References of "Philippot, Pierre"
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See detailCorrelates of social exclusion in social anxiety Disorder: An fMRI study
Heeren, Alexandre; Dricot, Laurence; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased informationprocessing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature ... [more ▼]

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased informationprocessing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature of this sensitivity to social exclusion in SAD. Especially, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in SAD. Our primary purpose was thus to determine both the selfreport and neural correlates of social exclusion in this population. 23 patients with SAD and 23 matched nonanxious controls played a virtual game (“Cyberball”) during fMRI recording. Participants were frst included by other players, then excluded, and fnally re-included. At the behavioral level, patients with SAD exhibited signifcantly higher levels of social exclusion feelings than nonanxious controls. At the brain level, patients with SAD exhibited signifcantly higher activation within the left inferior frontal gyrus relative to nonanxious controls during the re-inclusion phase. Moreover, self-report of social exclusion correlates with the activity of this cluster among individuals qualifying for SAD diagnosis. Our pattern of fndings lends strong support to the notion that SAD may be better portrayed by a poor ability to recover following social exclusion than during social exclusion per se. These fndings value social neuroscience as an innovative procedure to gain new insight into the underlying mechanisms of SAD. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of transcranial direct current stimulation on attentional bias for threat: a proof-of-concept study among individuals with social anxiety disorder.
Heeren, Alexandre; Billieux, Joël UL; Philippot, Pierre et al

in Social cognitive and affective neuroscience (2017), 21

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with and maintained by attentional bias (AB) for social threat. However, over the last years, it has been suggested that AB in SAD ... [more ▼]

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with and maintained by attentional bias (AB) for social threat. However, over the last years, it has been suggested that AB in SAD may result from a decreased activation of the left prefrontal cortex, and particularly of its dorsolateral part (dlPFC). Accordingly, a transient increase of neural activity within the left dlPFC via non-invasive brain stimulation decreases AB in non-anxious control participants. Yet, none of these studies focused on SAD. This is especially unfortunate as SAD constitutes the main target for which a genuine reduction of AB may be most appropriate. In this experiment, we sought to investigate the causal influence of left dlPFC neuromodulation on AB among 19 female individuals with a DSM-5 diagnosis of SAD. We adopted a double-blind within-subject protocol in which we delivered a single-session of anodal versus sham transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the left dlPFC during the completion of a probe discrimination task assessing AB. Consistent with our hypothesis, participants demonstrated a significant decrease in AB during the anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC relative to the sham stimulation. These findings value tDCS as an innovative procedure to gain new insight into the underlying mechanisms of SAD. [less ▲]

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See detailAbstract and concrete repetitive thinking modes in alcohol-dependence.
Grynberg, Delphine; de Timary, Philippe; Philippot, Pierre et al

in Journal of addictive diseases (2016), 35(4), 238-243

Emotional and interpersonal deficits play a crucial role in alcohol-related disorders as they predict alcohol consumption and relapse. Recent models of emotion regulation in psychopathology postulate that ... [more ▼]

Emotional and interpersonal deficits play a crucial role in alcohol-related disorders as they predict alcohol consumption and relapse. Recent models of emotion regulation in psychopathology postulate that these deficits are centrally related to increased abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, combined with reduced concrete/experiential repetitive thinking. As this assumption has not been tested in addictions, this study aimed at investigating repetitive thinking modes in a large sample of alcohol-dependent individuals. One hundred recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals (29 females; mean age = 49.51-years-old) recruited during the 3rd week of their treatment in a detoxification center were compared to 100 healthy controls (29 females; mean age = 48.51-years-old) recruited in the experimenters' social network, matched at the group level for age, gender, and educational level. All participants completed the Mini Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thought Scale measuring abstract/analytic and concrete/experiential repetitive thinking modes as well as complementary psychopathological measures (Beck Depression Inventory and State/Trait Anxiety Inventory). Alcohol-dependent individuals have similar levels of concrete repetitive thinking as controls but report significantly higher levels of abstract repetitive thinking (p < 0.001; d = 1.28). This effect remains significant after controlling for depression and anxiety. Relative to healthy controls, alcohol-dependent patients report more frequent use of abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, with preserved concrete/experiential thinking. Despite the cross-sectional nature of the study, the frequent use of abstract repetitive thinking thus appears to constitute a main feature of alcohol-dependence. [less ▲]

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See detailRéactivité physiologique et conscience intéroceptive dans les troubles anxieux pédiatriques : une revue conceptuelle et empirique
Rossignol, Mandy; Philippot, Pierre; Vögele, Claus UL

in Santé Mentale au Québec (2016), 41(1), 183-222

Objectives: This review summarizes data relative to objective and subjective measures of body responses in children and adolescents with anxiety. Methods: We reviewed 24 studies measuring (1) cardiac ... [more ▼]

Objectives: This review summarizes data relative to objective and subjective measures of body responses in children and adolescents with anxiety. Methods: We reviewed 24 studies measuring (1) cardiac responses and (2) interoceptive processes in children and adolescents with anxiety. Results: Anxious children and adolescents generally do not differ from their non-anxious peers on their cardiac parameters and objective physiological reactivity to stressful events but some results suggest reduced autonomic flexibility in pediatric anxiety related to chronic anxiety. Moreover, anxiety does not alter interoceptive accuracy, but youths with anxiety misinterpret the intensity and the visibility of their symptoms. Conclusions: Interoception is biased in pediatric anxiety. Further studies are needed to provide information about the role of perceptual, attentional, and interpretative processes underlying these biases, as well as to determine the respective influence of anxiety type and symptoms intensity. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Dysfunctional Use of the Mobile Phone a Behavioural Addiction? Confronting Symptom-Based Versus Process-Based Approaches.
Billieux, Joël UL; Philippot, Pierre; Schmid, Cecile et al

in Clinical psychology & psychotherapy (2015), 22(5), 460-8

UNLABELLED: Dysfunctional use of the mobile phone has often been conceptualized as a 'behavioural addiction' that shares most features with drug addictions. In the current article, we challenge the ... [more ▼]

UNLABELLED: Dysfunctional use of the mobile phone has often been conceptualized as a 'behavioural addiction' that shares most features with drug addictions. In the current article, we challenge the clinical utility of the addiction model as applied to mobile phone overuse. We describe the case of a woman who overuses her mobile phone from two distinct approaches: (1) a symptom-based categorical approach inspired from the addiction model of dysfunctional mobile phone use and (2) a process-based approach resulting from an idiosyncratic clinical case conceptualization. In the case depicted here, the addiction model was shown to lead to standardized and non-relevant treatment, whereas the clinical case conceptualization allowed identification of specific psychological processes that can be targeted with specific, empirically based psychological interventions. This finding highlights that conceptualizing excessive behaviours (e.g., gambling and sex) within the addiction model can be a simplification of an individual's psychological functioning, offering only limited clinical relevance. KEY PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: The addiction model, applied to excessive behaviours (e.g., gambling, sex and Internet-related activities) may lead to non-relevant standardized treatments. Clinical case conceptualization allowed identification of specific psychological processes that can be targeted with specific empirically based psychological interventions. The biomedical model might lead to the simplification of an individual's psychological functioning with limited clinical relevance. [less ▲]

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See detailProbing smoking craving with a multidimensional approach: validation of the 12-item French-language version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges.
Dethier, Vincent; Heeren, Alexandre; Galanti, Laurence et al

in Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment (2014), 10

BACKGROUND: The current study examined the psychometric properties of the 12-item French-language version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU-12), a widely used multidimensional measure of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The current study examined the psychometric properties of the 12-item French-language version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU-12), a widely used multidimensional measure of cigarette craving. METHODS: Daily smokers (n=230) completed the QSU-12, the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, and items about addiction-related symptoms. Additional participants (n=40) completed the QSU-12 and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and were assessed for expired carbon monoxide. RESULTS: Consistent with studies validating the English version of the scale, confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor solution in the French version of the scale. Good scale and subscales reliabilities were observed, and convergent validity was evidenced through relationships with dependence and addiction-related symptoms. CONCLUSION: The French-language version of the QSU-12 is an adequate instrument to assess the multidimensional construct of craving in both research and clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication des biais d’attention sélective dans l’alcoolo-dépendance : une revue conceptuelle et empirique
Deleuze, Jory; Heeren, Alexandre; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Alcoologie et Addictologie (2013), 35(2), 127-135

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