References of "Melzer, André 50002377"
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See detailVon Pong zur Panik? Videospiele als gesellschaftlich relevantes Forschungsthema
Melzer, André UL

in Amann, Wilhelm; Sieburg, Heinz (Eds.) Spiel-Räume. Das "Spiel" in Diskursen der Kultur und Wissenschaften (in press)

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See detailPlayers' moral decisions in virtual worlds: Morality in video games
Melzer, André UL; Holl, Elisabeth UL

Book published by Oxford University Press (2020)

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See detailCraving for violence: The role of Dark Personality traits in violent video game preference
Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June)

Background: Violent and antisocial video games are popular, but little is known why players are drawn to these kinds of games. This present research tested whether there is a connection between player ... [more ▼]

Background: Violent and antisocial video games are popular, but little is known why players are drawn to these kinds of games. This present research tested whether there is a connection between player preferences for violent games and characteristics of so called “dark” personality traits. Method: Relying on a user-centered approach, three online studies (N=662) examined the role of “dark” personality traits together with a novel violent game preference short scale. Results: Study 1 and 2 indicated strong correlations between trait aggression and players’ interest in explicit depictions of blood and gore and games that provide experiences of domination and antisocial behavior. In Study 3, the new scale was tested together with participants’ trait aggression, trait empathy, and the Dark Triad traits of psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism. Games featuring violence and the possibility of antisocial behavior were found to meet the needs of players who lack empathy and show callous, impulsive, and exploitive (but not narcissistic) attributes. Conclusions: Findings of individual motivators for game violence significantly extend the literature that is predominantly focusing on the effects of playing these games. Apparently, game preferences and playing habits fulfill individual needs that are at least partly determined by particular, i.e. “dark”, personality characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailOf princesses, paladins, and player motivations: Gender stereotypes and gendered perceptions in video games
Melzer, André UL

in Breuer, Johannes; Pietschmann, Daniel; Liebold, Benny (Eds.) et al Evolutionary psychology and digital games. Digital hunter-gatherers (2019)

Video games have been labeled a male space, and playing video games an activity created by men and for men (Fox & Tang, 2014; see also Lange & Schwab, this volume). The present chapter analyses the ... [more ▼]

Video games have been labeled a male space, and playing video games an activity created by men and for men (Fox & Tang, 2014; see also Lange & Schwab, this volume). The present chapter analyses the typical roles of male and female video game characters, their presentation in games, their effects, and how players perceive these characters. To this end, gender in video games will be analyzed on different levels. Although women and men share the same overall interest in playing video games as a medium for entertainment, they differ substantially with regard to genres and game titles they prefer. These gender differences have been attributed to the overrepresentation of male characters in video games, uninviting game contents that strongly rely on competition and physical aggression, and the stereotypical portrayal and scripted behavioral patterns of hyper-masculine or “macho” male and sexualized female game characters. The issue of gender portrayals in video games will be discussed in the light of theoretical considerations on evolved dispositions that differ by sex versus the social structural account that attributes sex differences to the differing placement of women and men in the social structure. It will be argued that both theoretical approaches make similar predictions regarding gender-specific video game preferences. [less ▲]

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See detailWho’s afraid of Donkey Kong? Testing the Stereotype Threat Effect in Video Gaming
Holl, Elisabeth UL; Wagener, Gary L.; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2019, May)

In two studies (Study 1: N = 130; Study 2: N = 56) participants played a video game (Bejeweled 3; SkyChasers) and were either confronted with a stereotype threat (ST) or not. ST is defined as the risk of ... [more ▼]

In two studies (Study 1: N = 130; Study 2: N = 56) participants played a video game (Bejeweled 3; SkyChasers) and were either confronted with a stereotype threat (ST) or not. ST is defined as the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s own group and has been investigated in various field, i.a. in gaming. In the first study participants were confronted with the stereotype that women would perform worse in video games than men. In the second study we worked with a reversed stereotype, namely that women would have now outpaced males in some genres of video games. Our results show that performance varies across gender and genre. Although we did not find the hypothesized interaction effect of gender and ST condition in performance, self-reported measures, such as perceived frustration, and moderating variables indicate performance differences both for women and men, but on different psychological dimensions. [less ▲]

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See detailLerneffekte interaktiver Medien bei Kindern und Jugendlichend
Melzer, André UL; Happ, Christian; Steffgen, Georges UL

Report (2019)

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See detailEscaping reality through videogames is linked to an implicit preference for virtual over real-life stimuli
Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Schimmenti, Adriano et al

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2019), 245

From the theory of compensatory Internet use, escapism through videogames may constitute a coping strategy that is sometimes helpful but, in some cases, maladaptive. Yet, evidence supporting this view has ... [more ▼]

From the theory of compensatory Internet use, escapism through videogames may constitute a coping strategy that is sometimes helpful but, in some cases, maladaptive. Yet, evidence supporting this view has, to date, been gathered only through the use of explicit self-reported questionnaires, which are known to be biased. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to test whether the escapism motive is related to a preference for the virtual environment. Method. A laboratory task that allowed the measurement of implicit attitudes, namely, the Affect Misattribution Procedure was created with stimuli from real world and videogames. The task was administered online with a series of questionnaire and completed by 273 online gamers from the community. Results. The results showed that participants had more positive attitudes toward pictures depicting virtual environments than toward those depicting real environments. Furthermore, those participants who frequently used videogames to escape real life and were highly engaged in video gaming had a more pronounced positive implicit attitude toward the virtual environment. Discussion. This study contributes to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying escapism in videogames and calls for a refinement of the escapism construct, which can be related to both problematic (i.e., potential coping strategy) and nonproblematic patterns of videogame use. Among the limitations, it should be noted that the selection of stimuli related to videogames is restricted to one genre of game, and that the participants’ environment could not be controlled due to the online design. [less ▲]

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See detailIt's not only the game, it's also the player: The role of player personality in violent video game preference
Holl, Elisabeth UL; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2018, November 03)

In contrast to the effects of game content, violent video games have less been researched with regard to players' preferences for these games, and whether these preferences are related to certain ... [more ▼]

In contrast to the effects of game content, violent video games have less been researched with regard to players' preferences for these games, and whether these preferences are related to certain personality characteristics. Using a novel brief and uni-dimensional self-report measure, the present research examined the role of personality factors and preferences for violent video games. A scale of five items was administrated in two studies that involved 292 and 180 respondents, respectively. The same scale with two additional items was presented to 190 respondents in the third study, which included measures revealed by prior research to be relevant for understanding violent video game motivation and preference. More specifically, we measured participants' trait aggression, the Dark Triad traits of psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism. To test for the scale's discriminant validity, trait empathy was also included. In line with other findings in the literature (e.g., Greitemeyer, 2015), results obtained with the self-report measure indicated that players with a propensity for games featuring violent themes show callous, impulsive and exploitative attributes, whereas narcissism was not a significant predictor. However, and as already suggested by some authors (Hartmann, Möller, & Krause, 2014), a lack of empathy was found to predict violent game preferences. The present findings are important with regard to future research on video games that should focus more on the players and their gaming motivation than on the effects of playing alone. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to threaten male gamers: The effects of stereotype threat on video game performance
Wagener, Gary L.; Melzer, André UL

Poster (2018, May)

A total of 70 participants (47.1% men) took part in a lab experiment that manipulated stereotype threat (i.e., the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group) between playing a video game ... [more ▼]

A total of 70 participants (47.1% men) took part in a lab experiment that manipulated stereotype threat (i.e., the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group) between playing a video game (Bejeweled 3). Participants performed generally worse after reading a fictitious article on gaming research that women would still play less and perform worse in games than men (ST condition). In contrast to males, however, female participants reported greater frustration from reading this article than their colleagues who read that women and men no longer differ in terms of playing frequency and performance skills (no ST condition). Interestingly, a reverse pattern of results was obtained for male participants, who reported a stronger negative effect of the article in the no ST condition on their ability to show their best gaming performance. Apparently, stereotype threat may affect video game performance both for women and men, but for different reasons. [less ▲]

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See detailDark Souls like "Dark Souls": Personality Characteristics and Preference for Violent Video Games
Melzer, André UL; Engelberg, Elisabeth

Scientific Conference (2018, May)

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See detailAvatar Sex Moderates Aggression in Violent Video Games, But Only for Women
Melzer, André UL; Schmidt, Alexander F.

Poster (2017, September 07)

Three studies tested findings reported by Yang, Huesmann, and Bushman (2014) that playing a male avatar in a violent video game leads to greater aggression than playing a female avatar in the same game ... [more ▼]

Three studies tested findings reported by Yang, Huesmann, and Bushman (2014) that playing a male avatar in a violent video game leads to greater aggression than playing a female avatar in the same game. The male avatar effect was confirmed in Study 1 (N=79) for post-game aggression: compared to playing a female character, participants who had played the male fighter in a violent mixed martials arts game chose more Hot Sauce for another participant who allegedly disliked spicy food. In contrast to Yang et al. (2014), however, the male avatar effect was qualified by participant sex, indicating that the effect was more strongly pronounced and only significant for female participants. A similar interaction effect was observed in Study 2 (N=76) and Study 3 (N=70) for in-game aggression: only female participants playing a male avatar showed a greater hit ratio in a mixed martials arts game (Study 2) or a greater number of attacks in a brawler game (Study 3) than their colleagues who played a female avatar. At this stage, the reason for this cross-gender effect is unclear. Given that games allow for behavior (i.e., aggression) independent of socially shared gender norms, we may speculate that for women, male avatars may provide the opportunity to “step out” of prevailing social norms regarding non-aggressive female behavior and adopt the role of the (hyper-)aggressive male. However, this hypothesis needs to be tested in future studies. All three studies additionally tested the mediating effect of male gender stereotype activation that was hypothesized by Yang et al. (2014). In addition to priming violent behavior, and in line with the General Aggression Model, the authors had speculated that playing the male avatar automatically activated male gender stereotypes (i.e., aggressive thoughts and behavior) which then caused aggressive behavior. In order to address this activation hypothesis, we designed an indirect cognitive measure of gender role identity using the Positive-Negative Sex-Role Inventory (PN-SRI: Berger & Krahé, 2013). After participants played the violent game, positive and negative aspects of masculinity and femininity were presented as word fragments in a five-minute response window in Study 1 and 2. Fragment completion rates served as indicators of cognitive activation of male stereotypes. In Study 3, participants used the intact PN-SRI gender attributes to rate the avatar after playing the game. However, both direct and indirect measures failed to corroborate the stereotype activation hypothesis in the present studies: word fragments related to male stereotypes were not completed more often than fragments related to female stereotypes (Study 1 and 2). Also, neither in-game aggression nor success in the game was associated with how masculine participants perceived their fighter (Study 3). At the present stage, thus, the mechanisms underlying the gender effect that participants respond differently when playing a male or female avatar in a violent video game remain unclear. [less ▲]

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See detailExposure to Sexualized Pictures Primes Occupational Stereotypes
Melzer, André UL; Ramsperger, Stephan

Scientific Conference (2017, September 05)

Gender stereotypes in advertisements, magazines, or videogames often appear in the form of sexualized portrayals of women characterized by inappropriately foregrounding female sexuality. Women are shown ... [more ▼]

Gender stereotypes in advertisements, magazines, or videogames often appear in the form of sexualized portrayals of women characterized by inappropriately foregrounding female sexuality. Women are shown with highly revealing clothing and engaging in seductive acts. Sexualization may serve as a motivator to adopt congruent gender-related stereotypes in the viewers and, thus, influence beliefs about women in the real world, including negative effects on self-efficacy of women (Behm-Morawitz & Mastro, 2009). In two studies, sexualization had similar adverse effects on participants’ spontaneous judgments of occupational stereotypes and job classification. In a field study (Study 1, N=128), sexualized female game characters were spontaneously associated with jobs of lower prestige (e.g., hairdresser). In contrast, non-sexualized portrayals were linked to jobs of higher status (i.e., physician, educator). This detrimental effect of sexualized portrayal on occupational status was replicated for depictions of male and female fashion models in an online survey (Study 2, N=459). Moreover, this effect was partially mediated by ratings of lower perceived competence for sexualized portrayals of both men and women. The findings of the present studies extend the multifaceted negative effects of sexualization on stereotyping by showing that the resulting spontaneous competence judgments may have detrimental job-related consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effects of Sexualized Violence in Video Games on Rape Myth Acceptance
Fernandez de Henestrosa, Martha UL; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2017, May)

Previous research has tested the effects of video games on players’ Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) with regard to either sexual or violent contents. The current study aimed at investigating the combined ... [more ▼]

Previous research has tested the effects of video games on players’ Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) with regard to either sexual or violent contents. The current study aimed at investigating the combined effects of sexual and violent material in video games on players’ RMA. Participants (N = 82) played either a sexualized female game character or a non-sexualized female game character in a violent video game. Participants’ pre-gaming RMA, gender role attitudes and gaming habits were found to predict RMA after the gaming episode, but sexualized game violence did not. Furthermore, no gender differences were found with regard to RMA. The present findings corroborate the important role of pre-existing gender attitudes for the concept of RMA. In addition, future research should also focus on long-term exposure to video games and players’ gaming habits when examining the effects of sexualized violence in video games on RMA. [less ▲]

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See detailTrick with Treat – Reciprocity increases the willingness to communicate personal data.
Happ, Christian; Melzer, André UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2016, June)

Information security is a significant challenge for information and communication technologies (ICT). This includes withstanding attempts of social engineering aimed at manipulating people into divulging ... [more ▼]

Information security is a significant challenge for information and communication technologies (ICT). This includes withstanding attempts of social engineering aimed at manipulating people into divulging confidential information. However, many users are lacking awareness of the risks involved with, for example, password security. In a field survey that tested reciprocal behavior in social interactions, 1,208 participants were asked to reveal their personal password. More than one third of the participants shared their password with an unknown interviewer. In line with the social norm of reciprocity, people were more willing to do so when they received a small incentive (i.e., a piece of chocolate) before they were asked to reveal personal information. Elicitation was even more successful when the incentive was given right before asking for the password. The results, including moderating factors (e.g., age, gender), are discussed in the light of security awareness of ICT users and the mechanisms of psychological persuasion. [less ▲]

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See detailGame character appeal in the eye of the beholder: The role of gendered perceptions
Melzer, André UL; Engelberg, Elisabeth

Scientific Conference (2016, June)

There are numerous studies on the stereotyped nature of video game characters, but knowledge is sparse on the nature of their appeal to players. Based on prior work in mass media research, this study ... [more ▼]

There are numerous studies on the stereotyped nature of video game characters, but knowledge is sparse on the nature of their appeal to players. Based on prior work in mass media research, this study examined the inclination to play characters of both genders in a third person action game. The results of an online survey with 245 respondents strongly suggested that the actual gender of the game character per se might not necessarily be indicative of its appeal to players, but rather players’ perceptions of the character’s gendered attributes, that is, how masculine or feminine they perceive the respective character. Findings prompt further research on perceptual and cognitive determinants of characters’ appeal for potentially shedding light on the gender gap in video game usage. [less ▲]

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See detailTrick with treat – Reciprocity increases the willingness to communicate personal data
Happ, Christian; Melzer, André UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2016)

Information security is a significant challenge for information and communication technologies (ICT). This includes withstanding attempts of social engineering aimed at manipulating people into divulging ... [more ▼]

Information security is a significant challenge for information and communication technologies (ICT). This includes withstanding attempts of social engineering aimed at manipulating people into divulging confidential information. However, many users are lacking awareness of the risks involved. In a field survey that tested reciprocal behavior in social interactions, 1208 participants were asked to reveal their personal password. In line with the social norm of reciprocity, more than one third of the participants were willing to do so when they received a small incentive. Elicitation was even more successful when the incentive was given right before asking for the password. The results, including moderating factors (e.g., age, gender), are discussed in the light of security awareness of ICT users and the mechanisms of psychological persuasion. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6372 (49 UL)