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The Impact of Mathematical Proficiency on the Number-Space Association Hoffmann, Danielle ; ; Martin, Romain et al in PLoS ONE (2014) A specific instance of the association between numerical and spatial representations is the SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect. The SNARC effect describes the finding that ... [more ▼] A specific instance of the association between numerical and spatial representations is the SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect. The SNARC effect describes the finding that during binary classification of numbers participants are faster to respond to small/large numbers with the left/right hand respectively. Even though it has been frequently replicated, important inter-individual variability has also been reported. Mathematical proficiency is an obvious candidate source for inter-individual variability in numerical judgments, but studies investigating its influence on the SNARC effect remain scarce. The present experiment included a total of 95 University students, divided into three groups differing significantly in their mathematical proficiency levels. Using group analyses, it appeared that the three groups differed significantly in the strength of their number-space associations in a parity judgment task. This result was further confirmed on an individual level, with higher levels in arithmetic leading to relatively weaker SNARC effects. To explain this negative relationship we propose accounts based on differences in access to qualitatively different numerical representations and also consider more domain general factors, with a focus on inhibition capacities. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 128 (17 UL)Differences in the acuity of the Approximate Number System in adults: The effect of mathematical ability Guillaume, Mathieu ; ; et al in Acta psychologica (2013), 144(3), 506-512 It is largely admitted that processing numerosity relies on an innate Approximate Number System (ANS), and recent research consistently observed a relationship between ANS acuity and math ability in ... [more ▼] It is largely admitted that processing numerosity relies on an innate Approximate Number System (ANS), and recent research consistently observed a relationship between ANS acuity and math ability in childhood. However, studies assessing this relationship in adults led to contradictory results. In this study, adults with different levels of mathematical expertise performed two tasks on the same pairs of dot collections, based either on numerosity comparison or on cumulative area comparison. Number of dots and cumulative area were congruent in half of the stimuli, and incongruent in the other half. The results showed that adults with higher math ability obtained lower Weber fractions in the numerical condition than participants with lower math ability. Further, adults with lower math ability were more affected by the interference of the continuous dimension in the numerical comparison task, whereas conversely higher-expertise adults showed stronger interference of the numerical dimension in the continuous comparison task. Finally, ANS acuity correlated with arithmetic performance. Taken together, the data suggest that individual differences in ANS acuity subsist in adulthood, and that they are related to math ability. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 70 (3 UL)Procedural and magnitude-based strategies in solving complex additions: Insights from fMRI Guillaume, Mathieu ; ; et al Poster (2013) Detailed reference viewed: 32 (1 UL)The interaction between number and space processing and math achievement in adults Hoffmann, Danielle ; ; Schiltz, Christine Poster (2012, September 07) Behavioral studies show a relation between numbers and space (for a review see De Hevia et al., 2008). One instance of this link is the SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect ... [more ▼] Behavioral studies show a relation between numbers and space (for a review see De Hevia et al., 2008). One instance of this link is the SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect, consisting in faster reaction times responding to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively (Dehaene et al. 1993). The SNARC effect has often been replicated, but it is also characterized by high inter-subject variability (Wood et al. 2006 a,b). Although differences in mathematical skills are an obvious candidate source for SNARC variability, this variable has not yet been explored systematically. For the present study, three groups of participants were recruited amongst University students; one group included only participants reporting specific problems related to numerical processing, and two control groups differing in the math requirements of their field of study (i.e. science students vs. literature students). Results confirmed that the three groups differed substantially in basic arithmetic scores [F(2,92)=19.97, p<0.001] as well as in the strength of their SNARC effect [F(2,92)=7.12, p=0.001]. The science group had the highest arithmetic score and the smallest SNARC effect and the problem report group had the lowest arithmetic score and the strongest SNARC effect, with the literature group lying in between. Rearranging the groups based on arithmetic performance yielded the same results. Correlation analyses confirmed this finding by revealing a strong relation between arithmetic scores and SNARC effect independently of group constitution [r=-0.28, p<0.01]. Different hypotheses in the context of the relevant literature are discussed. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 74 (4 UL)The SNARC effect – Does it depend on the level of mathematical training? Hoffmann, Danielle ; ; Schiltz, Christine Scientific Conference (2012, February 10) Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 UL)The relation between the acuity of the ANS and general arithmetic performance Guillaume, Mathieu ; ; et al Scientific Conference (2012) Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 UL)A developmental investigation of the SNARC effect using a colour discrimination task. Hoffmann, Danielle ; Hornung, Caroline ; et al Poster (2012) How do number-space interactions develop from childhood to adulthood? The SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) reflects the finding that participants respond faster to small ... [more ▼] How do number-space interactions develop from childhood to adulthood? The SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) reflects the finding that participants respond faster to small numbers with their left hand and to large numbers with their right hand during a number classification task. Typically assessed through magnitude-independent parity judgment tasks, the SNARC effect is thought to show the automaticity of the number-space link. Using a parity task on children Berch et al. (1999) found a SNARC effect no earlier than from 9.2 years onwards. However, we hypothesise that parity judgments might be inappropriate to assess younger children. Therefore a more age-appropriate colour judgment task (implicit) and a magnitude judgement task (explicit) were designed and tested on 363 children from kindergarten to Grade 6 (5.8-12 years). The experimental tasks were complemented by a brief assessment of arithmetic skills. The results revealed overall significant SNARC effects [colour task t(355)=2.6, p<0.01; magnitude task t(340)=4.7, p<0.001], which interacted with grade [colour task F(6,355)=2.18; p<0.05; magnitude task F(6,340)=2.09; p=0.05]. Most interestingly, even the kindergartners already display both effects [colour task t(28)=1.96; p<0.05; magnitude task t(24)=1.7; p=0.05]. These results show explicit and implicit access to numerical magnitude in children as young as 5.8 years. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 61 (6 UL)Weber Fraction as an index of the acuity of the ANS and its relationship to arithmetic performance by adults Guillaume, Mathieu ; ; et al Scientific Conference (2012) Detailed reference viewed: 43 (0 UL)Relationships between number and space processing in adults with and without dyscalculia ; Martin, Romain ; Schiltz, Christine in Acta Psychologica (2011), 138 A large body of evidence indicates clear relationships between number and space processing in healthy and brain-damaged adults, as well as in children. The present paper addressed this issue regarding ... [more ▼] A large body of evidence indicates clear relationships between number and space processing in healthy and brain-damaged adults, as well as in children. The present paper addressed this issue regarding atypical math development. Adults with a diagnosis of dyscalculia (DYS) during childhood were compared to adults with average or high abilities in mathematics across two bisection tasks. Participants were presented with Arabic number triplets and had to judge either the number magnitude or the spatial location of the middle number relative to the two outer numbers. For the numerical judgment, adults with DYS were slower than both groups of control peers. They were also more strongly affected by the factors related to number magnitude such as the range of the triplets or the distance between the middle number and the real arithmetical mean. By contrast, adults with DYS were as accurate and fast as adults who never experienced math disability when they had to make a spatial judgment. Moreover, number–space congruency affected performance similarly in the three experimental groups. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit of number magnitude representation in DYS with a relative preservation of some spatial mechanisms in DYS. Results are discussed in terms of direct and indirect number–space interactions. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 78 (5 UL)Interactions between number and space processing in adults with dyscalculia ; Schiltz, Christine Poster (2011, May 27) A large body of evidence indicates clear relationships between number and space processing in healthy and brain-damaged adults, as well as in children. The present paper addressed this issue regarding ... [more ▼] A large body of evidence indicates clear relationships between number and space processing in healthy and brain-damaged adults, as well as in children. The present paper addressed this issue regarding atypical math development. Adults with a diagnosis of dyscalculia (DYS) during childhood were compared to adults with average or high abilities in mathematics across two bisection tasks. Participants were presented with Arabic number triplets and had to judge either the number magnitude or the spatial location of the middle number relative to the two outer numbers. For the numerical judgment, adults with DYS were slower than both groups of control peers. They were also more strongly affected by the factors related to number magnitude such as the range of the triplets or the distance between the middle number and the real arithmetical mean. By contrast, adults with DYS were as accurate and fast as adults who never experienced math disability when they had to make a spatial judgment. Moreover, number-space congruency affected performance similarly in the three experimental groups. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit of number magnitude representation in DYS with a relative preservation of some spatial mechanisms in DYS. Results are discussed in terms of direct and indirect number-space interactions. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 45 (0 UL)Relation entre expertise mathématique et sensibilité à la numérosité à l’âge adulte Guillaume, Mathieu ; ; et al Scientific Conference (2011) Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 UL)The SNARC effect – Does it depend on the level of mathematical training? Hoffmann, Danielle ; ; Schiltz, Christine Poster (2011) Behavioural studies show a relation between numbers and space (DeHevia et al., 2008). One instance of this link is the SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect, consisting in faster ... [more ▼] Behavioural studies show a relation between numbers and space (DeHevia et al., 2008). One instance of this link is the SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect, consisting in faster reaction times responding to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively (Dehaene et al. 1993). The SNARC effect has often been replicated, but it is also characterized by high inter-subject variability (Wood et al. 2006a,b). Although differences in mathematical skills are an obvious candidate source for SNARC variability, this variable has not yet been explored systematically. While in their seminal study Dehaene and colleagues had included two groups of participants differing in their field of study (science vs. literature), the differences in SNARC effect strengths indicated by the result figures were not tested formally (see also Fischer and Rottmann (2005)). The present study aims to assess the influence of mathematical training, as instantiated by the enrollment in study fields characterized by distinct levels of mathematical requirements, on the SNARC effect. We only included students of either a subject with a strong mathematical focus (e.g. mathematics, computer sciences), or no mathematical requirements at all (e.g. literature, philosophy). Results (N=36; 18/group) yielded a significant overall SNARC effect, i.e. interaction between digit magnitude and response side [F(1,35)=9.51; p=0.004], but no influence of study group on this interaction [F(1,35)=0.92; p=0.345]. Interestingly though, including gender in the ANOVA yielded a significant four-way interaction [F(1,35)=6.34; p=0.017]. These results replicate previous findings in children (Schweiter et al. 2005), interpreted as gender-related differences in mental strategy use. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 47 (1 UL)Developing number-space associations: SNARC effects in a color discrimination task in 11-year-olds Hoffmann, Danielle ; Hornung, Caroline ; et al Poster (2011) Behavioural studies show a relation between numbers and space in adults (DeHevia et al., 2008) and this association arises early in development (Opfer et al., 2010). The SNARC (Spatial Numerical ... [more ▼] Behavioural studies show a relation between numbers and space in adults (DeHevia et al., 2008) and this association arises early in development (Opfer et al., 2010). The SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect consists in faster reaction times (RTs) responding to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively (Dehaene et al. 1993). It is thought to reflect the automaticity of the number-space link, since it arises not only during explicit magnitude judgment tasks, but also during magnitude-independent parity judgment tasks. Using a parity task Berch et al. (1999) found a SNARC effect in children of 9.2 years onwards, but not in younger children (7.8 years). One major issue raised was that parity judgments might be too difficult and therefore problematic to test young children (VanGalen&Reitsma, 2008). Hence, we designed a color judgment instead of a parity judgment task and tested 33 children from Grade 6 (mean age 11.4 years, SD 0.6). We also assessed number magnitude access using a magnitude judgment task. The results revealed a significantly negative slope in the color task [t(32)=2.47, p<0.01] and in the magnitude task [t(33)=1.75, p<0.05], reflecting a SNARC effect in both tasks (regression method by Lorch&Myers, 1990). A correlation analysis of the slopes of both tasks revealed a positive relationship (r=0.33, p<0.05) indicating that they partly measure the same processes. These results confirm the presence of robust SNARC effects in 6th-graders and indicate that they occur even using a simple color discrimination task that is strictly independent of semantic number processing. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 69 (6 UL) |
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