References of "Melzer, André 50002377"
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See detailOf princesses, paladins, and player motivations: Gender stereotypes and gendered perceptions in video games
Melzer, André UL

in Pietschmann, Daniel; Liebold, Benny; Lange, Benjamin (Eds.) et al Digital hunter-gatherers: An evolutionary psychology approach to digital games (in press)

Video games have been labeled a male space, and playing video games an activity created by men and for men (Fox & Tang, 2014; see also Lange & Schwab, this volume). The present chapter analyses the ... [more ▼]

Video games have been labeled a male space, and playing video games an activity created by men and for men (Fox & Tang, 2014; see also Lange & Schwab, this volume). The present chapter analyses the typical roles of male and female video game characters, their presentation in games, their effects, and how players perceive these characters. To this end, gender in video games will be analyzed on different levels. Although women and men share the same overall interest in playing video games as a medium for entertainment, they differ substantially with regard to genres and game titles they prefer. These gender differences have been attributed to the overrepresentation of male characters in video games, uninviting game contents that strongly rely on competition and physical aggression, and the stereotypical portrayal and scripted behavioral patterns of hyper-masculine or “macho” male and sexualized female game characters. The issue of gender portrayals in video games will be discussed in the light of theoretical considerations on evolved dispositions that differ by sex versus the social structural account that attributes sex differences to the differing placement of women and men in the social structure. It will be argued that both theoretical approaches make similar predictions regarding gender-specific video game preferences. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 UL)
See detailVon Pong zur Panik? Videospiele als gesellschaftlich relevantes Forschungsthema
Melzer, André UL

in Amann, Wilhelm; Sieburg, Heinz (Eds.) Spiel-Räume. Das "Spiel" in Diskursen der Kultur und Wissenschaften (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 UL)
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See detailHow to threaten male gamers: The effects of stereotype threat on video game performance
Wagener, Gary L.; Melzer, André UL

Poster (2018, May)

A total of 70 participants (47.1% men) took part in a lab experiment that manipulated stereotype threat (i.e., the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group) between playing a video game ... [more ▼]

A total of 70 participants (47.1% men) took part in a lab experiment that manipulated stereotype threat (i.e., the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group) between playing a video game (Bejeweled 3). Participants performed generally worse after reading a fictitious article on gaming research that women would still play less and perform worse in games than men (ST condition). In contrast to males, however, female participants reported greater frustration from reading this article than their colleagues who read that women and men no longer differ in terms of playing frequency and performance skills (no ST condition). Interestingly, a reverse pattern of results was obtained for male participants, who reported a stronger negative effect of the article in the no ST condition on their ability to show their best gaming performance. Apparently, stereotype threat may affect video game performance both for women and men, but for different reasons. [less ▲]

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See detailDark Souls like "Dark Souls": Personality Characteristics and Preference for Violent Video Games
Melzer, André UL; Engelberg, Elisabeth

Scientific Conference (2018, May)

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See detailAvatar Sex Moderates Aggression in Violent Video Games, But Only for Women
Melzer, André UL; Schmidt, Alexander F.

Poster (2017, September 07)

Three studies tested findings reported by Yang, Huesmann, and Bushman (2014) that playing a male avatar in a violent video game leads to greater aggression than playing a female avatar in the same game ... [more ▼]

Three studies tested findings reported by Yang, Huesmann, and Bushman (2014) that playing a male avatar in a violent video game leads to greater aggression than playing a female avatar in the same game. The male avatar effect was confirmed in Study 1 (N=79) for post-game aggression: compared to playing a female character, participants who had played the male fighter in a violent mixed martials arts game chose more Hot Sauce for another participant who allegedly disliked spicy food. In contrast to Yang et al. (2014), however, the male avatar effect was qualified by participant sex, indicating that the effect was more strongly pronounced and only significant for female participants. A similar interaction effect was observed in Study 2 (N=76) and Study 3 (N=70) for in-game aggression: only female participants playing a male avatar showed a greater hit ratio in a mixed martials arts game (Study 2) or a greater number of attacks in a brawler game (Study 3) than their colleagues who played a female avatar. At this stage, the reason for this cross-gender effect is unclear. Given that games allow for behavior (i.e., aggression) independent of socially shared gender norms, we may speculate that for women, male avatars may provide the opportunity to “step out” of prevailing social norms regarding non-aggressive female behavior and adopt the role of the (hyper-)aggressive male. However, this hypothesis needs to be tested in future studies. All three studies additionally tested the mediating effect of male gender stereotype activation that was hypothesized by Yang et al. (2014). In addition to priming violent behavior, and in line with the General Aggression Model, the authors had speculated that playing the male avatar automatically activated male gender stereotypes (i.e., aggressive thoughts and behavior) which then caused aggressive behavior. In order to address this activation hypothesis, we designed an indirect cognitive measure of gender role identity using the Positive-Negative Sex-Role Inventory (PN-SRI: Berger & Krahé, 2013). After participants played the violent game, positive and negative aspects of masculinity and femininity were presented as word fragments in a five-minute response window in Study 1 and 2. Fragment completion rates served as indicators of cognitive activation of male stereotypes. In Study 3, participants used the intact PN-SRI gender attributes to rate the avatar after playing the game. However, both direct and indirect measures failed to corroborate the stereotype activation hypothesis in the present studies: word fragments related to male stereotypes were not completed more often than fragments related to female stereotypes (Study 1 and 2). Also, neither in-game aggression nor success in the game was associated with how masculine participants perceived their fighter (Study 3). At the present stage, thus, the mechanisms underlying the gender effect that participants respond differently when playing a male or female avatar in a violent video game remain unclear. [less ▲]

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See detailExposure to Sexualized Pictures Primes Occupational Stereotypes
Melzer, André UL; Ramsperger, Stephan

Scientific Conference (2017, September 05)

Gender stereotypes in advertisements, magazines, or videogames often appear in the form of sexualized portrayals of women characterized by inappropriately foregrounding female sexuality. Women are shown ... [more ▼]

Gender stereotypes in advertisements, magazines, or videogames often appear in the form of sexualized portrayals of women characterized by inappropriately foregrounding female sexuality. Women are shown with highly revealing clothing and engaging in seductive acts. Sexualization may serve as a motivator to adopt congruent gender-related stereotypes in the viewers and, thus, influence beliefs about women in the real world, including negative effects on self-efficacy of women (Behm-Morawitz & Mastro, 2009). In two studies, sexualization had similar adverse effects on participants’ spontaneous judgments of occupational stereotypes and job classification. In a field study (Study 1, N=128), sexualized female game characters were spontaneously associated with jobs of lower prestige (e.g., hairdresser). In contrast, non-sexualized portrayals were linked to jobs of higher status (i.e., physician, educator). This detrimental effect of sexualized portrayal on occupational status was replicated for depictions of male and female fashion models in an online survey (Study 2, N=459). Moreover, this effect was partially mediated by ratings of lower perceived competence for sexualized portrayals of both men and women. The findings of the present studies extend the multifaceted negative effects of sexualization on stereotyping by showing that the resulting spontaneous competence judgments may have detrimental job-related consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effects of Sexualized Violence in Video Games on Rape Myth Acceptance
Fernandez de Henestrosa, Martha UL; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2017, May)

Previous research has tested the effects of video games on players’ Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) with regard to either sexual or violent contents. The current study aimed at investigating the combined ... [more ▼]

Previous research has tested the effects of video games on players’ Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) with regard to either sexual or violent contents. The current study aimed at investigating the combined effects of sexual and violent material in video games on players’ RMA. Participants (N = 82) played either a sexualized female game character or a non-sexualized female game character in a violent video game. Participants’ pre-gaming RMA, gender role attitudes and gaming habits were found to predict RMA after the gaming episode, but sexualized game violence did not. Furthermore, no gender differences were found with regard to RMA. The present findings corroborate the important role of pre-existing gender attitudes for the concept of RMA. In addition, future research should also focus on long-term exposure to video games and players’ gaming habits when examining the effects of sexualized violence in video games on RMA. [less ▲]

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See detailGame character appeal in the eye of the beholder: The role of gendered perceptions
Melzer, André UL; Engelberg, Elisabeth

Scientific Conference (2016, June)

There are numerous studies on the stereotyped nature of video game characters, but knowledge is sparse on the nature of their appeal to players. Based on prior work in mass media research, this study ... [more ▼]

There are numerous studies on the stereotyped nature of video game characters, but knowledge is sparse on the nature of their appeal to players. Based on prior work in mass media research, this study examined the inclination to play characters of both genders in a third person action game. The results of an online survey with 245 respondents strongly suggested that the actual gender of the game character per se might not necessarily be indicative of its appeal to players, but rather players’ perceptions of the character’s gendered attributes, that is, how masculine or feminine they perceive the respective character. Findings prompt further research on perceptual and cognitive determinants of characters’ appeal for potentially shedding light on the gender gap in video game usage. [less ▲]

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See detailTrick with Treat – Reciprocity increases the willingness to communicate personal data.
Happ, Christian; Melzer, André UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2016, June)

Information security is a significant challenge for information and communication technologies (ICT). This includes withstanding attempts of social engineering aimed at manipulating people into divulging ... [more ▼]

Information security is a significant challenge for information and communication technologies (ICT). This includes withstanding attempts of social engineering aimed at manipulating people into divulging confidential information. However, many users are lacking awareness of the risks involved with, for example, password security. In a field survey that tested reciprocal behavior in social interactions, 1,208 participants were asked to reveal their personal password. More than one third of the participants shared their password with an unknown interviewer. In line with the social norm of reciprocity, people were more willing to do so when they received a small incentive (i.e., a piece of chocolate) before they were asked to reveal personal information. Elicitation was even more successful when the incentive was given right before asking for the password. The results, including moderating factors (e.g., age, gender), are discussed in the light of security awareness of ICT users and the mechanisms of psychological persuasion. [less ▲]

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See detailTrick with treat – Reciprocity increases the willingness to communicate personal data
Happ, Christian; Melzer, André UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2016)

Information security is a significant challenge for information and communication technologies (ICT). This includes withstanding attempts of social engineering aimed at manipulating people into divulging ... [more ▼]

Information security is a significant challenge for information and communication technologies (ICT). This includes withstanding attempts of social engineering aimed at manipulating people into divulging confidential information. However, many users are lacking awareness of the risks involved. In a field survey that tested reciprocal behavior in social interactions, 1208 participants were asked to reveal their personal password. In line with the social norm of reciprocity, more than one third of the participants were willing to do so when they received a small incentive. Elicitation was even more successful when the incentive was given right before asking for the password. The results, including moderating factors (e.g., age, gender), are discussed in the light of security awareness of ICT users and the mechanisms of psychological persuasion. [less ▲]

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See detailDo moral concerns predict moral memory after playing violent video games?
Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2015, May 23)

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (1 UL)
See detailHow to measure aggressive behavior in the lab?
Melzer, André UL

Presentation (2015, February 02)

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See detailVideo games and their effects: the Pros and Cons of a fascinating medium.
Melzer, André UL

Presentation (2015, February 01)

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (4 UL)
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See detailParental Mediation of Children’s Television and Video Game Use in Germany: Active and Embedded in Family Processes
Schaan, Violetta UL; Melzer, André UL

in Journal of Children and Media (2015), 9(1), 58-76

In a survey study, 158 dyads of German parents and their 9 to 12-year-old children reported on their television and video game (VG) consumption, parental mediation strategies, and family climate. Parents ... [more ▼]

In a survey study, 158 dyads of German parents and their 9 to 12-year-old children reported on their television and video game (VG) consumption, parental mediation strategies, and family climate. Parents also reported their beliefs concerning media effects. We found that mediation strategies differ from acknowledged media usage conceptions in that parents play a more active role than previously assumed. Restrictive mediation comprises rules and restrictions, but also parents’ educative explanations that media do not reflect reality. Patronizing mediation includes shared media consumption, but also parents commenting on media contents. Pointing out and emphasizing socio-emotional features in the media (e.g., empathy) characterize active-emotional co-use (AEC). Regression analyses revealed that parental fear of negative media effects predicted both AEC and restrictive mediation. Children and parents’ congruent perceptions of family interactions predicted AEC and patronizing VG mediation. Overall, positive ratings of family interactions were associated with children using media less frequently. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 172 (41 UL)
See detailMediennutzung und Medienwirkung
Melzer, André UL

in Steffgen, Georges; Michaux, Gilles; Ferring, Dieter (Eds.) Psychologie in Luxemburg. Ein Handuch. (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 163 (1 UL)
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See detailEmpathy and Violent Video Games: Aggression and Prosocial Behavior
Happ, Christian; Melzer, André UL

Book published by Palgrave Pivot - Palgrave Studies in Cyberpsychology (2014)

The high levels of violence in video games have often been linked to an apparent decrease in empathy and increase in selfishness in Western society, yet surprisingly little research has been conducted on ... [more ▼]

The high levels of violence in video games have often been linked to an apparent decrease in empathy and increase in selfishness in Western society, yet surprisingly little research has been conducted on the role of empathy in the context of media. Through three empirical studies, this book explores the mechanisms behind moderating functions of empathy. The chapters discuss factors such as character played and players' interpretation of the character, as well as the effects of inducing empathy before playing a video game upon emotion, cognition and behaviour. The book reveals new insights that will inform the ongoing debates about the effects of violent media content. [less ▲]

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See detailMoral disengagement, media preferences, and the effects of violent video games
Melzer, André UL; Happ, Christian; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2014, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (0 UL)