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See detailBritain and the United States in Greece after World War II: Anglo-American Relations and the Origins of the Cold War
Paravantis, Spero UL

Book published by Bloomsbury - 1st (2020)

After World War II, as Europe floundered economically, British Prime Minister Clement Attlee looked to disengage Britain from some of its broad international obligations and increase American support for ... [more ▼]

After World War II, as Europe floundered economically, British Prime Minister Clement Attlee looked to disengage Britain from some of its broad international obligations and increase American support for its new foreign agenda. One place he sought to do so was in Greece, which was in the midst of a civil war. Through an in-depth study of Anglo-American diplomacy in Greece from 1946-50, Spero Simeon Z. Paravantes reveals how the relationship between Britain and the US developed in this formative period. He argues that, in many ways, Britain used the fast-escalating tensions of (what would become) the Cold War to direct and manipulate US policy in Greece, encouraging the Americans to take a more active role and (essentially) take Britain's place in the region. In the process, he sheds fresh light onto how the American experience in Greece contributed to the formulation of the Truman Doctrine, the infamous NSC-68 document and the ultimate birth of the Cold War. Drawing on a wide range of sources from Britain, the US, Greece and across the Balkans, Paravantes has produced the first book to focus on this crucial period in such close detail, and reveals the ways in which various foreign and domestic concerns coincided at a pivotal moment of twentieth century history. This book is essential reading for all scholars looking to gain fresh insight into post-WWII Greece, the Anglo-American alliance and the complex origins of the Cold War. [less ▲]

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See detailThe BENELUX, Regional Groupings and the Dynamics of European Integration: Contemporary and Historical Perspectives
Harmsen, Robert UL; Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL; Paravantis, Spero UL

Book published by Brill (2020)

Regional (sub-)groupings have played a significant, but comparatively neglected role in the processes of European integration. The BENELUX and the Nordic Council both offer longstanding models of regional ... [more ▼]

Regional (sub-)groupings have played a significant, but comparatively neglected role in the processes of European integration. The BENELUX and the Nordic Council both offer longstanding models of regional cooperation which have, in various ways, often been cited as examples for the wider European integration project. More recently, both the Visegrád and Baltic states have seen the (re-) emergence of forms of regional cooperation in connection with their accession to and later membership of the European Union. Yet, though often cited, these experiences of (sub-)regional cooperation within the wider European project have been the object of relatively little systematic or comparative study. The aim of the edited volume is to address this gap by bringing together specialists on these regional groupings with a view to providing a fuller understanding of both their historical significance and their possible future role relative to a potentially fragmenting European political landscape. [less ▲]

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See detailTheir ‘Apple of Discord’ or the Apple of Their Eye: How the British Secured Eastern Mediterranean and Western European Security, 1947-1948
Paravantis, Spero UL

in Kamouzis, Dimitris; Nafpliotis, Alexandros (Eds.) Αnglo-Hellenic relations in the 20th Century (2019)

This chapter examines the role the British policy in Greece played in the shift in American foreign policy that was manifested in 1947-48, that led directly to these alliances, namely the Western European ... [more ▼]

This chapter examines the role the British policy in Greece played in the shift in American foreign policy that was manifested in 1947-48, that led directly to these alliances, namely the Western European Union and NATO. To achieve this shift (which also included support of British strategic interests in the Eastern Mediterranean) this chapter argues that the British used Greece, first as a way to draw the United States further into European affairs, and then as a way to anchor the United States in Europe, achieving a guarantee of security for the Eastern Mediterranean and for Western Europe. Drawing on both published and unpublished British and American sources, this chapter will also examine perceptions of the conflicts in and about Greece, and what it represented for Western European and Eastern Mediterranean security, and Western ideas of democracy when confronted with supporting a right-wing Greek government. In so doing, it clarifies how American foreign policy changed from its pre-war focus on non-intervention, to the cold-war politics of containment and intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailA Tale of Two Referenda: The Greek Plebiscite of 1946 and the Referendum of July 2015
Paravantis, Spero UL

in European Review of History (2019)

This paper compares two periods of crisis in Greece separated by 70 years, the crisis surrounding the national elections and the plebiscite on the return of the Greek monarchy in 1946, and the referendum ... [more ▼]

This paper compares two periods of crisis in Greece separated by 70 years, the crisis surrounding the national elections and the plebiscite on the return of the Greek monarchy in 1946, and the referendum on the terms contained in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) of July 2015, and the international involvement in and reaction to these referenda. The inspirations for the paper, were the ways in which external forces attempted to direct their outcome, and the similarities in the ways in which in both periods, external forces attempted to frame the definition of the referenda in favour of their wider strategic objectives. The pressure placed on the Greek government, both from within Greece and from without, was also noteworthy, as was the rhetoric that was used both during and after both events. The paper concludes that in these two cases, rather than providing resolution to an issue, the referenda served mainly as a vehicle of protest, extremely susceptible to manipulation, leading to a situation worse than that which had preceded them. [less ▲]

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See detailGermany, Greece and Poland: The Complicated story of Reparations and their impact on European (dis?) Integration,
Paravantis, Spero UL

in Paravantis, Spero (Ed.) BENELUX, Europe and the Cold War: Asymmetrical cold war power relations in the Integration process of Europe (2018)

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See detailEuropean institutions and european enterprises
Paravantis, Spero UL

Presentation (2018, May 30)

Seminar on "European institutions and European enterprises" (Seminar at Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy, May 30 2018. From 01:00 to 24:00. I explain the Origins of the Rules ... [more ▼]

Seminar on "European institutions and European enterprises" (Seminar at Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy, May 30 2018. From 01:00 to 24:00. I explain the Origins of the Rules surrounding the freedom of establishment in the EU. NOTE: the computer crashed before the seminar, so I had to look to the large screen to my left to read the notes. This is why I am looking left throughout the video.) [less ▲]

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See detailWWI and WWII reparations and European Integration, Part II
Paravantis, Spero UL

Presentation (2018, May 28)

A short video lecture explaining the marshal plan, and its impact on WWI and WWII reparations, the re-integration of Germany and German Economic recovery after WWII.

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (5 UL)
See detailLëtzebuerg an de Marshall-Plang
Schank, Dan; Paravantis, Spero UL

Article for general public (2018)

A short explanation of the motivations for, design and implementation of the Marshall Plan, in Western Europe, with a specific focus on Luxembourg in the late 1940s.

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See detailUniversity of California, Berkeley, Institute of European Studies (IES) Fall 2017 Newsletter
Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley; Paravantis, Spero UL

Report (2018)

The Fall 2017 newsletter of the University of California, Berkeley, Institute of European Studies (IES). I was a Visiting Scholar at IES from August 2017 to Feb 2018, and from March 1st 2018, I will ... [more ▼]

The Fall 2017 newsletter of the University of California, Berkeley, Institute of European Studies (IES). I was a Visiting Scholar at IES from August 2017 to Feb 2018, and from March 1st 2018, I will become an IES Senior Fellow. My bio is on page 8, and summaries of my lectures are on page 30 (Migration) and 31 (WWI and WWII Reparations and European Integration). [less ▲]

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See detailWWI and WWII Reparations and their Impact on European (Dis)Integration
Paravantis, Spero UL

Presentation (2017, November 28)

Due to the separation between the historical and legal fields which have examined the issue of WWII reparations, no generally accepted definition of their current status exists either in the historical ... [more ▼]

Due to the separation between the historical and legal fields which have examined the issue of WWII reparations, no generally accepted definition of their current status exists either in the historical, legal or political spheres. This lack of clarity has greatly contributed to this issue remaining unresolved until the present. In his talk, Spero Paravantes looks at the way the issue was used by the Big Three in their dealings with each other after WWII. In light of the Greek government’s continued pursuit of WWI and WWII debts it claims are owed by Germany, and the recent claims made by the Polish government, this talk summarizes the historical, legal and political scholarship on the issue and also comments on its effect on relations between members of the Eurozone and the way in which responses to the issue of WWII reparations, and indeed the legacy of the war itself, have brought political and cultural divisions within the Eurozone again to forefront. Link: http://events.berkeley.edu/index.php/calendar/sn/ies/?event_ID=113412 [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Migrations Post WWII; Past, Present and Future?
Paravantis, Spero UL

Presentation (2017, November 14)

Dr Paravantes' presentation, " European Migrations post-WWII: Past, Present and Future, " will discuss the history of migrations and migration/refugee policy within the EU, from the beginning of the ... [more ▼]

Dr Paravantes' presentation, " European Migrations post-WWII: Past, Present and Future, " will discuss the history of migrations and migration/refugee policy within the EU, from the beginning of the integration process and the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) until the present. The talk will focus on earlier migrations within Western Europe, the rules established to regulate internal and external migration, and the steps which the various iterations of the European Union and its individual members took to deal with them. The overarching objective of this presentation is to place current events, and reactions to them, into the context of European integration and to examine misconceptions about migration policy and borders in the EU. [less ▲]

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See detailAuf in die Moderne
Schmit, Laurent; Paravantis, Spero UL

Speeches/Talks (2017)

An interview I gave to Luxembourger Wort reporter Laurent Schmit on June 8th 2017, from 15:50 to 16:10. We spoke about the impact of the Marshall Plan in Luxembourg, the changes it brought to the country ... [more ▼]

An interview I gave to Luxembourger Wort reporter Laurent Schmit on June 8th 2017, from 15:50 to 16:10. We spoke about the impact of the Marshall Plan in Luxembourg, the changes it brought to the country, and the impact on the integration process. I am cited in the 3rd to last paragraph in the column. [less ▲]

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See detailReparations and European Integration
Paravantis, Spero UL

Presentation (2017, May 25)

A brief video discussion on the impact of dismissing / postponing WWII German reparations to the BENELUX and France, and the impact this had on the integration movement.

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See detailBenelux, Europe and the Cold War, the power of non-powers
Paravantis, Spero UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

The conference “Benelux, Europe and the Cold War, the power of non-powers”, which took place on 30 and 31 March 2017 at the University of Luxembourg, was the first of three events planned in the FNR ... [more ▼]

The conference “Benelux, Europe and the Cold War, the power of non-powers”, which took place on 30 and 31 March 2017 at the University of Luxembourg, was the first of three events planned in the FNR-funded CORE junior project “Benelux”, as part of its public outreach and academic output objectives. The conference sought to highlight asymmetrical power relations in the Cold War period of European integration by examining European security. What was/is European security in the context of the Cold War? How was and is it conceived? What role did “non-powers” play in European security, and how did they help define it? This conference investigated these and other related questions by re-examining the US/European relationship in the early Cold War and the role that developments during this period played in the European integration movement. In so doing, the conference also showcased findings which helped unify historiographies of the Cold War and European integration. [less ▲]

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See detailTo Pay or Not to Pay’: A Historical and Legal Overview of the Question of WWII Reparations, and its Impact On European (dis?) Integration
Paravantis, Spero UL

Presentation (2017, March 30)

The conference “Benelux, Europe and the Cold War, the power of non-powers”, which took place on 30 and 31 March 2017 at the University of Luxembourg, was the first of three events planned in the FNR ... [more ▼]

The conference “Benelux, Europe and the Cold War, the power of non-powers”, which took place on 30 and 31 March 2017 at the University of Luxembourg, was the first of three events planned in the FNR-funded CORE junior project “Benelux”, as part of its public outreach and academic output objectives. The conference sought to highlight asymmetrical power relations in the Cold War period of European integration by examining European security. What was/is European security in the context of the Cold War? How was and is it conceived? What role did “non-powers” play in European security, and how did they help define it? This conference investigated these and other related questions by re-examining the US/European relationship in the early Cold War and the role that developments during this period played in the European integration movement. In so doing, the conference also showcased findings which helped unify historiographies of the Cold War and European integration. [less ▲]

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See detailC’était extrêmement violent» Il y a 100 ans, la révolution de Février a provoqué la fin de l’Empire russe
Paravantis, Spero UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

La révolution de Février, qui s'est déroulée du 8 mars (23 février) 1917 au 13 mars (28 février) 1917, marque le début de la révolution russe de 1917. Elle force l'abdication du tsar Nicolas II et ... [more ▼]

La révolution de Février, qui s'est déroulée du 8 mars (23 février) 1917 au 13 mars (28 février) 1917, marque le début de la révolution russe de 1917. Elle force l'abdication du tsar Nicolas II et provoque la fin de l'Empire russe. Un gouvernement provisoire dirige, mais la même année, la révolution d'Octobre met au pouvoir des bolcheviks et permet la création de l'Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques (URSS). Le chercheur au «Centre for Contemporary and Digital History» à l’Université du Luxembourg, Dr. Spero S.Z. Paravantis nous détaille ce chapitre de l’histoire. [less ▲]

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See detailUne minorité de citoyens reste nostalgique
Paravantis, Spero UL

E-print/Working paper (2016)

Au cours de l’automne 1991, les républiques constituantes de l’Union soviétique proclamaient, l’une après l’autre, leur indépendance. Il y a 25 ans, avec la création de la Communauté des États ... [more ▼]

Au cours de l’automne 1991, les républiques constituantes de l’Union soviétique proclamaient, l’une après l’autre, leur indépendance. Il y a 25 ans, avec la création de la Communauté des États indépendants (CEI), la superpuissance URSS a cessé d’exister d’un jour à l’autre. Dr. Spero S.Z. Paravantis de l’Université du Luxembourg revient sur ce grand chapitre de l’histoire. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo new projects on the Early Cold War period of European Integration
Paravantis, Spero UL

Report (2016)

Core Junior Web Page Announcement

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See detailThe issue of NATO ‘out-of-area’ operations: from West Africa to the borders of the Near East
Paravantis, Spero UL

in Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur L'europe (2016)

Franco-British Diplomatic games and issues within the Western European Union (WEU) (1954-1982) http://www.cvce.eu/en/recherche/unit-content/-/unit/e7c423ed-a376-4a57-a415-f8519344e558 #4 of 4 texts, which ... [more ▼]

Franco-British Diplomatic games and issues within the Western European Union (WEU) (1954-1982) http://www.cvce.eu/en/recherche/unit-content/-/unit/e7c423ed-a376-4a57-a415-f8519344e558 #4 of 4 texts, which were published to accompany the selection of WEU documents for the above-named project, to establish the relevant institutional and historical background to place these documents in their proper context. Published October 2016 by DEIS, (Formerly the CVCE) University of Luxembourg [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (5 UL)