References of "Ludvigsson, J"
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See detailBreast-feeding and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a pooled analysis of individual participant data from 43 observational studies
Cardwell, C.R.; Stene, L.C.; Ludvigsson, J. et al

in Diabetes Care (2012), 35(11), 2215-2225

OBJECTIVE To investigate if there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children breastfed or exclusively breastfed by performing a pooled analysis with adjustment for recognized confounders. RESEARCH ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE To investigate if there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children breastfed or exclusively breastfed by performing a pooled analysis with adjustment for recognized confounders. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Relevant studies were identified from literature searches using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Authors of relevant studies were asked to provide individual participant data or conduct prespecified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to combine odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS Data were available from 43 studies including 9,874 patients with type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was a reduction in the risk of diabetes after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks (20 studies; OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.88), the association after exclusive breast-feeding for >3 months was weaker (30 studies; OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.75–1.00), and no association was observed after (nonexclusive) breast-feeding for >2 weeks (28 studies; OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.81–1.07) or >3 months (29 studies; OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78–1.00). These associations were all subject to marked heterogeneity (I2 = 58, 76, 54, and 68%, respectively). In studies with lower risk of bias, the reduced risk after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks remained (12 studies; OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.99), and heterogeneity was reduced (I2 = 0%). Adjustments for potential confounders altered these estimates very little. CONCLUSIONS The pooled analysis suggests weak protective associations between exclusive breast-feeding and type 1 diabetes risk. However, these findings are difficult to interpret because of the marked variation in effect and possible biases (particularly recall bias) inherent in the included studies. [less ▲]

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See detailInterbirth Interval Is Associated With Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Risk
Cardwell, C.R.; Svensson, J.; Waldhoer, T. et al

in Diabetes (2012), 61(3), 702-707

Short interbirth interval has been associated with maternal complications and childhood autism and leukemia, possibly due to deficiencies in maternal micronutrients at conception or increased exposure to ... [more ▼]

Short interbirth interval has been associated with maternal complications and childhood autism and leukemia, possibly due to deficiencies in maternal micronutrients at conception or increased exposure to sibling infections. A possible association between interbirth interval and subsequent risk of childhood type 1 diabetes has not been investigated. A secondary analysis of 14 published observational studies of perinatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes was conducted. Risk estimates of diabetes by category of interbirth interval were calculated for each study. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Overall, 2,787 children with type 1 diabetes were included. There was a reduction in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals andlt;3 years compared with longer interbirth intervals (OR 0.82 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). Adjustments for various potential confounders little altered this estimate. In conclusion, there was evidence of a 20% reduction in the risk of childhood diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals andlt;3 years. [less ▲]

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See detailBirth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: A pooled analysis of 31 observational studies
Cardwell, C. R.; Stene, L. C.; Joner, G. et al

in International Journal of Epidemiology (2011), 40(2), 363-374

Background: The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether ... [more ▼]

Background: The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous studies. Methods: Relevant studies published before January 2010 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of studies provided individual patient data or conducted pre-specified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios (ORs), before and after adjustment for confounders, and investigate heterogeneity. Results: Data were available for 6 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 11 955 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was no evidence of an association prior to adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for maternal age at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second-or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR=0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P=0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I2=67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed that the association was stronger and more consistent in children <5years of age (n=25 studies, maternal age adjusted OR=0.84 95% CI 0.75, 0.93; I2=23%). Conclusion: Although the association varied between studies, there was some evidence of a lower risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes with increasing birth order, particularly in children aged <5 years. This finding could reflect increased exposure to infections in early life in later born children. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2010; all rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA cross-sectional international survey of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in 377 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus from 10 countries
Danne, T.; Battelino, T.; Kordonouri, O. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2005), 6

OBJECTIVE: To document current practices using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by downloading electronically the 90-d pump data held within the pump memory and relating that to clinical ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To document current practices using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by downloading electronically the 90-d pump data held within the pump memory and relating that to clinical data from children and adolescents in different pediatric diabetes centers from Europe and Israel. METHODS: Data of patients (1-18 yr) treated with CSII in 23 centers from nine European countries and Israel were recorded with the encapture software (PEC International, Frankfurt, Germany). The number of patients who participated was 377 (48% female; mean diabetes duration +/- SD: 6.8 +/- 3.7 yr; age: 12.9 +/- 3.8 yr, preschool n = 33; prepubertal n = 95; adolescent n = 249; CSII duration: 1.6 +/- 1.2 yr; local HbA1c: 8.1 +/- 1.2%). RESULTS: The total insulin dose was lower than previously reported for injection therapy (0.79 +/- 0.20 U/kg/d). Covariance coefficient of daily total insulin was high in all age groups (adolescents 19 +/- 9%, prepubertal 18 +/- 8 and preschool 17 +/- 8). The distribution of basal insulin infusion rates over 24 hr (48 +/- 12% of total dose) varied significantly between centers and age groups. The number of boluses per day (7 +/- 3) was not significantly different between the age groups (average daily bolus amount: 0.42 +/- 0.16 U/kg). The rate of severe hypoglycemia (coma/convulsions) was 12.4 episodes per 100 patient-years and the number of diabetes-related hospital days was 124 per 100 patient-years. DISCUSSION: Pediatric CSII patients show a high variability in their insulin therapy. This relates both to age-dependent differences in the distribution of basal insulin as to the age-independent day-to-day variation in prandial insulin. [less ▲]

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See detailHLA Dr3 is associated with a more slowly progressive form of IDDM
Ludvigsson, J.; Samuelson, U.; De Beaufort, Carine UL et al

in Diabetologia (1986), 29

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