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See detailGonadotropin-releasing hormone neuropeptides and receptor in human breast cancer: Correlation to poor prognosis parameters
Pazaitou-Panayiotou, Kalliopi; Chemonidou, Christina; Poupi, Aliki et al

in Peptides (2013), 42

Expression of the two gonadotropin-releasing hormone homologue peptides GnRHI and GnRHII and their receptor GnRHR has been demonstrated in a number of malignancies. In hormone-dependent breast cancer ... [more ▼]

Expression of the two gonadotropin-releasing hormone homologue peptides GnRHI and GnRHII and their receptor GnRHR has been demonstrated in a number of malignancies. In hormone-dependent breast cancer, GnRH analogs are used for therapy in premenopausal women. Gene expression of GnRHI, II and R was studied in breast biopsies from primary breast adenocarcinoma obtained from the tumor and the adjacent benign tissue. Levels were evaluated by a multiplex real-time RT-PCR. GnRHI transcripts were detected in 14.7% of the benign and 29.4% malignant biopsies and GnRHII in 21.2% benign and 44.1% malignant biopsies. GnRHR was also more frequent in the malignant (54.2%) than in the benign (24.0%) biopsies, at similar expression levels. No transcripts were detected in biopsies from healthy individuals. There was a strong correlation between the presence of GnRHI and GnRHII transcripts and their receptor in the benign and the malignant biopsies. GnRHI, II and R expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis pathological parameters. Immunohistochemistry for GnRHR revealed expression in malignant cells and in epithelial cells of mammary ducts of the adjacent area with pre-cancerous features. In contrast, GnRH I and II peptides were rarely expressed at low levels in breast cancer cells. In conclusion GnRH peptides and receptor are expressed more frequently in breast tumors than in the adjacent mammary tissue, representing a malignant feature. Their expression correlated to tumor characteristics of poor prognosis and was therefore related to more aggressive malignancies. Concomitant expression of peptides and receptor supports an autocrine/paracrine regulating role. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailGene therapy in liver diseases: State-of-the-art and future perspectives
Domvri, Kalliopi; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Porpodis, Konstantinos et al

in Current Gene Therapy (2012), 12(6), 463-483

Gene therapy is a fundamentally novel therapeutic approach that involves introducing genetic material into target cells in order to fight or prevent disease. A number of different strategies of gene ... [more ▼]

Gene therapy is a fundamentally novel therapeutic approach that involves introducing genetic material into target cells in order to fight or prevent disease. A number of different strategies of gene therapy are tested at experimental and clinical levels, including: a) replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene, b) inactivating a mutated gene that its improper function causes pathogenesis, c) introducing a new gene coding a therapeutic compound to fight a disease, d) introducing to the target organ an enzyme converting an inactive pro-drug to its cytotoxic metabolite. In gene therapy, the transcriptional machinery of the patient is used to produce the active factor that exerts the intended therapeutic effect, ideally in a permanent, tissue-specific and manageable way. The liver is a major target for gene therapy, presenting inherited metabolic defects of single-gene etiology, but also severe multifactorial pathologies with limited therapeutic options such as hepatocellular carcinoma. The initial promising results from gene therapy strategies in liver diseases were followed by skepticism on the actual clinical value due to specificity, efficacy, toxicity and immune limitations, but are recently re-evaluated due to progress in vector technology and monitoring techniques. The significant amount of experimental data along with the available information from clinical trials are systematically reviewed here and presented per pathological entity. Finally, future perspectives of gene therapy protocols in hepatology are summarized. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased apoptotic activity on inflammatory human placentas in spontaneous abortions during the first and second trimester of gestation: A histochemical and immunohistochemical study
Deftereou, Theodora-Eleftheria; Lambropoulou, Maria; Chatzaki, Ekaterini et al

in Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica (2012), 50(1), 118-124

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of apoptotic markers on inflammatory human placentas from spontaneous abortions during the first and second trimester of gestation and compare them to ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of apoptotic markers on inflammatory human placentas from spontaneous abortions during the first and second trimester of gestation and compare them to those without inflammation. Paraffin-embedded specimens from 76 placentas were investigated by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against M30, Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9, as well as the terminal deoxynucleotidyl tranferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling method. A higher prevalence of expression of apoptotic markers (94.4%) was observed in placentas associated with chorioamnionitis in comparison with those without inflammation. Our observations confirm that apoptosis is strikingly prevalent in placentas diagnosed with histologic chorioamnionitis, while the inflammation induces cell death. © Polish Society for Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. [less ▲]

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