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See detailThe gambling craving experience questionnaire: Psychometric properties of a new scale based on the elaborated intrusion theory of desire
Cornil, Aurélien; Long, Jiang; Rothen, Stéphane et al

in Addictive Behaviors (2019), 95

Both research and clinical practice acknowledge the importance of craving as a maintenance and relapse factor in gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT; Kavanagh et al., 2005) of desire ... [more ▼]

Both research and clinical practice acknowledge the importance of craving as a maintenance and relapse factor in gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT; Kavanagh et al., 2005) of desire has been extensively investigated in relation to psychoactive substance or food cravings but, to date, has scarcely been studied in relation to gambling. In such a context, developing an assessment tool of gambling craving based on the EIT is warranted. To fill this gap in the literature, we aimed to develop and test the psychometric properties of a gambling-adapted version of the Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ; May et al., 2014), which is the best established measure of craving theoretically anchored in the EIT. An online survey that included the gambling CEQ (g-CEQ) and a craving induction procedure was administered to 274 community participants involved in gambling at least a few times a year. Concurrent and convergent validity were explored through correlations with a scale that measured gambling urge and with a series of questionnaires that measured disordered gambling symptoms, gambling cognitions, and gambling motives. The confirmatory factor analyses supported the validity of the expected three-factor model of the “strength” and “frequency” forms of the g-CEQ and showed better model fit than a one-factor solution, corroborating the initial structure of the CEQ. Furthermore, the scale has good internal consistency and its validity is supported by correlations with gambling-related constructs. The g-CEQ is thus a theoretically and psychometrically sound instrument to measure gambling craving based on the EIT. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and Correlates of Problematic Online Gaming: a Systematic Review of the Evidence Published in Chinese
Long, Jiang; Liu, Tieqiao; Liu, Yueheng et al

in Current Addiction Reports (2018), 5(3), 359-371

Purpose of Review With the ongoing debate about whether problematic online gaming (POG) constitutes a genuine mental disorder, it is important for all available evidence in the field to be accessible. In ... [more ▼]

Purpose of Review With the ongoing debate about whether problematic online gaming (POG) constitutes a genuine mental disorder, it is important for all available evidence in the field to be accessible. In this systematic review, we summarize the numerous results related to POG published in Chinese in order to make them more accessible to the international community. Recent Findings We identified 36 relevant studies published in Chinese (7 epidemiological, 21 related to psychological factors, and 8 related to neurocognitive exploration, involving 362,328 participants in total). According to the literature, the prevalence rates of POG in China range from 3.5 to 17%, which is higher than those reported worldwide. Overall, the data published in Chinese are consistent with the international literature. Some distinctive findings emerged, however, in particular in relation to familial, scholastic, and social factors; cognitive impairments; and functional changes in neural circuits. Summary This review is the first to render available articles on POG in Chinese for the international community, which could contribute to the current debate on the status of POG as a genuine mental health condition. Crucially, findings from the Chinese literature often resulted from studies conducted on large random or clinical samples. This is important because a repeated criticism about the recognition of POG as a genuine disorder is the fact that the evidence-based results rely heavily on convenience samples of nonclinical participants. [less ▲]

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See detailIncluding gaming disorder in the ICD-11: The need to do so from a clinical and public health perspective.
Rumpf, Hans-Jurgen; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (2018), 7(3), 556-561

The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate ... [more ▼]

The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective. It is important to recognize a range of biases that may influence this debate; in particular, the gaming industry may wish to diminish its responsibility by claiming that GD is not a public health problem, a position which maybe supported by arguments from scholars based in media psychology, computer games research, communication science, and related disciplines. However, just as with any other disease or disorder in the ICD-11, the decision whether or not to include GD is based on clinical evidence and public health needs. Therefore, we reiterate our conclusion that including GD reflects the essence of the ICD and will facilitate treatment and prevention for those who need it. [less ▲]

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See detailPassion or addiction ? Correlates of healthy versus problematic use of videogames in a sample of French-speaking regular gamers
Deleuze, Jory; Long, Jiang; Liu, Tie-Qiao et al

in Addictive Behaviors (2018), 82

A criticism of current diagnostic approaches to gaming disorder is that they fail to take into account that high and repeated engagement is not problematic per se, nor is it necessarily associated with ... [more ▼]

A criticism of current diagnostic approaches to gaming disorder is that they fail to take into account that high and repeated engagement is not problematic per se, nor is it necessarily associated with adverse consequences. To tackle this controversy, we used confirmatory factor analysis to test, in regular gamers (N = 268), whether high (but healthy) engagement can be distinguished from problematic engagement by using the Addiction-Engagement Questionnaire (Charlton & Danforth, 2007). We then tested whether differential relationships exist between the engagement and addiction constructs, DSM-5 criteria for Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and psychological factors linked to gaming use and misuse (self-reported impulsivity, motives to play, and depression). Results indicated that a model holding engagement and addiction as two distinct, but related, constructs fits the data well. Second, we showed that although both constructs are linked to the number of IGD criteria endorsed, the relationship is more pronounced for the addiction construct. Third, a differential pattern of correlations was observed with the other study variables, further supporting the need to distinguish the two constructs. Our study emphasizes that research is needed to refine the diagnostic approach to gaming disorder to avoid conflating healthy passion with pathological behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional impairment matters in the screening and diagnosis of gaming disorder
Billieux, Joël UL; King, Daniel Luke; Higuchi, Susumu et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2017), 6(3), 285-289

This commentary responds to Aarseth et al.’s (in press) criticisms that the ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal would result in “moral panics around the harm of video gaming” and “the treatment of abundant ... [more ▼]

This commentary responds to Aarseth et al.’s (in press) criticisms that the ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal would result in “moral panics around the harm of video gaming” and “the treatment of abundant false-positive cases.” The ICD-11 Gaming Disorder avoids potential “overpathologizing” with its explicit reference to functional impairment caused by gaming and therefore improves upon a number of flawed previous approaches to identifying cases with suspected gaming-related harms. We contend that moral panics are more likely to occur and be exacerbated by misinformation and lack of understanding, rather than proceed from having a clear diagnostic system [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic smartphone use and its relation with anxiety and depression: a survey in a large sample of undergraduates
Liu, Yueheng; Long, Jiang; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Chinese Journal of Psychiatry (2017), 50(4), 270-275

[Objective] To investigate the differences of socio-demographics and smartphone use features among Chinese college students between problematic smartphone user (PSU) and non-PSU, and to clarify the link ... [more ▼]

[Objective] To investigate the differences of socio-demographics and smartphone use features among Chinese college students between problematic smartphone user (PSU) and non-PSU, and to clarify the link between PSU and psychopathological symptoms (anxiety and depression). [Methods] A total of 1 205 undergraduates from 35 classes of 8 universities or colleges, stratified with different school levels, were selected using the cluster random sampling strategy. The Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire (PCPUQ) was used to identify problematic use of smartphone use, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. [Results] The prevalence of PSU among undergraduates was estimated to be 20.6% (207/1 006). There were significant differences between PSU and non-PSU on their major of either science category or humanities category (χ2=11.424 ,P<0.01), grade (χ2=5.868 ,P<0.05), monthly living expense supported by their family (χ2=12.713 ,P<0.01), daily time spent on their smartphones (χ2=20.052, P<0.01), frequency of changing the mobile phones (χ2=14.511 ,P<0.01) and monthly smartphone bill (χ2=13.107, P< 0.01). Furthermore, the self rated anxiety (34.8% (72/207) vs. 14.6% (117/799),χ2=43.704, P<0.01) and depression (36.2%(75/207) vs. 15.4%(123/799), χ2=45.159,P<0.01) were both found more elevated in PSU than non-PSU. [Conclusion] Some common sociodemographic variables and smartphone usage patterns were identified in undergraduates displaying PSU. Moreover, PSU is associated with more elevated anxiety and depression symptoms. Problematic smartphone use and its relation with anxiety and depression: a survey in a large sample of undergraduates (Article in Chinese). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318762637_Problematic_smartphone_use_and_its_relation_with_anxiety_and_depression_a_survey_in_a_large_sample_of_undergraduates_Article_in_Chinese [accessed Aug 2, 2017]. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and correlates of problematic smartphone use in a large random sample of Chinese undergraduates.
Long, Jiang; Liu, Tie-Qiao; Liao, Yan-Hui et al

in BMC psychiatry (2016), 16(1), 408

BACKGROUND: Smartphones are becoming a daily necessity for most undergraduates in Mainland China. Because the present scenario of problematic smartphone use (PSU) is largely unexplored, in the current ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Smartphones are becoming a daily necessity for most undergraduates in Mainland China. Because the present scenario of problematic smartphone use (PSU) is largely unexplored, in the current study we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PSU and to screen suitable predictors for PSU among Chinese undergraduates in the framework of the stress-coping theory. METHODS: A sample of 1062 undergraduate smartphone users was recruited by means of the stratified cluster random sampling strategy between April and May 2015. The Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire was used to identify PSU. We evaluated five candidate risk factors for PSU by using logistic regression analysis while controlling for demographic characteristics and specific features of smartphone use. RESULTS: The prevalence of PSU among Chinese undergraduates was estimated to be 21.3%. The risk factors for PSU were majoring in the humanities, high monthly income from the family (>/=1500 RMB), serious emotional symptoms, high perceived stress, and perfectionism-related factors (high doubts about actions, high parental expectations). CONCLUSIONS: PSU among undergraduates appears to be ubiquitous and thus constitutes a public health issue in Mainland China. Although further longitudinal studies are required to test whether PSU is a transient phenomenon or a chronic and progressive condition, our study successfully identified socio-demographic and psychological risk factors for PSU. These results, obtained from a random and thus representative sample of undergraduates, opens up new avenues in terms of prevention and regulation policies. [less ▲]

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