References of "Kreis, Stephanie 50002134"
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See detailMany ways to resistance: How melanoma cells evade targeted therapies
Kozar, Ines UL; Margue, Christiane UL; Rothengatter, Sonja et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer (2019), 1871(2), 313-322

Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy originating from pigment-producing melanocytes. The development of targeted therapies (MAPK pathway inhibitors) and immunotherapies (immune checkpoint inhibitors) led ... [more ▼]

Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy originating from pigment-producing melanocytes. The development of targeted therapies (MAPK pathway inhibitors) and immunotherapies (immune checkpoint inhibitors) led to a substantial improvement in overall survival of patients. However, the long-term efficacy of such treatments is limited by side effects, lack of clinical effects and the rapidly emerging resistance to treatment. A number of molecular mechanisms underlying this resistant phenotype have already been elucidated. In this review, we summarise currently available treatment options for metastatic melanoma and the known resistance mechanisms to targeted therapies. A focus will be placed on “phenotype switching” as a mechanism and driver of drug resistance, together with an overview of novel approaches to circumvent resistance. A large body of recent data and literature suggests that tumour progression and phenotype switching could be better controlled and development of resistance prevented or at least delayed, by combining drugs targeting fast- and slow-proliferating cells. [less ▲]

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See detailA new ALK isoform transported by extracellular vesicles confers drug resistance to melanoma cells
Cesi, Giulia; Philippidou, Demetra UL; Kozar, Ines UL et al

in Molecular Cancer (2018), (17:145),

Abstract BACKGROUND: Drug resistance remains an unsolved clinical issue in oncology. Despite promising initial responses obtained with BRAF and MEK kinase inhibitors, resistance to treatment develops ... [more ▼]

Abstract BACKGROUND: Drug resistance remains an unsolved clinical issue in oncology. Despite promising initial responses obtained with BRAF and MEK kinase inhibitors, resistance to treatment develops within months in virtually all melanoma patients. METHODS: Microarray analyses were performed in BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and resistant cell lines to identify changes in the transcriptome that might play a role in resistance. siRNA approaches and kinase inhibitors were used to assess the involvement of the identified Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) in drug resistance. The capability of extracellular vesicles (EVs) to transfer drug resistant properties was investigated in co-culture assays. RESULTS: Here, we report a new mechanism of acquired drug resistance involving the activation of a novel truncated form of ALK. Knock down or inhibition of ALK re-sensitised resistant cells to BRAF inhibition and induced apoptosis. Interestingly, truncated ALK was also secreted into EVs and we show that EVs were the vehicle for transferring drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the functional involvement of EVs in melanoma drug resistance by transporting a truncated but functional form of ALK, able to activate the MAPK signalling pathway in target cells. Combined inhibition of ALK and BRAF dramatically reduced tumour growth in vivo. These findings make ALK a promising clinical target in melanoma patients. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptional variations in the wider peritumoral tissue environment of pancreatic cancer
Bauer, SA; Nazarov, PV; Giese, NA et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2018)

Transcriptional profiling was performed on 452 RNA preparations isolated from various types of pancreatic tissue from tumour patients and healthy donors, with a particular focus on peritumoral samples ... [more ▼]

Transcriptional profiling was performed on 452 RNA preparations isolated from various types of pancreatic tissue from tumour patients and healthy donors, with a particular focus on peritumoral samples. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) and cystic tumours were most different in these non-tumorous tissues surrounding them, whereas the actual tumours exhibited rather similar transcript patterns. The environment of cystic tumours was transcriptionally nearly identical to normal pancreas tissue. In contrast, the tissue around PDAC behaved a lot like the tumour, indicating some kind of field defect, while showing far less molecular resemblance to both chronic pancreatitis and healthy tissue. This suggests that the major pathogenic difference between cystic and ductal tumours may be due to their cellular environment rather than the few variations between the tumours. Lack of correlation between DNA methylation and transcript levels makes it unlikely that the observed field defect in the peritumoral tissue of PDAC is controlled to a large extent by such epigenetic regulation. Functionally, a strikingly large number of autophagy-related transcripts was changed in both PDAC and its peritumoral tissue, but not in other pancreatic tumours. A transcription signature of 15 autophagy-related genes was established that permits a prognosis of survival with high accuracy and indicates the role of autophagy in tumour biology. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine-mediated modulation of the hepatic miRNome: miR-146b-5p is an IL-6-inducible miRNA with multiple targets.
Kirchmeyer, Melanie; Servais, Florence UL; Hamdorf, Matthias et al

in Journal of leukocyte biology (2018)

Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-type cytokines play important roles in liver (patho-)biology. For instance, they regulate the acute phase response to inflammatory signals and are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis ... [more ▼]

Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-type cytokines play important roles in liver (patho-)biology. For instance, they regulate the acute phase response to inflammatory signals and are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Much is known about the regulation of protein-coding genes by cytokines whereas their effects on the miRNome is less well understood. We performed a microarray screen to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) in human hepatocytes which are modulated by IL-6-type cytokines. Using samples of 2 donors, 27 and 68 miRNAs (out of 1,733) were found to be differentially expressed upon stimulation with hyper-IL-6 (HIL-6) for up to 72 h, with an overlap of 15 commonly regulated miRNAs. qPCR validation revealed that miR-146b-5p was also consistently up-regulated in hepatocytes derived from 2 other donors. Interestingly, miR-146b-5p (but not miR-146a-5p) was induced by IL-6-type cytokines (HIL-6 and OSM) in non-transformed liver-derived PH5CH8 and THLE2 cells and in Huh-7 hepatoma cells, but not in HepG2 or Hep3B hepatoma cells. We did not find evidence for a differential regulation of miR-146b-5p expression by promoter methylation, also when analyzing the TCGA data set on liver cancer samples. Inducible overexpression of miR-146b-5p in PH5CH8 cells followed by RNA-Seq analysis revealed effects on multiple mRNAs, including those encoding IRAK1 and TRAF6 crucial for Toll-like receptor signaling. Indeed, LPS-mediated signaling was attenuated upon overexpression of miR-146b-5p, suggesting a regulatory loop to modulate inflammatory signaling in hepatocytes. Further validation experiments suggest DNAJC6, MAGEE1, MPHOSPH6, PPP2R1B, SLC10A3, SNRNP27, and TIMM17B to be novel targets for miR-146b-5p (and miR-146a-5p). [less ▲]

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See detailTargeting autophagy inhibits growth by enhancing NK cells infiltration in a CCL5-dependent manner
Mgrditchian, T; Arakelian, T; Paggetti, J et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2017), 114((44)), 9271-9279

While blocking tumor growth by targeting autophagy is well established, its role on the infiltration of natural killer (NK) cells into tumors remains unknown. Here, we investigate the impact of targeting ... [more ▼]

While blocking tumor growth by targeting autophagy is well established, its role on the infiltration of natural killer (NK) cells into tumors remains unknown. Here, we investigate the impact of targeting autophagy gene Beclin1 (BECN1) on the infiltration of NK cells into melanomas. We show that, in addition to inhibiting tumor growth, targeting BECN1 increased the infiltration of functional NK cells into melanoma tumors. We provide evidence that driving NK cells to the tumor bed relied on the ability of autophagy-defective tumors to transcriptionally overexpress the chemokine gene CCL5 Such infiltration and tumor regression were abrogated by silencing CCL5 in BECN1-defective tumors. Mechanistically, we show that the up-regulated expression of CCL5 occurred through the activation of its transcription factor c-Jun by a mechanism involving the impairment of phosphatase PP2A catalytic activity and the subsequent activation of JNK. Similar to BECN1, targeting other autophagy genes, such as ATG5, p62/SQSTM1, or inhibiting autophagy pharmacologically by chloroquine, also induced the expression of CCL5 in melanoma cells. Clinically, a positive correlation between CCL5 and NK cell marker NKp46 expression was found in melanoma patients, and a high expression level of CCL5 was correlated with a significant improvement of melanoma patients' survival. We believe that this study highlights the impact of targeting autophagy on the tumor infiltration by NK cells and its benefit as a novel therapeutic approach to improve NK-based immunotherapy. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of BRAF kinase inhibitors on the miRNomes and transcriptomes of melanoma cells
Kreis, Stephanie UL; Kozar, Ines UL; Cesi, Giulia UL et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2017)

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See detailmiRNAs in ancient tissue specimens of the Tyrolean Iceman
Kreis, Stephanie UL; Keller, A; Leidinger, P et al

in Molecular Biology and Evolution (2016)

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See detail“Melanomics”: analysis and integration of whole genomes, transcriptomes and miRNomes of primary melanoma patients
Reinsbach, Susanne; Wienecke, Anke UL; Ginolhac, Aurélien UL et al

in European Journal of Cancer (2016), 61(Suppl.1), 32

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See detailComparison of a healthy miRNome with melanoma patient miRNomes: are microRNAs suitable serum biomarkers for cancer?
Margue, Christiane UL; Reinsbach, Susanne UL; Philippidou, Demetra UL et al

in Oncotarget (2015), 6(14), 12110-27

MiRNAs are increasingly recognized as biomarkers for the diagnosis of cancers where they are profiled from tumor tissue (intracellular miRNAs) or serum/plasma samples (extracellular miRNAs). To improve ... [more ▼]

MiRNAs are increasingly recognized as biomarkers for the diagnosis of cancers where they are profiled from tumor tissue (intracellular miRNAs) or serum/plasma samples (extracellular miRNAs). To improve detection of reliable biomarkers from blood samples, we first compiled a healthy reference miRNome and established a well-controlled analysis pipeline allowing for standardized quantification of circulating miRNAs. Using whole miRNome and custom qPCR arrays, miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in 126 serum, whole blood and tissue samples of healthy volunteers and melanoma patients and in primary melanocyte and keratinocyte cell lines. We found characteristic signatures with excellent prognostic scores only in late stage but not in early stage melanoma patients. Upon comparison of melanoma tissue miRNomes with matching serum samples, several miRNAs were identified to be exclusively tissue-derived (miR-30b-5p, miR-374a-5p and others) while others had higher expression levels in serum (miR-3201 and miR-122-5p). Here we have compiled a healthy and widely applicable miRNome from serum samples and we provide strong evidence that levels of cell-free miRNAs only change significantly at later stages of melanoma progression, which has serious implications for miRNA biomarker studies in cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic change of host gastrointestinal microbiome and immune status in relation to mucosal barrier effects during chemotherapy and immune ablative intervention in humans
Kaysen, Anne UL; Heintz-Buschart, Anna UL; Lebrun, Laura UL et al

Poster (2014, April)

The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by communities of endogenous microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. Here, the microbiota are in close contact with the host intestinal mucosa and ... [more ▼]

The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by communities of endogenous microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. Here, the microbiota are in close contact with the host intestinal mucosa and its innate and adaptive immune systems. The fact that certain stimuli induce an inflammatory response whereas others induce tolerance suggests, that the host immune system interacts with the microbiota and vice versa in different ways. However, the exact details of theses interactions remain largely unknown. It is known that cancer treatment can result in severe adverse effects like mucositis and in combination with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Tx), in graft-versus host disease (GvHD). However, there is at present only sparse information available on the effects of chemotherapy on the intestinal microbiota and resulting changes in microbiome-immune system interactions. Almost no data exists on the effect of allogeneic stem cell Tx on the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota. In this project, we are studying the complex interactions between the host and the intestinal microbiota after chemotherapy with or without allogeneic Tx and the occurrence of severe adverse side effects such as mucositis and GvHD. Using a systems biology approach including metagenomics and RNAseq, fecal samples and blood plasma samples from patients undergoing these treatments for malignancies will be analysed to identify the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome and bacterial small RNAs. The main research hypothesis is that there are quantitative and qualitative changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome following chemotherapy and allogeneic Tx which are linked to the immune status of the patients and possible treatment side-effects, in particular mucositis and GvHD. We aim to provide knowledge on how the host's intestinal mucosa and immune system influence the gastrointestinal microbiome and on the role and involvement of the gastrointestinal microbiota in development in mucositis and GvHD. Importantly, this could help in the formulation of measures to prevent mucositis and GvHD development. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Target Genes of MITF-Induced microRNA-211 Contribute to Melanoma Cell Invasion
Margue, Christiane UL; Philippidou, Demetra UL; Reinsbach, Susanne UL et al

in PLoS ONE (2013)

The non-coding microRNAs (miRNA) have tissue- and disease-specific expression patterns. They down-regulate target mRNAs, which likely impacts on most fundamental cellular processes. Differential ... [more ▼]

The non-coding microRNAs (miRNA) have tissue- and disease-specific expression patterns. They down-regulate target mRNAs, which likely impacts on most fundamental cellular processes. Differential expression patterns of miRNAs are currently being exploited for identification of biomarkers for early disease diagnosis, prediction of progression for melanoma and other cancers and as promising drug targets, since they can easily be inhibited or replaced in a given cellular context. Before successfully manipulating miRNAs in clinical settings, their precise expression levels, endogenous functions and thus their target genes have to be determined. MiR-211, a melanocyte lineage-specific small non-coding miRNA, is located in an intron of TRPM1, a target gene of the microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). By transcriptionally up-regulating TRPM1, MITF, which is critical for both melanocyte differentiation and survival and for melanoma progression, indirectly drives the expression of miR-211. Expression of this miRNA is often reduced in melanoma samples. Here, we investigated functional roles of miR-211 by identifying and studying new target genes. We show that MITF-correlated miR-211 expression levels are mostly but not always reduced in a panel of 11 melanoma cell lines and in primary and metastatic melanoma compared to normal melanocytes and nevi, respectively. MiR-211 itself only marginally impacted on cell invasion and migration, while perturbation of some new miR-211 target genes, such as AP1S2, SOX11, IGFBP5, and SERINC3 significantly increased invasion. These results and the variable expression levels of miR-211 raise serious doubts on the value of miR-211 as a melanoma tumor-suppressing miRNA and/or as a biomarker for melanoma. [less ▲]

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See detailInterplay of microRNAs, transcription factors and target genes: Linking dynamic expression changes to function
Nazarov, P. V. A; Reinsbach, Susanne UL; Muller, A. A et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2013), 41(5), 2817-2831

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed small non-coding RNAs that, in most cases, negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. miRNAs are involved in fine-tuning ... [more ▼]

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed small non-coding RNAs that, in most cases, negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. miRNAs are involved in fine-tuning fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, cell death and cell cycle control and are believed to confer robustness to biological responses. Here, we investigated simultaneously the transcriptional changes of miRNA and mRNA expression levels over time after activation of the Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT) pathway by interferon-c stimulation of melanoma cells. To examine global miRNA and mRNA expression patterns, time-series microarray data were analysed. We observed delayed responses of miRNAs (after 24-48 h) with respect to mRNAs (12-24 h) and identified biological functions involved at each step of the cellular response. Inference of the upstream regulators allowed for identification of transcriptional regulators involved in cellular reactions to interferon-c stimulation. Linking expression profiles of transcriptional regulators and miRNAs with their annotated functions, we demonstrate the dynamic interplay of miRNAs and upstream regulators with biological functions. Finally, our data revealed network motifs in the form of feed-forward loops involving transcriptional regulators, mRNAs and miRNAs. Additional information obtained from integrating time-series mRNA and miRNA data may represent an important step towards understanding the regulatory principles of gene expression. © The Author(s) 2013. [less ▲]

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See detailMiRNA-29: A microRNA family with tumor-suppressing and immune-modulating properties
Schmitt, Martina; Margue, Christiane UL; Behrmann, Iris UL et al

in Current Molecular Medicine (2012), 13(4), 572-585

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed small, non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. So far, over 1000 miRNAs have been identified in human cells ... [more ▼]

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed small, non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. So far, over 1000 miRNAs have been identified in human cells and their diverse functions in normal cell homeostasis and many different diseases have been thoroughly investigated during the past decade. MiR-29, one of the most interesting miRNA families in humans to date, consists of three mature members miR-29a, miR-29b and miR-29c, which are encoded in two genetic clusters. Members of this family have been shown to be silenced or down-regulated in many different types of cancer and have subsequently been attributed predominantly tumor-suppressing properties, albeit exceptions have been described where miR-29s have tumor-promoting functions. MiR-29 targets expression of diverse proteins like collagens, transcription factors, methyltransferases and others, which may partake in abnormal migration, invasion or proliferation of cells and may favor development of cancer. Furthermore, members of the miR-29 family can be activated by interferon signaling, which suggests a role in the immune system and in host-pathogen interactions, especially in response to viral infections. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the genomic organization and regulation of the miR-29 family and we provide an overview of its implication in cancer suppression and promotion as well as in host immune responses. The numerous remarkable properties of these miRNAs and their often altered expression patterns might make the miR-29 family promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases in future. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic regulation of microRNA expression following interferonγ- induced gene transcription
Reinsbach, Susanne UL; Nazarov, P. V.; Philippidou, Demetra UL et al

in RNA Biology (2012), 9(7), 987-989

MicroRNAs are major players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Even small changes in miRNA levels may have profound consequences for the expression levels of target genes. Hence, miRNAs themselves ... [more ▼]

MicroRNAs are major players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Even small changes in miRNA levels may have profound consequences for the expression levels of target genes. Hence, miRNAs themselves need to be tightly, albeit dynamically, regulated. Here, we investigated the dynamic behavior of miRNAs over a wide time range following stimulation of melanoma cells with interferonγ (IFNγ), which activates the transcription factor STAT1. By applying several bioinformatic and statistical software tools for visualization and identification of differentially expressed miRNAs derived from time-series microarray experiments, 8.9% of 1105 miRNAs appeared to be directly or indirectly regulated by STAT1. Focusing on distinct dynamic expression patterns, we found that the majority of robust miRNA expression changes occurred in the intermediate time range (24-48 h). Three miRNAs (miR-27a, miR-30a and miR-34a) had a delayed regulation occurring at 72 h while none showed significant expression changes at early time points between 30 min and 6 h. Expression patterns of individual miRNAs were altered gradually over time or abruptly increased or decreased between two time points. Furthermore, we observed coordinated dynamic transcription of most miRNA clusters while few were found to be regulated independently of their genetic cluster. Most interestingly, several "star" or passenger strand sequences were specifically regulated over time while their "guide" strands were not. © 2012 Landes Bioscience. [less ▲]

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