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See detailCardiometabolic risk: leg fat is protective during childhood.
Samouda, Hanen; De Beaufort, Carine UL; Stranges, Saverio et al

in Pediatric diabetes (2015)

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with early cardiometabolic risk (CMR), increased risk of adulthood obesity, and worse health outcomes. Leg fat mass (LFM) is protective beyond total fat mass ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with early cardiometabolic risk (CMR), increased risk of adulthood obesity, and worse health outcomes. Leg fat mass (LFM) is protective beyond total fat mass (TFM) in adults. However, the limited evidence in children remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between LFM and CMR factors in youth. SUBJECTS: A total of 203 overweight/obese children, 7-17-yr-old, followed in the Pediatric Clinic, Luxembourg. METHODS: TFM and LFM by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and a detailed set of CMR markers were analyzed. RESULTS: After TFM, age, sex, body mass index (BMI) Z-score, sexual maturity status, and physical activity adjustments, negative significant partial correlations were shown between LFM and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) (variance explained: 6.05% by LFM*; 7.18% by TFM**), fasting insulin (variance explained: 5.71% by LFM*; 6.97% by TFM**), triglycerides (variance explained: 3.96% by LFM*; 2.76% by TFM*), systolic blood pressure (variance explained: 2.68% by LFM*; 4.33% by TFM*), C-reactive protein (variance explained: 2.31% by LFM*; 4.28% by TFM*), and resistin (variance explained: 2.16% by LFM*; 3.57% by TFM*). Significant positive partial correlations were observed between LFM and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (variance explained: 4.16% by LFM*) and adiponectin (variance explained: 3.09% by LFM*) (*p-value < 0.05 and **p-value < 0.001). In order to adjust for multiple testing, Benjamini-Hochberg method was applied and the adjusted significance level was determined for each analysis. LFM remained significant in the aforementioned models predicting HOMA, fasting insulin, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol (Benjamini and Hochberg corrected p-value < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: LFM is protective against CMR in children, at least in terms of insulin resistance and adverse blood lipid profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychosocial risk and protective factors of secondary school dropout in Luxembourg: the protocol of an exploratory case-control study.
Esch, Pascale UL; Bocquet, Valery; Pull, Charles et al

in BMC public health (2011), 11

BACKGROUND: In Luxembourg, the extensive phenomenon of school dropout is a prime policy concern in the light of individual, social and economic consequences. Although the authorities report an overall ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In Luxembourg, the extensive phenomenon of school dropout is a prime policy concern in the light of individual, social and economic consequences. Although the authorities report an overall decrease of the national dropout rate, the proportion of early school leavers who remain without any specific occupation is still alarming. Therefore, this study intends a shift of focus from system-inherent to individual factors, including mental health and family correlates, to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the dropout phenomenon. METHODS/DESIGN: The objectives of this study are to investigate the type and prevalence of psychiatric disorders among school dropouts and to compare the findings with those by a matched control group of regularly enrolled students. Furthermore, family variables and socioeconomic status will be analysed, as they are factors likely to interfere with both educational attainment and mental health. A trained psychologist will use structured interviews and self-report forms to investigate for mental health issues, information on schooling, socioeconomic situation and family life. Controls will be matched for gender, age, school type and educational grade. DISCUSSION: As school dropouts face a serious risk of long term professional and social marginalization, there is an evident need for action. Identifying psychosocial risk and protective factors of school dropout will deliver solid insight on how to conceive public health strategies for young people who may need a more customized support to carry out their academic potential. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01354236. [less ▲]

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