References of "Ludwig, Stephan"
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See detailPlatelet activation and aggregation promote lung inflammation and influenza virus pathogenesis.
Le, Vuong Ba; Schneider, Jochen UL; Boergeling, Yvonne et al

in American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine (2015), 191(7), 804-19

RATIONALE: The hallmark of severe influenza virus infection is excessive inflammation of the lungs. Platelets are activated during influenza, but their role in influenza virus pathogenesis and ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: The hallmark of severe influenza virus infection is excessive inflammation of the lungs. Platelets are activated during influenza, but their role in influenza virus pathogenesis and inflammatory responses is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of platelets during influenza A virus infections and propose new therapeutics against influenza. METHODS: We used targeted gene deletion approaches and pharmacologic interventions to investigate the role of platelets during influenza virus infection in mice. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Lungs of infected mice were massively infiltrated by aggregates of activated platelets. Platelet activation promoted influenza A virus pathogenesis. Activating protease-activated receptor 4, a platelet receptor for thrombin that is crucial for platelet activation, exacerbated influenza-induced acute lung injury and death. In contrast, deficiency in the major platelet receptor glycoprotein IIIa protected mice from death caused by influenza viruses, and treating the mice with a specific glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist, eptifibatide, had the same effect. Interestingly, mice treated with other antiplatelet compounds (antagonists of protease-activated receptor 4, MRS 2179, and clopidogrel) were also protected from severe lung injury and lethal infections induced by several influenza strains. CONCLUSIONS: The intricate relationship between hemostasis and inflammation has major consequences in influenza virus pathogenesis, and antiplatelet drugs might be explored to develop new antiinflammatory treatment against influenza virus infections. [less ▲]

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See detailInterleukin-27 displays interferon-gamma-like functions in human hepatoma cells and hepatocytes.
Bender, Herdis; Wiesinger, Monique UL; Nordhoff, Carolin et al

in Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) (2009), 50(2), 585-91

Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a cytokine belonging to the IL-6/IL-12 cytokine family. It is secreted by antigen-presenting cells, strongly acts on T cells, and also stimulates innate immune cells. In most ... [more ▼]

Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a cytokine belonging to the IL-6/IL-12 cytokine family. It is secreted by antigen-presenting cells, strongly acts on T cells, and also stimulates innate immune cells. In most studies, the effects of IL-27 on T cells were investigated; however, not much is known about possible effects of IL-27 on other cell types. IL-27 signals via the common IL-6-type cytokine receptor chain gp130 and the IL-27-specific chain WSX-1. Given the importance of gp130 in regulating liver responses such as the acute phase response or liver regeneration, we investigated whether IL-27 could also have a function in liver cells. We find that IL-27 stimulates hepatoma cells and hepatocytes by inducing a sustained signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 and STAT3 activation. Whereas the STAT3 mediated responses to IL-27 (gamma-fibrinogen and hepcidin induction) are not detectable, we observe an interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-like STAT1 response leading to the induction of interferon-regulated proteins such as STAT1, STAT2, interferon response factor (IRF)-1, IRF-9, myxovirus resistance A and guanylate binding protein 2. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence for a function of IL-27 in hepatoma cells and hepatocytes and shows that IL-27 responses are not restricted to the classical immune cells. Our results suggest that IL-27 exerts IFN-like functions in liver cells and that it can contribute to the antiviral response in these cells. [less ▲]

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