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Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in Llewellyn, C; Ayers, S; McManus, C (Eds.) et al Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health, & Medicine (in press)

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See detailTeacher expectations concerning students with immigrant background or special educational needs
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Glock, Sabine UL

in Journal of Educational Research and Evaluation (in press)

Male students with immigrant backgrounds are disproportionally referred for special educational support outside regular classrooms or schools, which may reflect differential teachers´ expectations ... [more ▼]

Male students with immigrant backgrounds are disproportionally referred for special educational support outside regular classrooms or schools, which may reflect differential teachers´ expectations concerning the academic achievement of students based on socio-demographic characteristics. Although research has indicated differential teachers´ expectations for students based on immigrant background or special educational needs (SEN), less is known about a possible double vulnerability associated with combined stereotypes. Therefore, in the current study both SEN and immigrant background were systematically varied and teachers were asked to rate the students´ academic achievement. Results show that teachers´ expectations of students with SEN and immigrant background was lower than for students without immigrant background, especially in regards to language proficiency. These results may help to explain the overrepresentation of students with immigrant background in special educational programs. The educational and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTeacher Attitudes towards Ethnic Minority Students: Effects of Schools´ Cultural Diversity
Glock, Sabine UL; Kovacs, Carrie UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in British Journal of Educational Psychology (2018), online first

Background: Research exploring mechanisms driving inequalities in school systems, has found that biased teacher judgments contribute to observed disadvantages for ethnic minority students. Teacher ... [more ▼]

Background: Research exploring mechanisms driving inequalities in school systems, has found that biased teacher judgments contribute to observed disadvantages for ethnic minority students. Teacher judgments may be driven by explicit and implicit attitudes. Aims: The current research explored the effect of cultural diversity at schools (actual or imagined) on teachers’ attitudes toward ethnic minority students. Samples: One hundred and-five preservice teachers (90 female) with a mean age 26.20 of years (teaching experience: 57.55 weeks) participated in Study 1. Two hundred and thirty-one teachers (159 female) with a mean age of 41.00 years (teaching experience: 12.92 years) participated Study 2. Method: Cultural diversity was operationalized via a fictive description of a school (Study 1) or via the actual proportion of ethnic minority students at the school (Study 2). An Implicit Association Test assessed implicit attitudes toward ethnic minority students. Explicit attitudes were assessed via questionnaire. Results: Preservice teachers imagining a more culturally diverse school held more negative implicit attitudes toward ethnic minority students than those imagining a less diverse school. In contrast, in-service teachers actually working in more diverse schools held less negative implicit attitudes toward minority students. Preservice teachers associated teaching in culturally diverse schools with increased effort, whereas in-service teachers actually working in culturally diverse schools reported more enthusiasm toward teaching ethnic minority students. Conclusions: This research shows the challenge and the negative stereotypes preservice teachers associate with culturally diverse schools, while inservice teachers’ negative associations may be buffered by the actual experience of working with ethnic minority students. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers´ attitudes towards inclusion: Effects of a training module
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krischler, Mireille Gilberte Pauline UL

Scientific Conference (2018, September 17)

The success of implementing inclusive practice depends on teachers´ competence as well as their attitudes. Attitudes are defined as psychological tendencies expressed by evaluating a particular entity ... [more ▼]

The success of implementing inclusive practice depends on teachers´ competence as well as their attitudes. Attitudes are defined as psychological tendencies expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor. Research has provided mixed results concerning teachers´ attitudes toward students with SEN and inclusive practice, whereby teachers generally have more positive attitudes toward the inclusion of students with mild SEN than toward students with complex needs. Training, especially modules focusing on the cognitive processes underlying judgment, can facilitate positive change in attitudes toward inclusion of students with SEN. In a pre–post-test design, data were collected for a sample of 33 experienced primary school teachers attending a course (2x4hr) on inclusion with a focus on the role of attitudes in decision-making and behavior. We assessed general attitudes toward the inclusion of students with SEN as well as teachers´ emotional reactions, stereotypes and behavioural intentions. Results of a repeated measures ANOVA, with time (pre vs. post) and general attitude toward inclusion (4 subscales) as within group factors only showed a main effect for attitudes, reflecting variations between the subscale scores. The training course did not result in changes in general attitudes. Further analyses revealed a positive pre-post course change in teachers´ emotional reactions concerning the inclusion of a student with SEN in their class. Teachers´ stereotype ratings indicated they perceived students with learning difficulties as less competent but warm, whereas students with challenging behavior were perceived as relatively competent but average in warmth. Finally, teachers´ behavioral intentions shifted from focusing on finding solutions within the classroom to more cooperation with colleagues, parents and experts to provide the best support for the student with SEN. In sum, the training course impacted both the affective and conative components of attitudes, whereas general attitudes toward inclusion remained unchanged. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in preservice teachers´ attitudes toward inclusion: the role of competence
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krischler, Mireille Gilberte Pauline UL

Scientific Conference (2018, September 13)

Following policies to promote a more equitable and inclusive educational system, the question arises how to prepare teachers to accommodate an increasingly heterogeneous student population. As teachers´ ... [more ▼]

Following policies to promote a more equitable and inclusive educational system, the question arises how to prepare teachers to accommodate an increasingly heterogeneous student population. As teachers´ competence concerning inclusion is grounded in their training (e.g. Baker-Ericzen et al. 2009), courses focussing on inclusion as an educational practice could reduce uncertainties (e.g. Carroll et al. 2003). However, inclusion not only depends on teachers´ competence but also on their attitudes. Teachers’ attitudes may be pivotal for the success of inclusive education as they can elicit differential expectations and behaviors, which can enhance or limit the successful inclusion of students with special educational needs (SEN). Avramidis and Norwich (2002) stressed the importance of training in the formation of positive attitudes toward the integration of students with SEN. Although several studies have reported positive changes in attitudes following a course on inclusive education (e.g. Shade & Stewart, 2001), the relationship between competence and attitudes is less clear. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a course on inclusive pedagogy on competence and attitudes and the association between these constructs. Data were collected for 69 preservice teachers enrolled in a course on inclusive pedagogy. Attitudes toward the inclusion of students with SEN were assessed before and after the course, using the German version of The Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities questionnaire (ORI; Benoit & Bless, 2014). In addition, at the end of the course students indicated to what extend the course had helped them to gain knowledge, skills and strategies concerning teaching a heterogeneous student population. Results of a repeated measures 2×4 ANOVA, with time (pre vs. post) and attitude towards inclusion (ORI subscales) as within group factors showed a main effect for attitudes, reflecting variations between the subscale scores. A significant time × attitudes interaction effect indicated positive attitude changes over time, but only in the domain of educational and social progression of students with SEN. Results of a regression analysis indicated that, after controlling for pre-course attitude ratings, perceived competence predicted attitude ratings at the end of the course. This study shows that teacher training can positively affect both teachers´ competence and attitudes concerning inclusive education, whereby perceived competence contributed to positive attitude change. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial participation and peer relationships of students with special educational needs
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

Scientific Conference (2018, September 06)

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See detailInstilling teacher agency in professional development: an international outlook. Enabling teachers in Luxembourg to implement inclusive practice
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in Sibilio, Maurizio; Aiello, Paola (Eds.) Lo sviluppo professionale dei docenti. Ragionare di agentività per una scuola inclusiva (2018, July)

Teachers’ attitudes may be pivotal for the success of inclusive education. Attitudes can elicit positive or negative expectations and judgments, which in turn can enhance or limit the successful inclusion ... [more ▼]

Teachers’ attitudes may be pivotal for the success of inclusive education. Attitudes can elicit positive or negative expectations and judgments, which in turn can enhance or limit the successful inclusion of students with special educational needs (SEN) in regular classrooms. Over the last decades, Luxembourg has invested significant effort in providing training to teachers and other professionals to improve educational services for students with SEN. The recent School Law (Summer 2017) stipulates how the inclusion of students with SEN can be facilitated. Although these changes all aim to facilitate the successful implementation of inclusive educational practice, it will be important to continue to investigate and interpret teachers’ attitudes and perceived competence and efficacy in the context of the educational system. [less ▲]

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See detailPromoting inclusive education: The role of teacher’ attitudes and competence
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Markova, Mariya UL; Krischler, Mireille UL et al

in Insights on Learning Disabilities: from prevailing theories to validated practices (2018), 15(1), 49-63

Teachers are expected to accommodate an increasingly heterogeneous student population. However, teachers often feel ill prepared and hence may be apprehensive toward the inclusion of students with special ... [more ▼]

Teachers are expected to accommodate an increasingly heterogeneous student population. However, teachers often feel ill prepared and hence may be apprehensive toward the inclusion of students with special education needs (SEN) in regular classrooms. This paper concerns factors associated with the successful implementation of inclusive education. More specifically, it considers teacher characteristics that may facilitate -or hinder- the inclusion of students with SEN. The paper first discusses teacher competencies concerning the accommodation of students with SEN in regular classrooms, not only as a determinant of effective inclusive practice, but also in relation to teacher attitudes toward inclusive education. Second, we investigate to what extent teacher’ attitudes, both toward students with SEN and inclusive education, may affect teaching behaviors and (positive) action toward students with SEN. The paper further discusses (training) methods that could be applied to increase teacher competence and foster positive attitudes in an attempt to strive to a more equitable educational system. [less ▲]

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See detailInclusive education in Luxembourg: implicit and explicit attitudes toward inclusion and students with special educational needs
Krischler, Mireille UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in International Journal of Inclusive Education (2018)

The aim of the current study was to investigate attitudes of Luxemburgish adults toward students with special educational needs (SEN) and their inclusion into mainstream schools. Positive attitudes can ... [more ▼]

The aim of the current study was to investigate attitudes of Luxemburgish adults toward students with special educational needs (SEN) and their inclusion into mainstream schools. Positive attitudes can facilitate inclusion, furthering the acceptance of students with SEN. Implicit and explicit attitudes may have differential impact on behaviour toward students with SEN, however, to date, there is little research combining explicit and implicit attitudes measurement tools. Participants (N = 161) completed an evaluative priming task, the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education in the Population questionnaire as well as the German version of the Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale. Results show that participants expressed positive attitudes toward inclusive education in general. Participantś implicit attitudes toward students with differing types of SEN varied, with neutral attitudes toward students with learning difficulties and negative attitudes toward students with challenging behaviour. In addition, participantś explicit attitudes toward the inclusion of students with learning difficulties or challenging behaviour in mainstream classrooms were negative. In sum, although people may support the general idea of inclusion, when asked about their attitudes toward students with specific types of SEN, and the inclusion of these students in mainstream schools, participantś attitudes were rather negative. The implications of these findings for the inclusion and acceptance of students with SEN in education and society are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers´ Attitudes toward Students with High- and Low-Educated Parents
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Glock, Sabine UL

in Social Psychology of Education (2018), 21(3), 725-742

Educational inequalities may be derived from differential teacher expectations toward students from different backgrounds. Such expectations may be associated with stereotypical beliefs and attitudes ... [more ▼]

Educational inequalities may be derived from differential teacher expectations toward students from different backgrounds. Such expectations may be associated with stereotypical beliefs and attitudes, which guide behavior and judgments. Although ample research is available concerning differential teacher attitudes based on student ethnicity, few studies have considered the effect of the educational level of the parents. The aim of the current study was to investigate teachers´ implicit and explicit attitudes toward students with differentially educated parents. Implicit attitudes were measured using an implicit association task (IAT). The first name of the student was used as a proxy for the educational level of parents, whereby we created separate versions for boys and girls. Participants were randomly divided in two groups whereby the first group completed the IAT-boys version and the other group the IAT-girls version. Explicit attitudes were measured using a questionnaire. Participants indicated positive implicit attitudes toward students with highly educated parents, independent of the gender of the student. Teachers did not express differential explicit beliefs regarding the learning and social behaviors of students based on the educational level of the parents, and their expectations concerning the motivation and ambitions or educational chances of these students were neutral. The dissociation between implicit and explicit attitudes may be an indication of the social sensitivity of the relationship between students´ social background and educational achievements and opportunities. Especially implicit attitudes may account for differences in teacher behaviors toward different groups of students and in turn their educational opportunities, and could therefore partly account for consistent findings of educational inequalities based on the social status of families. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers´ judgments and decision making: Studies concerning the transition from primary to secondary education and their implications for teacher education
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Toepper, M.; Pant, H.A. (Eds.) et al Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Higher Education – Cross-national Comparisons and Perspectives (2018)

Accuracy in assessing academic achievement and potential is a core component of teachers’ diagnostic competence. Large-scale studies in the Luxembourgish and German educational systems show that teachers’ ... [more ▼]

Accuracy in assessing academic achievement and potential is a core component of teachers’ diagnostic competence. Large-scale studies in the Luxembourgish and German educational systems show that teachers’ secondary school track decisions are biased by a student’s social background. Therefore, biased assessment of students may contribute to the social inequalities observed in secondary schools in both countries. Within a social cognitive framework of dual-process theories, bias is explained by heuristic information processing, which, in contrast to information-integrating processing, relies on stereotype-based expectations to form judgments about students. A series of experimental studies investigated the information processing strategies of teachers, identifying a low accountability of the decision setting and a high consistency of student information as key moderators that promote stereotype-based information processing strategies in teachers’ school track decisions. Similar effects were shown for novice teachers at the beginning of their professional career. Further research evaluated intervention modules based on increased accountability, feedback, and increased knowledge about judgment formation processes. Results demonstrated that all evaluated intervention modules led to higher judgment accuracy and more information-integrating processing. Reviewing current models of teachers’ diagnostic competence, the findings on teachers’ information processing emphasized the need to include situational and process-oriented components into models of diagnostic competence. Beside a cognitive component – the ability to form accurate and unbiased judgments – diagnostic competence includes an adaptive choice of information processing strategies, depending on the accountability and information consistency of the judgment setting. Results on intervention modules gave insights how to increase diagnostic competence in teacher education programs. [less ▲]

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See detailMixed stereotype content and attitudes toward students with special educational needs and their inclusion in regular schools in Luxembourg
Krischler, Mireille UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Research in Developmental Disabilities (2018), 75

Background: Students with special educational needs (SEN) remain one of the most socially excluded and vulnerable groups. To this extent, negative attitudes and stereotypes may impede their inclusion ... [more ▼]

Background: Students with special educational needs (SEN) remain one of the most socially excluded and vulnerable groups. To this extent, negative attitudes and stereotypes may impede their inclusion. Theoretical frameworks have suggested that stereotypes and attitudes elicit differential expectations and judgments, which in turn affect (social) behaviors. Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the stereotypes and implicit attitudes held by a sample of Luxemburgish adults toward students with learning difficulties and challenging behavior. We also explored the adults’ explicit attitudes towards inclusion. Method and procedures: Participants (N=103) completed an evaluative priming task and rated students on the stereotype dimensions of warmth and competence. In addition, they completed the German version of The Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities questionnaire and provided demographic information. Outcomes and results: Results showed differential stereotype content with respect to students with learning difficulties and challenging behavior. Results further indicated that participants’ implicit attitudes toward both challenging behavior and learning difficulties were negative. By contrast, participants expressed positive attitudes towards inclusion. Conclusions and implications: The results of the current study contribute to the understanding of why some people accept, whereas others reject students with SEN. Understanding prevalent stereotypes and attitudes can inform the development of targeted interventions to promote and facilitate the social inclusion of students with SEN. [less ▲]

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See detailInklusive Bildung in Luxembourg
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

Presentation (2017, October 23)

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See detailStereotypen gegenüber SchülerInnen mit Förderbedarf: Überzeugungen von erfahrenen Lehrkräften, Lehramtsstudierenden und SchülerInnen
Krischler, Mireille UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

„Stereotypen“ werden als sozial geteilte Meinungen über Verhaltensweisen und Persönlichkeitsmerkmale von Mitgliedern einer bestimmten Gruppe verstanden. Stereotypen beeinflussen nicht nur unser Denken und ... [more ▼]

„Stereotypen“ werden als sozial geteilte Meinungen über Verhaltensweisen und Persönlichkeitsmerkmale von Mitgliedern einer bestimmten Gruppe verstanden. Stereotypen beeinflussen nicht nur unser Denken und Verhalten, sondern haben auch Auswirkungen darauf, wie unsere Mitmenschen über sich selber denken und sich dementsprechend verhalten (z.B. Pygmalion Effekt). Aus den stereotyp-basierten Erwartungen gegenüber SchülerInnen mit Förderbedarf können Bildungsungleichheiten und eine reduzierte soziale Partizipation resultieren. Lehrerurteile können beispielsweise von Stereotypen geprägt sein und dementsprechend Bildungswege unangemessen beeinflussen. Ebenso können Schüler, geleitet von ihren stereotyp-basierten Überzeugungen, weniger bereit sein Freundschaften mit MitschülerInnen mit Förderbedarf einzugehen. Gemäss dem „Stereotyp Content Model“ (Fiske u.a., 2002) finden Einschätzungen von Aussengruppen entlang der Dimensionen „Wärme“ und „Kompetenz“ statt. Die „Wärme“ bestimmt dabei ob eine Person als negativ oder positiv wahrgenommen wird, wobei die „Kompetenz“ die Extremität dieses Eindrucks festlegt. Stereotypen sind verbunden mit differenziellen Emotionen. So werden z.B. warme Menschen mit niedriger Kompetenz als angenehm wahrgenommen. Ziel dieser Studie war die Ermittlung ob Überzeugungen über SchülerInnen mit Förderbedarf durch Stereotypen geprägt sind und diese je nach Förderbedarf variieren. Zusätzlich wurde untersucht ob Stereotypen zwischen den verschiedenen Akteuren in der Schule variieren (z.B. abhängig von professioneller Kompetenz). Lehrkräfte, Lehramtsstudierende und Schüler (N=103) bewerteten Schüler mit Verhaltensproblemen und Lernschwierigkeiten anhand von Vignetten in den beiden Dimensionen „Wärme und „Kompetenz“. SchülerInnen sowie Lehramtsstudierende kategorisierten Schüler mit Lernschwierigkeiten und Verhaltensproblemen beide als inkompetent. Schüler mit Verhaltensproblemen wurden zusätzlich auch als relativ kalt eingeschätzt, während Schüler mit Lernschwierigkeiten eher als warm wahrgenommen wurden. Erfahrene Lehrkräfte dagegen, bewerteten die Schüler mit Lernschwierigkeiten als warm aber inkompetent und die Schüler mit Verhaltensproblemen in beiden Dimensionen neutral. Unsere Befunde sind im Einklang mit vorherigen Forschungsergebnissen die belegen, dass Stereotypen je nach Förderbedarf varieren. Da Stereotypen Urteile und Verhalten beeinflussen, deuten unsere Befunde darauf hin, dass sich die Interaktionen mit SchülerInnen mit Lernschwierigkeiten und Verhaltensproblemen voneinander unterscheiden. [less ▲]

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See detailCan health indicators and psychosocial characteristics predict attrition in youth with overweight and obesity seeking ambulatory treatment? Data from a retrospective longitudinal study in a paediatric clinic in Luxembourg.
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Samouda, Hanen; Schierloh, Ulrike et al

in BMJ Open (2017), 7(9),

ABSTRACT Objectives: The current study aimed to identify factors that could predict attrition in youth starting ambulatory treatment to control or lose weight. Design: retrospective longitudinal study ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Objectives: The current study aimed to identify factors that could predict attrition in youth starting ambulatory treatment to control or lose weight. Design: retrospective longitudinal study Setting: paediatric clinic: ambulatory treatment program Patients and measures: A youth sample (N=191; 89 boys; age 7-17 years) completed measures of demographic characteristics, health and psychosocial traits before starting an ambulatory weight management program. Anthropometric and biological markers related to obesity were also obtained. Test of mean differences and regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between these variables and attrition after one year. Results: Chi-square and t-test results showed both psychosocial and health indicators differentiated between participants who continued attending the treatment program and those that dropped out. More specifically, youth that dropped out of treatment were significantly older, had higher BMI-Z scores, higher levels of insulin, triglycerides and HOMA-IR, reported poorer health and more conduct problems, and were more dissatisfied with themselves and their bodies before starting treatment. Results of regression analyses revealed that weight status (anthropometric and biological markers), age and body dissatisfaction predict attrition (overall prediction success 73%; prediction success for continued attendance 90/91%; prediction success for dropout 42/44%). Conclusion: Attrition, but especially the continued attendance in treatment, can be successfully predicted by age, weight status and body dissatisfaction. For patients who present with one or more risk factors, careful consideration is needed to decide which (combination of) in- or outpatient program may facilitate prolonged engagement of the patient and hence may be most effective in establishing weight loss. [less ▲]

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