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See detailAn estimate of the influence of loading effects on tectonic velocities in the Pyrenees
Ferenc, Marcell; Nicolas, Joelle; van Dam, Tonie UL et al

in Studia Geophysica & Geodaetica (2013)

Surface displacements due to temporal changes in environmental mass redistributions are observable in the coordinate time series of many Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) sites. In this study, we ... [more ▼]

Surface displacements due to temporal changes in environmental mass redistributions are observable in the coordinate time series of many Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) sites. In this study, we investigated the effect of loading on estimates of tectonic velocity computed from campaign-style GNSS observations. The study region is in the Pyrenees mountain range between France and Spain (ResPyr campaigns). In this area, seismic activity is continuous and moderate and the expected amplitude of the horizontal tectonic velocity is less than 0.5 mm/yr. In order to determine the velocity, 4 sparse GNSS campaigns were carried out from 1995 to 2010. Considering this small rate of deformation, loading phenomena can contribute a non-negligible artifact to the velocity computation that could affect our geodynamical interpretation. In this investigation, we specifically considered the atmospheric, hydrological, and non-tidal ocean loading phenomena. The computed loading deformations for this region show the horizontal displacements are dominated by the non-tidal ocean loading (maximum 4 mm for the North and 3.1 mm for the East components); the main vertical contributions are due to the atmospheric and continental water storage loading (maximum 14.3 for the atmosphere and 8.1 mm for the hydrology, respectively). We have found that the dominant loading effect on the horizontal velocity is the non-tidal ocean loading (mean of 0.11 mm/yr), whereas the vertical component is dominated by the hydrological loading (mean of 0.21 mm/yr). Since the study area is in a mountainous region, we also analyzed the difference between the atmospheric and the topography dependent atmospheric loading models at our GNSS campaign sites. We did not find any significant difference between the two atmospheric loading models in terms of horizontal velocity. Finally, we performed simulations to identify the optimum timing and frequency of future GNSS campaigns in this area that would minimize the loading effects on tectonic velocity estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal effect on vertical positioning by Satellite Laser Ranging and GPS on Absolute Gravity at the OCA geodetic station, Grasse, France
Nicolas, Joëlle; Nocquet, J.-M.; Van Camp, M. et al

in Geophysical Journal International (2006), 167(3), 1127-1137

We present a comparison of the vertical displacement monitored by independent techniques at the geodetic observatory of Grasse (France). Both Satellite Laser Ranging and Global Positioning System (GPS ... [more ▼]

We present a comparison of the vertical displacement monitored by independent techniques at the geodetic observatory of Grasse (France). Both Satellite Laser Ranging and Global Positioning System (GPS) vertical position time-series over the period 1998–2003 show a prominent annual signal with a magnitude of 5–6 mm and reaching a maximum every year in July. Results from 14 absolute gravity measurements are also discussed. We investigate the possible origin of the observed signal by comparing it with predictions from various local and regional contributions. GPS results from a local network indicate that the periodic annual elastic deformation of the ∼1270 m high karstic plateau due to local water storage loading does not exceed 1–2 mm. In contrast, a combination of global model prediction for atmospheric and hydrological loading explains more than 70 per cent of the annual and semi-annual observed signals. [less ▲]

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