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See detailGender and age disparities in the associations of occupational factors with alcohol abuse and smoking in the French working population
Legleye, Stephane; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Revue d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique = Epidemiology and Public Health (2011), 59

Background. – This study assessed the associations of short-term employment, physical and psychological occupational demands, and job dissatisfaction with alcohol abuse (using the Audit-C test) and daily ... [more ▼]

Background. – This study assessed the associations of short-term employment, physical and psychological occupational demands, and job dissatisfaction with alcohol abuse (using the Audit-C test) and daily smoking among working French men and women in different age groups. Methods. – The sample included 13,241 working people, 18–29, 30–39, and 40–59-years-old, randomly selected in France and interviewed by phone. Occupation, type of employment, physical demands, psychological demands, job dissatisfaction, gender, age, educational level, and income were considered. Data were analyzed with logistic models. Results. – Alcohol abuse affected 20.4% of men and 7.5% of women; smoking 32.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Their patterns of association with the occupational factors varied with gender and age. Job dissatisfaction was the leading factor among young men (adjusted odds ratio for alcohol abuse and smoking: 1.71 and 2.02), whereas short-term employment was the leading factor among young women (1.69 and 1.58), this pattern being reversed in older generations. The pattern of associations of physical and psychological demands with outcomes is more complex, but overall psychological demands were more important for women (especially the younger ones) than men, especially for smoking (OR > 1.6). Smoking within 5 min after waking was much more common among male and female smokers with these occupational factors, suggesting a potential dependency. Conclusions. – Workers with short-term employment and occupational demands are subject to a higher risk for alcohol abuse and smoking with high gender and age disparities. Gender and age should be considered when designing measures to prevent substance abuse related to occupation. [less ▲]

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See detailFatigue, insomnia and mental disorders: gender disparities and roles of individual characteristics and lifestyle factors among economically active people
Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Legleye, Stéphane; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology (2009)

Background Individuals with certain personal, family and job characteristics are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the respective role of obesity, smoking, alcohol abuse, low education, income ... [more ▼]

Background Individuals with certain personal, family and job characteristics are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the respective role of obesity, smoking, alcohol abuse, low education, income, living and family conditions, and socio-occupational category in fatigue/insomnia (FI), nervousness (N) and frequent drug use for those disorders (DFI and DN) among men and women and in gender disparities are not well known. Methods We studied gender differences in FI, N, DFI, DN, and in their correlated, and whether the gender differences were mediated by individual and lifestyle factors among 3,450 active subjects aged 18–64, randomly selected from North-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire. Data were analyzed via adjusted odds ratio (ORa) computed with the logistic regression model. Results Women were more affected than men for FI (21.3 vs. 13.1%, OR adjusted for age ORa 1.80, 95% CI 1.50–2.16), DFI (11.6 vs. 7.1%, ORa 1.74, 1.38–2.21), N (14.7 vs. 9.9%, ORa 1.58, 1.28–1.94), and for DN (12.1 vs. 5.7%, ORa 2.29, 1.79–2.94). These differences were not mediated by the individual characteristics studied. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk patterns varied between the two sexes. Smoking was related to N in men as well as in women; alcohol abuse to DFI in men only; lack of family support to all outcome variables in men and women; low educational level to DFI in men only; low income to FI, N and DN in men and to FI and DN in women; being unmarried to DN in men; being divorced/separated to N and DN in women; being a manual worker to FI and being a farmer to DFI in men; and being a manual worker to DN and being an employee to FI in women (1.50 ≤ ORa ≤ 2.95). Conclusions Women suffered more from fatigue/insomnia and nervousness and used more drug for those disorders than men. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors played significant roles among men and women but they did not explain the gender disparities. [less ▲]

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See detailType of Employment and Occupational Demands: Association with Alcohol, Tobacco and Cannabis Use Among Working Men and Women
Legleye, Stéphane; Peretti-Watel, P.; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Institute, of Sociology (Ed.) 39th World Congress of the International Institute of Sociology (2009)

This study assessed associations between demanding workplace conditions and substance use in France, taking account of gender. A total of 13,241 workers were randomly selected and interviewed by telephone ... [more ▼]

This study assessed associations between demanding workplace conditions and substance use in France, taking account of gender. A total of 13,241 workers were randomly selected and interviewed by telephone to obtain information about: alcohol use, tobacco use, cannabis use, socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, type of work contract, and working conditions (physical and mental demands, time pressure, lack of rest, satisfaction with conditions, opportunity to learn new things). Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic models. Alcohol abuse was reported by 20% of men and 11% of women; 32% and 24%, respectively, used tobacco every day; and 9% and 3% had used cannabis in the previous 12 months (p<0.001). Among men, tobacco use related to physical and mental demands, dissatisfaction with work and not learning new things (increased risk IR 22-31%). Among women, it related to physical demand, time pressure, lack of rest and not learning new things (IR 15-43%). Alcohol abuse related to dissatisfaction with work among men (IR 22%). Cannabis use related to dissatisfaction with work in men (IR 93%). Having a short-term contract related to all three substances uses among men (IR 25-57%) and to alcohol abuse and tobacco use among women (IR 21-35%). Being freelance related to use of tobacco and cannabis use among men (IR 50-89%). In conclusion, alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use were related to demanding occupational conditions, but in different ways among males and females. These findings suggest that improving workplace conditions and limiting short-term and freelance employment may help prevent substance use and related diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between demanding occupational conditions and tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among French working men and women.
Legleye, Stéphane; Peretti-Watel, P.; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Institute, of Sociology (Ed.) 39th World Congress of the International Institute of Sociology (2009)

This study assessed associations between demanding workplace conditions and substance use in France, taking account of gender. A total of 13,241 workers were randomly selected and interviewed by telephone ... [more ▼]

This study assessed associations between demanding workplace conditions and substance use in France, taking account of gender. A total of 13,241 workers were randomly selected and interviewed by telephone to obtain information about: alcohol use, tobacco use, cannabis use, socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, type of work contract, and working conditions (physical and mental demands, time pressure, lack of rest, satisfaction with conditions, opportunity to learn new things). Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic models. Alcohol abuse was reported by 20% of men and 11% of women; 32% and 24%, respectively, used tobacco every day; and 9% and 3% had used cannabis in the previous 12 months (p<0.001). Among men, tobacco use related to physical and mental demands, dissatisfaction with work and not learning new things (increased risk IR 22-31%). Among women, it related to physical demand, time pressure, lack of rest and not learning new things (IR 15-43%). Alcohol abuse related to dissatisfaction with work among men (IR 22%). Cannabis use related to dissatisfaction with work in men (IR 93%). Having a short-term contract related to all three substances uses among men (IR 25-57%) and to alcohol abuse and tobacco use among women (IR 21-35%). Being freelance related to use of tobacco and cannabis use among men (IR 50-89%). In conclusion, alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use were related to demanding occupational conditions, but in different ways among males and females. These findings suggest that improving workplace conditions and limiting short-term and freelance employment may help prevent substance use and related diseases. [less ▲]

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