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See detailThe European Center of Science Productivity: Research Universities and Institutes in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom
Powell, Justin J W UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL

in Powell, Justin J W; Baker, David P; Fernandez, Frank (Eds.) The Century of Science: The Global Triumph of the Research University (in press)

Growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century resulted significantly from three major countries in European science—France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. We chart the development of ... [more ▼]

Growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century resulted significantly from three major countries in European science—France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. We chart the development of universities and research institutes that bolster Europe’s key position in global science. We uncover both stable and dynamic patterns of productivity in the fields of STEM, including health, over the twentieth century. On-going internationalization of higher education and science has been accompanied by increasing competition and collaboration. Despite policy goals to foster innovation and expand research capacity, policies cannot fully account for the differential growth of scientific productivity we chart from 1975 to 2010. Our neoinstitutional framework facilitates explanation of differences in institutional settings, organizational forms, and organizations that produce the most European research. We measure growth of published peer-reviewed articles indexed in Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE). Organizational forms vary in their contributions, with universities accounting for nearly half but rising in France; ultrastable in Germany at four-fifths, and growing at around two-thirds in the UK. Differing institutionalization pathways created the conditions necessary for continuous, but varying growth in scientific productivity in the European center of global science. The research university is central in all three countries, and we identify organizations leading in research output. Few analyses explicitly compare across time, space, and different levels of analysis. We show how important European science has been to overall global science productivity. In-depth comparisons, especially the organizational fields and forms in which science is produced, are crucial if policy is to support research and development. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Century of Science: The Global Triumph of the Research University
Powell, Justin J W UL; Baker, David P.; Fernandez, Frank

Book published by Emerald (in press)

In The Century of Science, a multicultural, international team of authors examines the global rise of scholarly research in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and health (STEM+) fields. At the ... [more ▼]

In The Century of Science, a multicultural, international team of authors examines the global rise of scholarly research in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and health (STEM+) fields. At the beginning of the 20th century, the global center-point of scientific productivity was about half way between Western Europe and the U.S., in the North Atlantic. Then, the center moved steadily westward and slightly southward—reflecting the burgeoning science capacity of the U.S. supported by America’s thriving public and private universities, technological innovation, and overall economic growth. After WWII, this began to change as the course of the world’s scientific center of gravity turned and for the next 70 years traveled eastward, the direction it still travels, especially due to the rise of China and other prolific East Asian countries, such as Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. Europe continues to be the center of global science. Focusing on these developments, this volume provides historical and sociological understandings of the ways that higher education has become an institution that, more than ever before, shapes science and society. Case studies, supported by the most historically and spatially extensive database on STEM+ publications available, of selected countries in Europe, North America, East Asia, and the Middle East, emphasize recurring themes: the institutionalization and differentiation of higher education systems to the proliferation of university-based scientific research fostered by research policies that support continued university expansion leading to the knowledge society. Growing worldwide, research universities appear to be the most legitimate sites for knowledge production. Countries like France, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Japan began the 20th century with prerequisites in place to realize the emerging model of university-based research. Over the past several decades, China, South Korea, and Taiwan, with different historical legacies and conflicts in education and research policy, have witnessed explosive growth, sustained by public and private funds. Qatar recently embarked on an ambitious government-driven effort to develop a world-class university sector and cultivate academic STEM+ research from scratch. These more recent entrants to the global scientific enterprise pose the question whether it is possible to leapfrog across decades, or even centuries, of cultivating university systems, to compete globally. Simultaneously with international and regional competition, world-leading science increasingly implies collaboration across cultural and political borders as global scientific production and networking continue to rise exponentially. This volume’s case studies offer new insights into how countries develop the university-based knowledge thought fundamental to meeting social needs and economic demands. Despite repeated warnings that universities would lose in relevance to other organizational forms in the production of knowledge, our findings demonstrate incontrovertibly that universities have become more—not less—important actors in the world of knowledge. The past hundred years have seen the global triumph of the research university. [less ▲]

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See detailDis/Ability Studies in the Universal Design University
Powell, Justin J W UL; Pfahl, Lisa

in Gertz, SunHee; Huang, Betsy; Cyr, Lauren (Eds.) Diversity and Inclusion in Higher Education and Societal Contexts: International and Interdisciplinary Approaches (in press)

Universities are among the most durable and successful institutions globally. However, inclusive higher education remains an elusive goal, despite the worldwide ratification of the UN Convention on the ... [more ▼]

Universities are among the most durable and successful institutions globally. However, inclusive higher education remains an elusive goal, despite the worldwide ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities that mandates inclusive education throughout the life course—and thus increased access to universities. In many countries, universities attempt to implement elements of a universal design university, built to serve diverse student bodies, that will be more fully inclusive. To do so, universities must implement principles of universal design and inclusive education. Enhancing accessibility requires the removal of myriad cultural and structural barriers and reduced ableism in the academy itself. In embracing social and political paradigms of disability, especially through the multidisciplinary field of dis/ability studies, universities can give voice to diverse participants as they engage and change awareness and attitudes. This contribution addresses both activities that facilitate the development of dis/ability studies and barriers that hinder its (multi)disciplinary flourishing. In contemporary developments in the German-speaking countries—Austria, Germany, Luxembourg, and Switzerland—this multidisciplinary field engages intellectuals and activists to subversively cross disciplinary, institutional, and political divides. Relying on collaboration among members of the disability (rights) movement, advocates, and academics to develop its subversive status, the field emphasizes the subversive status necessary to realize inclusive higher education in the universal design university. [less ▲]

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See detailResearch Organizations' Contributions to Science Productivity in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg
Powell, Justin J W UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL

in Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy (in press)

Charting significant growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century in four EU member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and ... [more ▼]

Charting significant growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century in four EU member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and research institutes that bolsters Europe’s position as a key region in global science. On-going internationalization and Europeanization of higher education and science has been accompanied by increasing competition as well as collaboration. Despite the political goals to foster innovation and further expand research capacity, in cross-national and historical comparison, neither the level of R&D investments nor country size accounts completely for the differential growth of scientific productivity. Based on a comprehensive historical database, this analysis uncovers both stable and dynamic patterns of productivity from 1975 to 2010 in Ger- many, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Measured in peer-reviewed research articles collected in Thomson Reuters Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we show the varying contributions of different organizational forms, especially research universities and research institutes. Comparing the institutionalization pathways that created the conditions necessary for continuous and strong growth in scientific productivity in the European center of global science emphasizes that the research university is key organizational form across countries. [less ▲]

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See detailInclusive Education: Entwicklungen im internationalen Vergleich
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Sturm, Tanja; Wagner-Willi, Monika (Eds.) Handbuch Schulische Inklusion (in press)

Global, national und lokal wird die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung formaler Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen – und hier auch diejenigen mit besonderem Förderbedarf – hervorgehoben. Durch ... [more ▼]

Global, national und lokal wird die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung formaler Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen – und hier auch diejenigen mit besonderem Förderbedarf – hervorgehoben. Durch Initiativen wie „Education for All“ (UNESCO 2015) sowie die UN-Konvention über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderung (UN-BRK, seit 2006), welche inklusive Bildung als Menschenrecht verankert, werden die Themen Inklusion und Sonderpädagogik zunehmend in Bildungspolitik und -praxis weltweit aufgegriffen. Trotz der unbestreitbaren Erfolge in den Bemühungen, allen Kindern den Zugang zu Bildung zu ermöglichen – und somit die schulische Exklusion zu reduzieren –, ist die vollständige schulische Inklusion aller Schülerinnen und Schüler weltweit eine Herausforderung geblieben. Selbst in den nordischen Ländern (Dänemark, Finnland, Island, Norwegen und Schweden), welche vergleichsweise fortgeschrittene inklusive Bildungssysteme etabliert haben, wird inklusive Bildung eher als Prozess und Ziel denn als erreichter Status betrachtet. Wie die Ausweitung des Zugangs zu formalisierter Bildung insgesamt, vollzieht sich der Übergang von Exklusion zu Inklusion im Hinblick auf die Förderorte graduell. In vielen Ländern wird sonderpädagogische Unterstützung in verschiedenen Organisationsformen angeboten, entlang eines Kontinuums von Segregation (Unterricht in unterschiedlichen Gebäuden), über Separation (Unterricht im selben Schulgebäude aber in unterschiedlichen Räumen) und Integration (teilweise gemeinsamer Unterricht) hin zu vollständiger Inklusion (umfassender gemeinsamer Unterricht). Die Überwindung organisationaler Exklusion – in vielen Teilen der Welt noch die alltägliche Realität für Kinder oder Jugendliche mit wahrgenommenen Beeinträchtigungen und Behinderungen – ist demnach nur der erste Schritt hin zur größtmöglichen Teilhabe an formal organisierten Lernmöglichkeiten. [less ▲]

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See detailGrand Duchy of Luxembourg
Powell, Justin J W UL; Limbach-Reich, Arthur UL; Brendel, Michelle UL

in Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Patton, James R. (Eds.) The Praeger International Handbook of Special Education (in press)

Luxembourg, among the world’s smallest but also wealthiest countries, lies in the heart of Western Europe. Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany and historically known for its strategic position as the ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg, among the world’s smallest but also wealthiest countries, lies in the heart of Western Europe. Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany and historically known for its strategic position as the “Gibraltar of the North,” Luxembourg is today one of the European Union’s three capital cities. Luxembourg sits at the crossroads between Europe’s Germanic and Francophone language communities. The Grand Duchy’s inhabitants and their many languages – the national language Luxemburgish as well as German and French as languages of administration and of everyday living – reflect the country’s close historical relations with its neighbors and remarkable migratory flows that have resulted in an ethnically hyper-diverse and multilingual population. Reflecting this cultural diversity, the educational system emphasizes language learning, with Luxemburgish learned in preschool; German the focus throughout primary schooling and in secondary technical-vocational education; and French emphasized in secondary academic-oriented schooling. Compulsory schooling age lasts from 4 to 16. The educational system provides a range of primary and secondary schools, mainly run by government but with some maintained by religious bodies. Home schooling is possible, but rare. At the tertiary level, the national flagship University of Luxembourg (UL), building upon the legacies of several postsecondary training institutes, was founded in 2003 according to three principles: internationality, multilingualism, and interdisciplinarity. Beyond this research university, more applied postsecondary organizations offer a range of courses of study. Today, tertiary attainment for 25 to 34 year-olds, more than half of each cohort, is among the highest across OECD countries. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating International Student Mobility in Work-Based Higher Education: The Case of Germany
Graf, Lukas; Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann et al

in Journal of Studies in International Education (2017), online first

Dual study programs are hybrid forms of work-based higher education that have expanded very rapidly in Germany—a country traditionally considered a key model in both higher education (HE) and vocational ... [more ▼]

Dual study programs are hybrid forms of work-based higher education that have expanded very rapidly in Germany—a country traditionally considered a key model in both higher education (HE) and vocational education and training (VET). The continued expansion of these hybrid programs increasingly raises questions if, how, and why they may be internationalized. Although comparative research suggests that this could be challenging due to the uniqueness of the German education and training system, strong forces support internationalization. This study examines the current state and the future prospects of internationalization of such innovative dual study programs by focusing on student mobility, a key dimension of internationalization. We find growing interest in but still relatively little mobility related to dual study programs, whether among German (outgoing) or international (incoming) students. Based on expert interviews and document analysis, we extend existing typologies of student mobility regarding specific features of work-based HE programs. Furthermore, we discuss opportunities—at home and abroad—for increasing student mobility in this rapidly expanding sector. [less ▲]

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See detailMoving towards Mode 2? Evidence-based Policy-Making and the Changing Conditions for Educational Research in Germany
Zapp, Mike UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Science and Public Policy (2017), 2017(doi: 10.1093/scipol/scw091),

The ‘Mode 2’ conceptual approach has become among the most widely applied to discuss changes in contemporary science and innovation systems. Operationalized, this approach suggests that contextualized ... [more ▼]

The ‘Mode 2’ conceptual approach has become among the most widely applied to discuss changes in contemporary science and innovation systems. Operationalized, this approach suggests that contextualized, transdisciplinary, application-driven, reflexive, and high-quality scientific knowledge will be produced by an increasingly heterogeneous set of organizations, with universities no longer as dominant in knowledge production. Analyzing the case of educational research in Germany, which has undergone profound institutional and paradigmatic change since the turn of the century, allows us to ask to what extent the Mode 2 thesis holds. Considerable investments in ‘empirical’ educational research and the top-down setting of the research agenda have, we argue, fundamentally altered the research infrastructure of this increasingly diverse multidisciplinary field, challenging traditional humanities-based Pädagogik. Facilitated especially by waves of large-scale assessments of pupils’ school performance, the rapidly-growing ‘empirical’ educational research field is characterized by quantitative and policy-relevant (applied) knowledge claims. Finally, we identify risks associated with rapid and policy-induced shifts in educational research from Mode 1 to Mode 2. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Employer Interests and Investments Shape Advanced Skill Formation
Graf, Lukas; Powell, Justin J W UL

in PS: Political Science and Politics (2017), 50(2), 418-422

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See detailRäumliche Vielfalt der Inklusiven Bildung und sonderpädagogische Fördersysteme im Vergleich
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Gercke, Magdalena; Opalinski, Saskia; Thonagel, Tim (Eds.) Inklusive Bildung und gesellschaftliche Exklusion (2017)

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung inklusiver Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteur*innen hervorgehoben und medial sehr breit ... [more ▼]

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung inklusiver Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteur*innen hervorgehoben und medial sehr breit rezipiert – und zunehmend auch wissenschaftlich multidisziplinär diskutiert. Inklusive schulische Bildung kann in den Merkmalen des Zugangs und der Anwesenheit, der Beteiligung und der Teilhabe (Qualität der Lernerfahrungen aus Sicht der Lernenden) sowie in Bezug auf die Lernleistung, respektive deren Zertifizierung bewertet werden. Aber inklusive Bildung als Menschenrecht zu verstehen geht weit über die Schulbildung hinaus. Die globale Norm des Menschenrechts auf inklusive Bildung wird zunehmend spezifischer, dennoch bedarf es der Forschung, der Interpretation und der Implementation, was gerade in föderalistisch gesteuerten Bildungssystemen mit räumlichen Disparitäten einhergeht. Inter- wie intranational werden vergleichende Analysen und Länderberichte immer wichtiger, um den Stand nicht nur der schulischen Inklusion, sondern der individuellen Verwirklichungschancen sowie der gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe von benachteiligten und behinderten Menschen zu messen. Die räumliche Vielfalt der Inklusiven Bildung und sonderpädagogische Fördersysteme verdeutlicht vielfältige Grenzen, aber auch Gelingensbedingungen der Inklusion. [less ▲]

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See detailEurope’s Center of Science: Science Productivity in Belgium, France, Germany, and Luxembourg
Powell, Justin J W UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL

in EuropeNow (2016), 1(1),

European countries have increasingly invested in higher education and science systems, leading to rising numbers of scholars and scientists, considerable infrastructure development, and dense cross ... [more ▼]

European countries have increasingly invested in higher education and science systems, leading to rising numbers of scholars and scientists, considerable infrastructure development, and dense cross-cultural networks and collaboration. The result: significant growth in scientific output and productivity in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. For four EU member states in Western Europe of different size and institutionalization pathways of science, we assess the development and current state of universities and research institutes, and the resulting science output. We measure output in peer-reviewed research articles collected in Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE). Based on a comprehensive historical database, this comparison uncovers both stable and dynamic patterns of productivity from 1975 to 2010 in Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg.[1] This emphasizes different institutionalization pathways that created the conditions necessary for continuous, but varying growth in scientific productivity in the European center of global science. Today, these countries invest considerably in research and development (R&D) and in higher education, the smaller ones doing so through a single national research university (Luxembourg), or a set of strong research universities in different regions (Belgium’s language communities of Flanders and Wallonia). The two larger countries (France and Germany) maintain differentiated systems of universities—of varying size and prestige—and extra-university research institutes that are connected in large umbrella associations or coordinated by government agencies. Rising science productivity reflects considerable state investment, yet the impact of any individual scientific article remains difficult to measure. [less ▲]

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See detailInklusioun: Zesumme liewen, zesumme léieren
Brendel, Michelle UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

Computer development (2016)

This video features inspiring practices in inclusive education in Luxembourg, filmed on location between 2014 and 2016 in the École Jean Jaurès in Esch-sur-Alzette. Film directed by Anne Schiltz and Pol ... [more ▼]

This video features inspiring practices in inclusive education in Luxembourg, filmed on location between 2014 and 2016 in the École Jean Jaurès in Esch-sur-Alzette. Film directed by Anne Schiltz and Pol Linden (MENJE, DPAV). [less ▲]

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See detailStudieren und Barrierefreiheit: Stolpersteine auf dem Weg zur Barrierefreiheit und wie sie aus dem Weg geräumt werden könnten
Limbach-Reich, Arthur UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

Article for general public (2016)

Zusammenfassung in Leichter Sprache: Arthur Limbach-Reich und Justin Powell arbeiten an der Universität. Sie wollen, dass jeder etwas lernen kann. Deswegen soll die Uni für jeden auf sein. An der Uni ... [more ▼]

Zusammenfassung in Leichter Sprache: Arthur Limbach-Reich und Justin Powell arbeiten an der Universität. Sie wollen, dass jeder etwas lernen kann. Deswegen soll die Uni für jeden auf sein. An der Uni gibt es aber Barrieren. Deswegen kommt nicht jeder rein. Darüber schreiben beide Lehrer. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting young adults with special educational needs (SEN) in obtaining higher qualifications
Limbach-Reich, Arthur UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

Report (2016)

Supporting young adults with special educational needs in obtaining higher qualifications is an ambitious, desirable and noble project, occasionally labeled “university for all” or “full inclusion in ... [more ▼]

Supporting young adults with special educational needs in obtaining higher qualifications is an ambitious, desirable and noble project, occasionally labeled “university for all” or “full inclusion in higher education”. But there is a risk, that beyond inclusive rhetoric, universities persist in being perceived by national policymakers and also perceive themselves as elite organizatins, that is only accessible to highly educated and highly skilled persons that will be successful in labour market competition and so promise to recapitalize (increasingly high) investments in higher education. Not inclusion efforts and individuals with disabilities, but rather national economic growth and international competitiveness are in the centre of contemporary concerns, despite the worldwide ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and global acknowledgment of inclusive education as a human right. While some students with disabilities certainly do manage to adapt to the existing systems of higher education, especially when they receive reasonable accommodations they deserve, but there will be other students with more severe disabilities who may need more support to reach their individual learning goals and who may not promise to 'return' the invest. Yet not only those students with disabilities who are labeled as incompatible with employment remain persistently excluded from higher education. Having in mind this risk, the rhetoric of “university for all” has to be reconsidered. At the same time that many universities are seriously challenged by reductions in public funding, universal design principles diffuse worldwide, and the UN Convention mandates accessibility at all levels of learning, including higher education. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to Construct an Organizational Field: Empirical Educational Research in Germany, 1995–2015
Zapp, Mike UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Educational Research Journal (2016), 15(5), 537-557

Over the past two decades, educational research in Germany has undergone unprecedented changes. Following large-scale assessments such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS ... [more ▼]

Over the past two decades, educational research in Germany has undergone unprecedented changes. Following large-scale assessments such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and a political interest in evidence-based policy-making, quality assessment and internationalization, direct involvement of national decision-makers has led to the establishment of new organizations, programs, funding structures, professorships, and training programs. Thus, a markedly different educational research field has emerged in contrast to the traditional philosophy-rooted, hermeneutics-trained and humanities-based German pedagogy or education science. Instead, the new paradigm refers to itself as "empirical educational research" (EER). Thus, we trace institutionalization processes of EER from early 1995 through the foundation of the Empirical Educational Research Association (GEBF), which rivals the long-standing German Educational Research Association (DGfE). Official documents shed light on policymakers’ and funding agencies’ motivations and rationales as they successfully engage in building new research infrastructure. Expert interviews conducted with (inter)national representatives illuminate perceptions of crucial actors involved in field institutionalization. What are the causes and consequences of the emergent educational research in Germany? Extending the neo-institutionalist organizational field literature, particularly about incipient stages of such fields, we show that a new division of labor transcends national and international as well as governmental and non-governmental borders. [less ▲]

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See detailVon Ableismus zur universal design Universität
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Dannenbeck, Clemens; Dorrance, Carmen; Moldenhauer, Anna (Eds.) et al ]. In: Dannenbeck, C., C. Dorrance, A. Moldenhauer, A. Oehme & A. Platte (Eds.): Inklusionssensible Hochschule: Grundlagen, Ansätze und Konzepte für Hochschuldidaktik und Organisationsentwicklung (2016)

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See detail„Ich hoffe sehr, sehr stark, dass meine Kinder mal eine normale Schule besuchen können.“ Pädagogische Klassifikationen und ihre Folgen für die (Selbst-)Positionierung von Schüler/innen
Pfahl, Lisa; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogik (2016), 62(Beiheft 62), 58-74

Despite legal commitments to inclusion in education systems, the category learning disability is maintained almost “naturally” and hardly questioned, even by students. Yet, for decades, the purpose and ... [more ▼]

Despite legal commitments to inclusion in education systems, the category learning disability is maintained almost “naturally” and hardly questioned, even by students. Yet, for decades, the purpose and relevance of this and other categories and classifications of “special educational needs” and student disabilities have been fiercely discussed. Controversy is driven by the frequent stigmatization and abasement that follows classification, exacerbated by the persistent segregation practiced in Germany’s school system. This contribution investigates medical-pedagogical classifications that draw symbolic and social boundaries between individual students and groups even as they stabilize disciplinary and professional boundaries between “special” and “regular” education. These processes are investigated on the basis of a self-description given by a school-leaver who considers herself to have a “learning disability”. She positions herself very low in social hierarchies and has grave doubts regarding her life chances, and those of her potential children, as she transitions from schooling to the labor market. This perspective illustrates the biographical consequences of (negative) educational classification and emphasizes the need for a debate on classification practices in inclusive approaches to education reform. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxemburg als Weiterbildungs-Arena
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Zimmermann, Therese E.; Jütte, Wolfgang; Horváth, Franz (Eds.) Arenen der Weiterbildung (2016)

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See detailLuxembourg’s Expanding Higher Education System: Responding to Global Norms
Braband, Gangolf UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in International Higher Education (2016), (86), 27-28

Luxembourg has an expanding higher education system, with one of the youngest European national research universities at its center. The University of Luxembourg was founded, against local resistance, as ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg has an expanding higher education system, with one of the youngest European national research universities at its center. The University of Luxembourg was founded, against local resistance, as an elite institutional response to global norms and to the Europe-wide Bologna Process. [less ▲]

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