher education policy, we explain why Luxembourg currently has the highest proportion of ISM worldwide. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Education Systems and Institutions, Luxembourg
Harmsen, Robert UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Shin, J.C.; Teixeira, P. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions (2018)

Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany, Luxembourg is one of the three main seats of the European Union’s institutions. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg sits at the crossroads between Europe’s Germanic and ... [more ▼]

Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany, Luxembourg is one of the three main seats of the European Union’s institutions. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg sits at the crossroads between Europe’s Germanic and Francophone language communities. The country has experienced remarkable migratory flows, resulting in an ethnically hyper-diverse and multilingual population. Reflecting this cultural diversity, the educational system at all levels emphasizes language learning. Historically an agrarian society, a century ago it developed a very strong steelmaking industry and over the past decades has witnessed extraordinary growth in its financial services sector. Established to broaden the economic bases of the country, thus reducing overreliance on the steel and banking industries, yet against considerable pecuniary and ideological resistance, the national flagship University of Luxembourg (UL) was founded in 2003 upon initiative of a small group of elite decisionmakers. As a private, government-dependent institution (établissement public) directed by a Board of Governors (Conseil de Gouvernance), the university’s major funding is provided by the state, although its third-party funding has increased rapidly and substantially. Ironically, while spatial mobility is everywhere supported, Luxembourg has invested considerable capital and strategic planning in establishing its own national university. It aims to compete globally by concentrating its intellectual and financial resources and by building on the country’s strengths and priorities. The state took this ambitious step in scientific capacity-building in founding a research-oriented university, in so doing also providing a stay-at-home alternative for Luxembourg’s youth, traditionally educated abroad. The long-standing custom of educating elites in other countries was ostensibly justified by the establishment of cosmopolitan, Europe-wide networks. Today, rising international competition and supranational coordination have increased pressure on Luxembourg to grow its higher education system and thus also foster educational and scientific innovation. The University provides a means to diversify the economy and to integrate citizens from diverse cultural background, while the polity remains dominated by local elites. Oriented towards the Grand Duchy’s unique context—small size, but simultaneously flourishing center of European governance and international business—the University was founded upon the principles of internationality, multilingualism, and interdisciplinarity. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Educational Research (Re)Constructed
Zapp, Mike UL; Marques, Marcelo UL; Powell, Justin J W UL et al

Book published by Symposium Books - First Edition (2018)

This book examines contemporary educational research and its governance, addressing key questions via a multidisciplinary theoretical framework of comparative institutional analysis with original data and ... [more ▼]

This book examines contemporary educational research and its governance, addressing key questions via a multidisciplinary theoretical framework of comparative institutional analysis with original data and applying multiple methods. The authors explore and explain important changes in the governance of educational research and the contents of scholarship in education and related disciplines across Europe since the 1990s. This volume synthesizes findings from a multi-year comparative research project, including in-depth empirical case studies of three distinct educational research cultures evolving in Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom. The authors reconstruct and compare changing conceptualizations of educational research, embedded in increasingly internationalized contexts of research, and examine shifts in its governance, including patterns of funding, publication, and evaluation. They examine the producers of European educational research and the distinct role of the European Union in constructing a European Educational Research Area, in establishing cross-border networks, and in (re)shaping educational research agendas. Through innovative empirical analysis of programs of research on various levels and education researchers’ collaborations in scientific networks, they provide insights into (supra)national dynamics in education-related scholarship. Theory-guided content analysis of research projects funded by leading national funding agencies and by the most highly developed supranational research funding instrument – the EU Framework Programme – enables the authors to embed findings on Germany, the United Kingdom, and Norway in a broader European perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailSchulische Inklusion in Deutschland, Luxemburg und der Schweiz: Aktuelle Bedingungen und Herausforderungen
Powell, Justin J W UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Rathmann, Katharina; Hurrelmann, Klaus (Eds.) Leistung und Wohlbefinden in der Schule: Herausforderung Inklusion (2018)

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung Inklusiver Bildung – für Individuen und Gesellschaften gleichermaßen – wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteurinnen und Akteuren ... [more ▼]

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung Inklusiver Bildung – für Individuen und Gesellschaften gleichermaßen – wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteurinnen und Akteuren hervorgehoben sowie zunehmend auch wissenschaftlich multidisziplinär diskutiert. Inklusive schulische Bildung wird hinsichtlich der Merkmale des Zugangs und der Anwesenheit, der Beteiligung am Unterricht sowie der Teilhabe in Schulaktivitäten sowie in Bezug auf die Lernleistung, respektive deren Zertifizierung, bewertet. Aber auch Aspekte wie Wohlbefinden, Gleichstellung und soziale Integration werden zunehmend thematisiert. Der globale Diskurs um Inklusive Bildung als Menschenrecht geht über die Schulbildung hinaus und betrachtet auch die Hochschulbildung sowie lebenslanges Lernen. Inter- wie intranational werden vergleichende Analysen und Länderberichte immer wichtiger, um den Stand der schulischen Inklusion, der individuellen Verwirklichungschancen sowie der gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe von benachteiligten und behinderten Menschen zu messen. Innerhalb der räumlichen Vielfalt der inklusiven Bildung und sonderpädagogischer Fördersysteme finden sich vielfältige Barrieren, aber auch Katalysatoren inklusiver Bildungsreformen. Die Institutionalisierung sonderpädagogischer Fördersysteme in den deutschsprachigen Ländern, insbesondere über die zweite Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts, als isolierten eigenständigen und differenzierten Teil des Bildungssystems, stellt heutige Ziele inklusiver Bildungsreformen vor große Herausforderungen. In den drei hier untersuchten Ländern stellt Deutschland das differenzierteste und auch am stärksten segregierte System dar, dann folgt die Schweiz mit einem eher separativen Modell innerschulischer Differenzierung und schließlich Luxemburg als im Vergleich kleinstes Land, das aufgrund der spät begonnenen Etablierung von Sondereinrichtungen und seiner Kleinteiligkeit und seiner relativ hohen Schuldichte vergleichsweise günstige Ausgangsbedingungen für schulische Integration darstellt, allerdings – wie die beiden anderen Länder auch – durch die Mehrgliedrigkeit des Schulsystems und räumliche Segregation durch teilweise homogenisierte Lernumwelten gekennzeichnet ist. [less ▲]

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See detailInclusive Education: Entwicklungen im internationalen Vergleich
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Sturm, Tanja; Wagner-Willi, Monika (Eds.) Handbuch Schulische Inklusion (2018)

Global, national und lokal wird die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung formaler Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen – und hier auch diejenigen mit besonderem Förderbedarf – hervorgehoben. Durch ... [more ▼]

Global, national und lokal wird die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung formaler Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen – und hier auch diejenigen mit besonderem Förderbedarf – hervorgehoben. Durch Initiativen wie „Education for All“ (UNESCO 2015) sowie die UN-Konvention über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderung (UN-BRK, seit 2006), welche inklusive Bildung als Menschenrecht verankert, werden die Themen Inklusion und Sonderpädagogik zunehmend in Bildungspolitik und -praxis weltweit aufgegriffen. Trotz der unbestreitbaren Erfolge in den Bemühungen, allen Kindern den Zugang zu Bildung zu ermöglichen – und somit die schulische Exklusion zu reduzieren –, ist die vollständige schulische Inklusion aller Schülerinnen und Schüler weltweit eine Herausforderung geblieben. Selbst in den nordischen Ländern (Dänemark, Finnland, Island, Norwegen und Schweden), welche vergleichsweise fortgeschrittene inklusive Bildungssysteme etabliert haben, wird inklusive Bildung eher als Prozess und Ziel denn als erreichter Status betrachtet. Wie die Ausweitung des Zugangs zu formalisierter Bildung insgesamt, vollzieht sich der Übergang von Exklusion zu Inklusion im Hinblick auf die Förderorte graduell. In vielen Ländern wird sonderpädagogische Unterstützung in verschiedenen Organisationsformen angeboten, entlang eines Kontinuums von Segregation (Unterricht in unterschiedlichen Gebäuden), über Separation (Unterricht im selben Schulgebäude aber in unterschiedlichen Räumen) und Integration (teilweise gemeinsamer Unterricht) hin zu vollständiger Inklusion (umfassender gemeinsamer Unterricht). Die Überwindung organisationaler Exklusion – in vielen Teilen der Welt noch die alltägliche Realität für Kinder oder Jugendliche mit wahrgenommenen Beeinträchtigungen und Behinderungen – ist demnach nur der erste Schritt hin zur größtmöglichen Teilhabe an formal organisierten Lernmöglichkeiten. [less ▲]

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See detailChancen und Barrieren Inklusiver Bildung im Vergleich: Lernen von Anderen
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Schriftenreihe Eine für Alle — Die inklusive Schule für die Demokratie (2018), 3

Das Menschenrecht auf Inklusive Bildung als globale Norm – und als Thema der Bildungsforschung in Deutschland. Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung Inklusiver Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen wird ... [more ▼]

Das Menschenrecht auf Inklusive Bildung als globale Norm – und als Thema der Bildungsforschung in Deutschland. Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung Inklusiver Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteur*innen hervorgehoben und medial sehr breit rezipiert—und zunehmend auch wissenschaftlich multidisziplinär diskutiert. Durch Initiativen wie „Education for All“ (UNESCO, 2015), die Konvention über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderung der Vereinten Nationen (UN-BRK, seit 2006), welche inklusive Bildung als Menschenrecht verankert, oder die UN Millennium Development Goals (www.un.org/millenniumgoals) wird das Thema Inklusion verstärkt in Bildungspolitik und -praxis aufgegriffen. Innerhalb einer Dekade haben über 170 Länder die UN-BRK ratifiziert (United Nations, 2017). Artikel 24 definiert Inklusive Bildung als Menschenrecht: „Die Vertragsstaaten (sichern)... den Zugang zu einem inklusiven, hochwertigen und unentgeltlichen Unterricht“ (Art. 24, UN-BRK). Damit wird inklusive Bildung zur globalen Norm und zum einklagbaren Recht entlang des Lebenslaufs. In diesem Beitrag wird anhand ausgewählter Vergleiche aufgezeigt, wie sich die Expansion und Persistenz der schulischen Segregation anstatt der Ausweitung der Inklusion vollzieht. Dabei wurde ein langsamer Wandel statt Transformation dieser komplexen Bildungssysteme konstatiert. Im Ländervergleich wurden immer wieder markante Divergenzen festgestellt, wonach die unterschiedlichen „institutionellen Logiken“ dieser Systeme sichtbar wurden. Abschließend lässt sich festhalten, dass die Förderquote wohl weiter steigen wird wegen größerem Bedarf (oder wahrgenommenen Förderbedarfs), erhöhter Standards und gesteigerter Rechenschaftspflicht als Teile der Governance von Bildung. Sonderpädagogische Förderung nimmt seit Jahrzehnten weltweit zu, oft in Sonderschulen oder -klassen. Es mag paradox erscheinen, dass gleichzeitig sowohl segregierende als auch inklusive Lernumwelten expandieren. Der Grund: Die Verflechtung und Wechselwirkungen zwischen sonderpädagogischen Fördersystemen, allgemeiner Bildung und anderen Institutionen sowie die Interessen der beteiligten Professionen verhindern die Transformation hin zur schulischen Inklusion für alle. Gleichzeitig schreitet dennoch auch in den Bildungssystemen, die hochgradig selektiv und segregiert sind, Inklusive Bildung voran. Vergleichende Forschung verdeutlicht vielfältige Grenzen, aber auch Facilitatoren der Inklusion auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen. Die Ratifizierung der UN-BRK in Deutschland hat die Notwendigkeit unterstrichen, die Bildungssysteme auf Länder- und lokaler Ebene umzubauen und den Wandel zu erforschen. Die UN-BRK stärkt Advokaten der Inklusiven Bildung nachhaltig. Auch aufgrund des Bil- dungsföderalismus wird die Implementierung weiterhin ein schrittweiser, pfadabhängiger Prozess und keine fundamentale Transformation sein. Gerade in föderalen Ländern wie Deutschland und den USA gibt es eine Persistenz einzelstaatlicher Disparitäten trotz (inter-)nationaler Ziele, Normen und völkerrechtlicher Verträge, die es weiter zu untersuchen und zu implementieren gilt. Die Chance, die solche Systeme bieten, ist die Kontrastierung der diversen Pfade hin zur Inklusiven Bildung und die Chance zur Politik der Vielfalt, die zu einer Schule für alle und zur Pädagogik der Vielfalt passt. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher level vocational education: The route to high skills and productivity as well as greater equity? An international comparative analysis
Bathmaker, Ann-Marie; Graf, Lukas; Orr, Kevin et al

in Nägele, Christof; Stalder, Barbara E. (Eds.) Trends in Vocational Education and Training Research. Proceedings of the European Conference on Educational Re- search (ECER), Vocational Education and Training Network (VETNET) (2018)

This international comparative analysis of higher level vocational education examines developments across five countries: England, Germany, Australia, Canada, and the USA. The authors consider how current ... [more ▼]

This international comparative analysis of higher level vocational education examines developments across five countries: England, Germany, Australia, Canada, and the USA. The authors consider how current developments address two key policy concerns: an emphasis on high skills as a means of achieving economic competitiveness and raising productivity; and the promise of increasing access for students hitherto excluded from higher education. We address these questions in relation to specific country contexts, in order to highlight similarities and differences in developments within the European arena and in a wider global context. We locate our analyses in an understanding of the different political and socio-economic conditions within different countries, which render particular reforms and innovations both possible and realizable in one context, but almost unthinkable in another. We argue for the need to recognize and embrace diversity in provision, while using comparison across countries as a means of challenging taken-for-granted assumptions of how things are and what is possible within individual country contexts. Such comparative analysis is a prerequisite for answering questions of policy transfer and learning from others. [less ▲]

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See detail(Re)shaping Educational Research through ‘Programmification’: Institutional Expansion, Change, and Translation in Norway
Zapp, Mike UL; Helgetun, Jo B.; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Journal of Education (2018), 52

Educational research in Norway has experienced unprecedented structural expansion as well as cognitive shifts over the past two decades, especially due to increased state investments and the strategic use ... [more ▼]

Educational research in Norway has experienced unprecedented structural expansion as well as cognitive shifts over the past two decades, especially due to increased state investments and the strategic use of extensive and multi-year thematic programs to fund research projects. Applying a neo-institutionalist framework, we examine institutionalization dynamics in cultural-cognitive, normative, and regulative dimensions over the past two decades using interviews, research program calls, policy documents, and funding data. In the cultural-cognitive dimension, we find references to the knowledge society, the importance of evidence in policy-making, and ideas of quality, excellence, and relevance. In the normative dimension, we find the introduction of new professional and methodological standards, reflecting broader global patterns of academic and epistemic drift. In the regulative dimension, the strengthened role of both government and the Research Council of Norway is manifest in substantial growth in both funding and large-scale, long-term planning, including thematic choices—evidence of ‘programification’. The importance of external models has grown in an era of internationalization, yet translation occurs at every level of governance of educational research. This results in a specific Norwegian research model, guided by a mode of governance of programs, that maintains social values traditionally strong in Nordic societies. [less ▲]

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See detailDisability Studies in the Universal Design University
Powell, Justin J W UL; Pfahl, Lisa

in Gertz, SunHee Kim; Huang, Betsy; Cyr, Lauren (Eds.) Diversity and Inclusion in Higher Education and Societal Contexts: International and Interdisciplinary Approaches (2018)

Universities are among the most durable and successful institutions globally. However, inclusive higher education remains an elusive goal, despite the worldwide ratification of the UN Convention on the ... [more ▼]

Universities are among the most durable and successful institutions globally. However, inclusive higher education remains an elusive goal, despite the worldwide ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities that mandates inclusive education throughout the life course—and thus increased access to universities. In many countries, universities attempt to implement elements of a universal design university, built to serve diverse student bodies, that will be more fully inclusive. To do so, universities must implement principles of universal design and inclusive education. Enhancing accessibility requires the removal of myriad cultural and structural barriers and reduced ableism in the academy itself. In embracing social and political paradigms of disability, especially through the multidisciplinary field of dis/ability studies, universities can give voice to diverse participants as they engage and change awareness and attitudes. This contribution addresses both activities that facilitate the development of dis/ability studies and barriers that hinder its (multi)disciplinary flourishing. In contemporary developments in the German-speaking countries—Austria, Germany, Luxembourg, and Switzerland—this multidisciplinary field engages intellectuals and activists to subversively cross disciplinary, institutional, and political divides. Relying on collaboration among members of the disability (rights) movement, advocates, and academics to develop its subversive status, the field emphasizes the subversive status necessary to realize inclusive higher education in the universal design university. [less ▲]

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