References of "Kovacs, Carrie 40020950"
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See detailTeacher Attitudes towards Ethnic Minority Students: Effects of Schools´ Cultural Diversity
Glock, Sabine UL; Kovacs, Carrie UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in British Journal of Educational Psychology (2018), online first

Background: Research exploring mechanisms driving inequalities in school systems, has found that biased teacher judgments contribute to observed disadvantages for ethnic minority students. Teacher ... [more ▼]

Background: Research exploring mechanisms driving inequalities in school systems, has found that biased teacher judgments contribute to observed disadvantages for ethnic minority students. Teacher judgments may be driven by explicit and implicit attitudes. Aims: The current research explored the effect of cultural diversity at schools (actual or imagined) on teachers’ attitudes toward ethnic minority students. Samples: One hundred and-five preservice teachers (90 female) with a mean age 26.20 of years (teaching experience: 57.55 weeks) participated in Study 1. Two hundred and thirty-one teachers (159 female) with a mean age of 41.00 years (teaching experience: 12.92 years) participated Study 2. Method: Cultural diversity was operationalized via a fictive description of a school (Study 1) or via the actual proportion of ethnic minority students at the school (Study 2). An Implicit Association Test assessed implicit attitudes toward ethnic minority students. Explicit attitudes were assessed via questionnaire. Results: Preservice teachers imagining a more culturally diverse school held more negative implicit attitudes toward ethnic minority students than those imagining a less diverse school. In contrast, in-service teachers actually working in more diverse schools held less negative implicit attitudes toward minority students. Preservice teachers associated teaching in culturally diverse schools with increased effort, whereas in-service teachers actually working in culturally diverse schools reported more enthusiasm toward teaching ethnic minority students. Conclusions: This research shows the challenge and the negative stereotypes preservice teachers associate with culturally diverse schools, while inservice teachers’ negative associations may be buffered by the actual experience of working with ethnic minority students. [less ▲]

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See detail(How) can formal modelling improve educational achievement judgments?
Kovacs, Carrie UL

Doctoral thesis (2013)

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See detail„Bitte ein….“: Der Einfluss von Alkoholwerbung auf Einstellungen und Verhalten
Unz, Dagmar; Glock, Sabine UL; Kovacs, Carrie UL

in Rossmann, Constanze; Hastall, Matthias R. (Eds.) Medien und Gesundheitskommunikation: Befunde, Entwicklungen und Herausforderungen (2013)

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See detailImplicit attitudes toward smoking: How the smell of cigarettes influences college-age smokers and non-smokers
Glock, Sabine UL; Kovacs, Carrie UL; Unz, Dagmar

in Journal of Health Psychology (2013)

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers’ attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers’, so that a salient smoking cue ... [more ▼]

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers’ attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers’, so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of student nationality on teachers' judgments of writing performance
Kovacs, Carrie UL

in Ansorge, Ulrich; Kirchler, Erich; Lamm, Claus (Eds.) et al Abstracts of the 55th Conference of Experimental Psychologists (2013)

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See detailStudent teachers’ implicit attitudes toward students with and without immigration background: A pilot study
Glock, Sabine UL; Kneer, Julia; Kovacs, Carrie UL

in Studies in Educational Evaluation (2013), 39

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See detailEducational psychology: Using insights from implicit attitudes measures
Glock, Sabine UL; Kovacs, Carrie UL

in Educational Psychology Review (2013), 25

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See detailBeyond fear appeals: Contradicting positive smoking outcome expectancies to influence smokers' implicit attitudes, perception, and behavior.
Glock, Sabine UL; Unz, Dagmar; Kovacs, Carrie UL

in Addictive Behaviors (2012), 37

Smokers often have (implicit or explicit) positive smoking outcome expectancies that motivate them to smoke. For instance, they may feel that smoking is relaxing, that it improves concentration, or that ... [more ▼]

Smokers often have (implicit or explicit) positive smoking outcome expectancies that motivate them to smoke. For instance, they may feel that smoking is relaxing, that it improves concentration, or that it is seen as cool and attractive by peers. These expectations are, for the most part, illusory. In order to counteract these expectations, we designed cigarette package warning labels that contradicted common positive outcome expectancies. We investigated the effectiveness of our new warning labels in two experiments. We first measured smokers' implicit attitudes toward smoking using an affective priming method and found that our new warning labels changed positive attitudes into ambivalent attitudes. We then tested whether our warning labels changed smokers' self-reported positive outcome expectancies and smoking behavior. Smokers presented with the new warning labels immediately associated positive outcome expectancies less strongly with smoking and reported smoking fewer cigarettes in the 24 hours following the experiment. Explicitly taking the reasons for unhealthy behavior into account when trying to change people's habits could offer a valuable contribution to effective health campaigns. [less ▲]

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See detailCommon practice in analyzing paired rating scale data: A simulation study exploring the appropriateness of the Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test
Weber, Michael; Yanagida, Takuya; Kovacs, Carrie UL

in Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Biomathematics (2010), 1

The Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks (WMPSR) test is one of the most common statistical tests used to analyze paired ordinal data in medical research. Apart from methodological problems that arise from ... [more ▼]

The Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks (WMPSR) test is one of the most common statistical tests used to analyze paired ordinal data in medical research. Apart from methodological problems that arise from calculating ranked differences for ordinal data, the analyzed data sets are often highly skewed (e.g. image quality ratings), leading to floor and ceiling effects that produce a large number of tied ranks and may bias the test statistic. An alternative procedure for analyzing paired ordinal data is the sign test, though it is known to be less powerful than the WMPSR test. The aim of our simulation study is to assess the appropriateness of these two tests (both exact and asymptotic) for paired ordinal data by comparing their type I error and statistical power using data simulated to conform to typical situations in a medical context. Data were simulated by modeling five different distributions and seven different effect sizes for sample sizes ranging from 10 to 100 (10 000 runs were performed for each condition). The results indicate that type I error for the WMPSR test (no matter whether asymptotic or exact) exceeds the nominal type I risk when data are positively skewed (more than 14% for N = 100), while the WMPSR test's power is comparable to that of the asymptotic sign test under all other conditions. The exact tests generally show a lower power than the asymptotic tests, especially for sample sizes below N = 20. In general, (1) we recommend using asymptotic tests instead of exact tests to analyze paired ordinal data, and (2) the sign test should be generally preferred to the WMPSR test. [less ▲]

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