References of "Lohmann, Katja"
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See detailGenotype-phenotype relations for the Parkinson’s disease genes SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35: MDSGene Review.
Trinh, Joanne; Zeldenrust, Florentine M. J.; Huang, Jana et al

in Movement Disorders (2018), 33(12), 1857-1870

This comprehensive MDSGene review is devoted to the three autosomal-dominant PD forms: PARK-SNCA, PARK-LRRK2, and PARK-VPS35. It follows MDSGene's standardized data extraction protocol, screened a total ... [more ▼]

This comprehensive MDSGene review is devoted to the three autosomal-dominant PD forms: PARK-SNCA, PARK-LRRK2, and PARK-VPS35. It follows MDSGene's standardized data extraction protocol, screened a total of 2,972 citations, and is based on fully curated phenotypic and genotypic data on 937 patients with dominantly inherited PD attributed to 44 different mutations in SNCA, LRRK2, or VPS35. All of these data are also available in an easily searchable online database (www.mdsgene.org), which additionally provides descriptive summary statistics on phenotypic and genetic data. Despite the high degree of missingness of phenotypic features and unsystematic reporting of genotype data in the original literature, the present review recapitulates many of the previously described findings including later onset of disease (median age at onset: ∼49 years) compared to recessive forms of PD of an overall excellent treatment response. Our systematic review validates previous reports showing that SNCA mutation carriers have a younger age at onset compared to LRRK2 and VPS35 (P < 0.001). SNCA mutation carriers often have additional psychiatric symptoms, and although not exclusive to only LRRK2 or VPS35 mutation carriers, LRRK2 mutation carriers have a typical form of PD, and, lastly, VPS35 mutation carriers have good response to l-dopa. [less ▲]

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See detailFDG-PET and metabolomics in PD-associated GBA variants
Greuel, Andrea; Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Glaab, Enrico UL et al

in Movement Disorders (2018), 33(2), 599

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See detailFaithful SGCE imprinting in iPSC-derived cortical neurons: an endogenous cellular model of myoclonus-dystonia
Grütz, Karen; Weisbach, Anne; Lohmann, Katja et al

in Scientific Reports (2017)

In neuropathology research, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons are considered a tool closely resembling the patient brain. Albeit in respect to epigenetics, this concept has been ... [more ▼]

In neuropathology research, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons are considered a tool closely resembling the patient brain. Albeit in respect to epigenetics, this concept has been challenged. We generated iPSC-derived cortical neurons from myoclonus-dystonia patients with mutations (W100G and R102X) in the maternally imprinted ε-sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene and analysed properties such as imprinting, mRNA and protein expression. Comparison of the promoter during reprogramming and differentiation showed tissue-independent differential methylation. DNA sequencing with methylation-specific primers and cDNA analysis in patient neurons indicated selective expression of the mutated paternal SGCE allele. While fibroblasts only expressed the ubiquitous mRNA isoform, brain-specific SGCE mRNA and ε-sarcoglycan protein were detected in iPSC-derived control neurons. However, neuronal protein levels were reduced in both mutants. Our phenotypic characterization highlights the suitability of iPSC-derived cortical neurons with SGCE mutations for myoclonus-dystonia research and, in more general terms, prompts the use of iPSC-derived cellular models to study epigenetic mechanisms impacting on health and disease. [less ▲]

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See detailEIF4G1 is neither a strong nor a common risk factor for Parkinson's disease: evidence from large European cohorts
Huttenlocher, Johanna; Krüger, Rejko UL; Capetian, Philipp et al

in Journal of medical genetics (2014), 0

BACKGROUND: Missense mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-gamma 1 (EIF4G1) gene have previously been implicated in familial Parkinson's disease (PD). A large PD family with ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Missense mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-gamma 1 (EIF4G1) gene have previously been implicated in familial Parkinson's disease (PD). A large PD family with autosomal-dominant segregation showed a heterozygous missense mutation and additional patients were found to have unique sequence variants that have not been observed in controls. Subsequent studies have reported contradictory findings. METHODS: We assessed the relevance of EIF4G1 mutations in a European cohort of 2146 PD patients. Of these, 2051 sporadic PD patients were screened for the reported p.Ala502Val and p.Arg1205His mutations. In addition, the complete coding region of EIF4G1 was directly sequenced in 95 familial PD patients with autosomal-dominant inheritance. Moreover, we imputed the p.Arg1205His substitution and tested for association with PD in the Icelandic population (93 698 samples). RESULTS: We did not observe the presence of the p.Ala502Val substitution in our cohort; however, the p.Arg1205His mutation was identified in one sporadic PD patient. The same mutation was also found in 76 Icelandic subjects older than 65 years using haplotype imputing. Only five of these subjects reported PD symptoms (OR 1.3, p=0.50). Thus, if causal, the p.Arg1205His EIF4G1 mutation has a low penetrance or a late onset manifestation. A novel variant p.Arg566Cys found in a patient with familial PD did not cosegregate with PD in all three affected siblings. All further recently published EIF4G1 mutations found in our cohort are likely to be benign polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest genetic study of EIF4G1 mutations in PD. Our data do not support the EIF4G1 gene as a high-risk PD locus, neither for the familial nor the sporadic condition. Furthermore, the p.Arg1205His mutation is not significantly associated with increased risk of PD in the Icelandic population. Therefore, caution should be exercised when interpreting EIF4G1 genotyping results in isolated patients and PD families. In summary, diagnostic testing of EIF4G1 should not be recommended in clinical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailProtective effect of LRRK2 p.R1398H on risk of Parkinson's disease is independent of MAPT and SNCA variants.
Heckman, Michael G.; Elbaz, Alexis; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I. et al

in Neurobiology of aging (2014), 35(1), 2665-14

The best validated susceptibility variants for Parkinson's disease are located in the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) genes. Recently, a protective p.N551K-R1398H ... [more ▼]

The best validated susceptibility variants for Parkinson's disease are located in the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) genes. Recently, a protective p.N551K-R1398H-K1423K haplotype in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene was identified, with p.R1398H appearing to be the most likely functional variant. To date, the consistency of the protective effect of LRRK2 p.R1398H across MAPT and SNCA variant genotypes has not been assessed. To address this, we examined 4 SNCA variants (rs181489, rs356219, rs11931074, and rs2583988), the MAPT H1-haplotype-defining variant rs1052553, and LRRK2 p.R1398H (rs7133914) in Caucasian (n = 10,322) and Asian (n = 2289) series. There was no evidence of an interaction of LRRK2 p.R1398H with MAPT or SNCA variants (all p >/= 0.10); the protective effect of p.R1398H was observed at similar magnitude across MAPT and SNCA genotypes, and the risk effects of MAPT and SNCA variants were observed consistently for LRRK2 p.R1398H genotypes. Our results indicate that the association of LRRK2 p.R1398H with Parkinson's disease is independent of SNCA and MAPT variants, and vice versa, in Caucasian and Asian populations. [less ▲]

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See detailTHAP1, the gene mutated in DYT6 dystonia, autoregulates its own expression.
Erogullari, Alev; Hollstein, Ronja; Seibler, Philip et al

in Biochimica et biophysica acta (2014), 1839(11), 1196-204

THAP1 encodes a transcription factor but its regulation is largely elusive. TOR1A was shown to be repressed by THAP1 in vitro. Notably, mutations in both of these genes lead to dystonia (DYT6 or DYT1 ... [more ▼]

THAP1 encodes a transcription factor but its regulation is largely elusive. TOR1A was shown to be repressed by THAP1 in vitro. Notably, mutations in both of these genes lead to dystonia (DYT6 or DYT1). Surprisingly, expressional changes of TOR1A in THAP1 mutation carriers have not been detected indicating additional levels of regulation. Here, we investigated whether THAP1 is able to autoregulate its own expression. Using in-silico prediction, luciferase reporter gene assays, and (quantitative) chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we defined the THAP1 minimal promoter to a 480bp-fragment and demonstrated specific binding of THAP1 to this region which resulted in repression of the THAP1 promoter. This autoregulation was disturbed by different DYT6-causing mutations. Two mutants (Ser6Phe, Arg13His) were shown to be less stable than wildtype THAP1 adding to the effect of reduced binding to the THAP1 promoter. Overexpressed THAP1 is preferably degraded through the proteasome. Notably, endogenous THAP1 expression was significantly reduced in cells overexpressing wildtype THAP1 as demonstrated by quantitative PCR. In contrast, higher THAP1 levels were detected in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)-derived neurons from THAP1 mutation carriers. Thus, we identified a feedback-loop in the regulation of THAP1 expression and demonstrated that mutant THAP1 leads to higher THAP1 expression levels. This compensatory autoregulation may contribute to the mean age at onset in the late teen years or even reduced penetrance in some THAP1 mutation carriers. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-wide association study in musician's dystonia: a risk variant at the arylsulfatase G locus?
Lohmann, Katja; Schmidt, Alexander; Schillert, Arne et al

in Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society (2014), 29(7), 921-7

Musician's dystonia (MD) affects 1% to 2% of professional musicians and frequently terminates performance careers. It is characterized by loss of voluntary motor control when playing the instrument ... [more ▼]

Musician's dystonia (MD) affects 1% to 2% of professional musicians and frequently terminates performance careers. It is characterized by loss of voluntary motor control when playing the instrument. Little is known about genetic risk factors, although MD or writer's dystonia (WD) occurs in relatives of 20% of MD patients. We conducted a 2-stage genome-wide association study in whites. Genotypes at 557,620 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) passed stringent quality control for 127 patients and 984 controls. Ten SNPs revealed P < 10(-5) and entered the replication phase including 116 MD patients and 125 healthy musicians. A genome-wide significant SNP (P < 5 x 10(-8) ) was also genotyped in 208 German or Dutch WD patients, 1,969 Caucasian, Spanish, and Japanese patients with other forms of focal or segmental dystonia as well as in 2,233 ethnically matched controls. Genome-wide significance with MD was observed for an intronic variant in the arylsulfatase G (ARSG) gene (rs11655081; P = 3.95 x 10(-9) ; odds ratio [OR], 4.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.66-7.05). rs11655081 was also associated with WD (P = 2.78 x 10(-2) ) but not with any other focal or segmental dystonia. The allele frequency of rs11655081 varies substantially between different populations. The population stratification in our sample was modest (lambda = 1.07), but the effect size may be overestimated. Using a small but homogenous patient sample, we provide data for a possible association of ARSG with MD. The variant may also contribute to the risk of WD, a form of dystonia that is often found in relatives of MD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailMortalin mutations are not a frequent cause of early-onset Parkinson disease.
Freimann, Karen; Zschiedrich, Katja; Bruggemann, Norbert et al

in Neurobiology of aging (2013), 34(11), 269419-20

Dysfunctional mitochondria and the mitochondrial chaperone mortalin (HSPA9, GRP75) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). We screened 139 early-onset PD (EOPD) patients for ... [more ▼]

Dysfunctional mitochondria and the mitochondrial chaperone mortalin (HSPA9, GRP75) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). We screened 139 early-onset PD (EOPD) patients for mutations in mortalin revealing one missense change (p.L358P) that was absent in 279 control individuals. We also found one additional missense variant among the controls (p.T333K). Although both missense changes were predicted to be disease causing, we detected no differences in subcellular localization, mitochondrial morphology, or respiratory function between wild-type and mutant mortalin. These findings suggest that variants in mortalin (1) are not a major cause of EOPD; (2) occur in patients and controls; and (3) do not lead to functional impairment of mitochondria. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo faces of the same coin: benign familial infantile seizures and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia caused by PRRT2 mutations.
Schmidt, Alexander; Kumar, Kishore R.; Redyk, Katharina et al

in Archives of neurology (2012), 69(5), 668-70

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See detailIndependent and joint effects of the MAPT and SNCA genes in Parkinson disease.
Elbaz, Alexis; Ross, Owen A.; Ioannidis, John P. A. et al

in Annals of neurology (2011), 69(5), 778-92

OBJECTIVE: We studied the independent and joint effects of the genes encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) in Parkinson disease (PD) as part of a large meta ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: We studied the independent and joint effects of the genes encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) in Parkinson disease (PD) as part of a large meta-analysis of individual data from case-control studies participating in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) consortium. METHODS: Participants of Caucasian ancestry were genotyped for a total of 4 SNCA (rs2583988, rs181489, rs356219, rs11931074) and 2 MAPT (rs1052553, rs242557) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). Individual and joint effects of SNCA and MAPT SNPs were investigated using fixed- and random-effects logistic regression models. Interactions were studied on both a multiplicative and an additive scale, and using a case-control and case-only approach. RESULTS: Fifteen GEO-PD sites contributed a total of 5,302 cases and 4,161 controls. All 4 SNCA SNPs and the MAPT H1-haplotype-defining SNP (rs1052553) displayed a highly significant marginal association with PD at the significance level adjusted for multiple comparisons. For SNCA, the strongest associations were observed for SNPs located at the 3' end of the gene. There was no evidence of statistical interaction between any of the 4 SNCA SNPs and rs1052553 or rs242557, neither on the multiplicative nor on the additive scale. INTERPRETATION: This study confirms the association between PD and both SNCA SNPs and the H1 MAPT haplotype. It shows, based on a variety of approaches, that the joint action of variants in these 2 loci is consistent with independent effects of the genes without additional interacting effects. [less ▲]

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See detailPINK1-interacting proteins: Proteomic analysis of overexpressed PINK1
Rakovic, Aleksandar; Grünewald, Anne UL; Voges, Lisa et al

in Parkinsons Dis (2011), 2011

Recent publications suggest that the Parkinson's disease- (PD-) related PINK1/Parkin pathway promotes elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. We used tandem affinity purification (TAP ... [more ▼]

Recent publications suggest that the Parkinson's disease- (PD-) related PINK1/Parkin pathway promotes elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. We used tandem affinity purification (TAP), SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry as a first step towards identification of possible substrates for PINK1. The cellular abundance of selected identified interactors was investigated by Western blotting. Furthermore, one candidate gene was sequenced in 46 patients with atypical PD. In addition to two known binding partners (HSP90, CDC37), 12 proteins were identified using the TAP assay; four of which are mitochondrially localized (GRP75, HSP60, LRPPRC, and TUFM). Western blot analysis showed no differences in cellular abundance of these proteins comparing PINK1 mutant and control fibroblasts. When sequencing LRPPRC, four exonic synonymous changes and 20 polymorphisms in noncoding regions were detected. Our study provides a list of putative PINK1 binding partners, confirming previously described interactions, but also introducing novel mitochondrial proteins as potential components of the PINK1/Parkin mitophagy pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailAn unusual neurological syndrome of crawling gait, dystonia, pyramidal signs, and limited speech.
Arif, Beenish; Grünewald, Anne UL; Fatima, Amara et al

in Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society (2011), 26(12), 2279-83

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to identify and molecularly characterize a neurological syndrome in a consanguineous Pakistani family. METHODS: Five patients, their 2 siblings, and their parents ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to identify and molecularly characterize a neurological syndrome in a consanguineous Pakistani family. METHODS: Five patients, their 2 siblings, and their parents were clinically examined. DNA from all 7 siblings was genotyped with Affymetrix SNP arrays and sequencing of selected candidate genes. RESULTS: An unusual neurological syndrome of crawling gait, predominant leg dystonia, pyramidal signs, microcephaly, and suspected deafness segregated in the family. Three patients ambulated on hands and knees, either by hopping and crossing their legs, or by dragging the legs behind them. Two patients have acquired the ability to walk bipedally with a dystonic gait. Unexpectedly, no chromosomal region was homozygous in patients only. Under different disease models, we localized 7 chromosomal regions in the genome common to all patients. No pathogenic mutations were identified in selected candidate genes or the mitochondrial genome. CONCLUSION: We describe an unusual movement disorder syndrome reminiscent of but distinct from Uner Tan syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailMutations in PINK1 and Parkin impair ubiquitination of Mitofusins in human fibroblasts.
Rakovic, Aleksandar; Grünewald, Anne UL; Kottwitz, Jan et al

in PloS one (2011), 6(3), 16746

PINK1 and Parkin mutations cause recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). In Drosophila and SH-SY5Y cells, Parkin is recruited by PINK1 to damaged mitochondria, where it ubiquitinates Mitofusins and ... [more ▼]

PINK1 and Parkin mutations cause recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). In Drosophila and SH-SY5Y cells, Parkin is recruited by PINK1 to damaged mitochondria, where it ubiquitinates Mitofusins and consequently promotes mitochondrial fission and mitophagy.Here, we investigated the impact of mutations in endogenous PINK1 and Parkin on the ubiquitination of mitochondrial fusion and fission factors and the mitochondrial network structure. Treating control fibroblasts with mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi) inhibitors or H(2)O(2) resulted in ubiquitination of Mfn1/2 but not of OPA1 or Fis1. Ubiquitination of Mitofusins through the PINK1/Parkin pathway was observed within 1 h of treatment. Upon combined inhibition of Deltapsi and the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), no ubiquitination of Mitofusins was detected. Regarding morphological changes, we observed a trend towards increased mitochondrial branching in PD patient cells upon mitochondrial stress.For the first time in PD patient-derived cells, we demonstrate that mutations in PINK1 and Parkin impair ubiquitination of Mitofusins. In the presence of UPS inhibitors, ubiquitinated Mitofusin is deubiquitinated by the UPS but not degraded, suggesting that the UPS is involved in Mitofusin degradation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of endogenous mutant and wild-type PINK1 on Parkin in fibroblasts from Parkinson disease patients.
Rakovic, Aleksandar; Grünewald, Anne UL; Seibler, Philip et al

in Human molecular genetics (2010), 19(16), 3124-37

Mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a mitochondrial serine-threonine kinase, and Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, are associated with autosomal-recessive forms of Parkinson disease (PD ... [more ▼]

Mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a mitochondrial serine-threonine kinase, and Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, are associated with autosomal-recessive forms of Parkinson disease (PD). Both are involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and protection from multiple stressors. Recently, Parkin was demonstrated to be recruited to impaired mitochondria in a PINK1-dependent manner, where it triggers mitophagy. Using primary human dermal fibroblasts originating from PD patients with various PINK1 mutations, we showed at the endogenous level that (i) PINK1 regulates the stress-induced decrease of endogenous Parkin; (ii) mitochondrially localized PINK1 mediates the stress-induced mitochondrial translocation of Parkin; (iii) endogenous PINK1 is stabilized on depolarized mitochondria; and (iv) mitochondrial accumulation of full-length PINK1 is sufficient but not necessary for the stress-induced loss of Parkin signal and its mitochondrial translocation. Furthermore, we showed that different stressors, depolarizing or non-depolarizing, led to the same effect on detectable Parkin levels and its mitochondrial targeting. Although this effect on Parkin was independent of the mitochondrial membrane potential, we demonstrate a differential effect of depolarizing versus non-depolarizing stressors on endogenous levels of PINK1. Our study shows the necessity to introduce an environmental factor, i.e. stress, to visualize the differences in the interaction of PINK1 and Parkin in mutants versus controls. Establishing human fibroblasts as a suitable model for studying this interaction, we extend data from animal and other cellular models and provide experimental evidence for the generally held notion of PD as a condition with a combined genetic and environmental etiology. [less ▲]

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See detailMutant Parkin impairs mitochondrial function and morphology in human fibroblasts.
Grünewald, Anne UL; Voges, Lisa; Rakovic, Aleksandar et al

in PloS one (2010), 5(9), 12962

BACKGROUND: Mutations in Parkin are the most common cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). The mitochondrially localized E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Parkin has been reported to be involved ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Mutations in Parkin are the most common cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). The mitochondrially localized E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Parkin has been reported to be involved in respiratory chain function and mitochondrial dynamics. More recent publications also described a link between Parkin and mitophagy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the impact of Parkin mutations on mitochondrial function and morphology in a human cellular model. Fibroblasts were obtained from three members of an Italian PD family with two mutations in Parkin (homozygous c.1072delT, homozygous delEx7, compound-heterozygous c.1072delT/delEx7), as well as from two relatives without mutations. Furthermore, three unrelated compound-heterozygous patients (delEx3-4/duplEx7-12, delEx4/c.924C>T and delEx1/c.924C>T) and three unrelated age-matched controls were included. Fibroblasts were cultured under basal or paraquat-induced oxidative stress conditions. ATP synthesis rates and cellular levels were detected luminometrically. Activities of complexes I-IV and citrate synthase were measured spectrophotometrically in mitochondrial preparations or cell lysates. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide. Oxidative stress levels were investigated with the OxyBlot technique. The mitochondrial network was investigated immunocytochemically and the degree of branching was determined with image processing methods. We observed a decrease in the production and overall concentration of ATP coinciding with increased mitochondrial mass in Parkin-mutant fibroblasts. After an oxidative insult, the membrane potential decreased in patient cells but not in controls. We further determined higher levels of oxidized proteins in the mutants both under basal and stress conditions. The degree of mitochondrial network branching was comparable in mutants and controls under basal conditions and decreased to a similar extent under paraquat-induced stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Parkin mutations cause abnormal mitochondrial function and morphology in non-neuronal human cells. [less ▲]

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