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See detailHydrolyzed infant formula and early β-cell autoimmunity: a randomized clinical trial
Knip, M.; Åkerblom, H.K.; Becker, D. et al

in JAMA : Journal of the American Medical Association (2014), 311(22), 2279-2287

Importance The disease process leading to clinical type 1 diabetes often starts during the first years of life. Early exposure to complex dietary proteins may increase the risk of β-cell autoimmunity in ... [more ▼]

Importance The disease process leading to clinical type 1 diabetes often starts during the first years of life. Early exposure to complex dietary proteins may increase the risk of β-cell autoimmunity in children at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Extensively hydrolyzed formulas do not contain intact proteins. Objective To test the hypothesis that weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula decreases the cumulative incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in young children. Design, Setting, and Participants A double-blind randomized clinical trial of 2159 infants with HLA-conferred disease susceptibility and a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes recruited from May 2002 to January 2007 in 78 study centers in 15 countries; 1078 were randomized to be weaned to the extensively hydrolyzed casein formula and 1081 were randomized to be weaned to a conventional cows’ milk–based formula. The participants were observed to April 16, 2013. Interventions The participants received either a casein hydrolysate or a conventional cows’ milk formula supplemented with 20% of the casein hydrolysate. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome was positivity for at least 2 diabetes-associated autoantibodies out of 4 analyzed. Autoantibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and the insulinoma-associated–2 (IA-2) molecule were analyzed using radiobinding assays and islet cell antibodies with immunofluorescence during a median observation period of 7.0 years (mean, 6.3 years). Results The absolute risk of positivity for 2 or more islet autoantibodies was 13.4% among those randomized to the casein hydrolysate formula (n = 139) vs 11.4% among those randomized to the conventional formula (n = 117). The unadjusted hazard ratio for positivity for 2 or more autoantibodies among those randomized to be weaned to the casein hydrolysate was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.94-1.54), compared with those randomized to the conventional formula, while the hazard ratio adjusted for HLA risk, duration of breastfeeding, vitamin D use, study formula duration and consumption, and region was 1.23 (95% CI, 0.96-1.58). There were no clinically significant differences in the rate of reported adverse events between the 2 groups. Conclusions and Relevance Among infants at risk for type 1 diabetes, the use of a hydrolyzed formula, when compared with a conventional formula, did not reduce the incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies after 7 years. These findings do not support a benefit from hydrolyzed formula. [less ▲]

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See detailCriteria for Centers of Reference for pediatric diabetes--a European perspective
Danne, T.; Lion, S.; Madaczy, L. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(16), 62-75

' SWEET' is an acronym standing for 'Better control in pediatric and adolescent diabeteS: Working to crEate CEnTers of Reference ( CORs)' and is based on a partnership of established national and European ... [more ▼]

' SWEET' is an acronym standing for 'Better control in pediatric and adolescent diabeteS: Working to crEate CEnTers of Reference ( CORs)' and is based on a partnership of established national and European diabetes organizations such as International Diabetes Federation, Federation of European Nurses in Diabetes, and Primary Care Diabetes Europe (PCDE, www.sweet-project.eu). A three-level classification of centers has been put forward. In addition to centers for local care, SWEET collaborating centers on their way to being a COR have been defined. Peer-audited CORs with a continuous electronic documentation of at least 150 pediatric patients with diabetes treated by a multidisciplinary team based on the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes ( ISPAD) Clinical Practice recommendations have been created in 12 European countries. In 2011, they cared for between 150 to more than 700 youth with diabetes with an average hemoglobin A1c between 7.6 and 9.2%. Although these clinics should not be regarded as representative for the whole country, the acknowledgment as COR includes a common objective of targets and guidelines as well as recognition of expertise in treatment and education at the center. In a first step, the SWEET Online platform allows 12 countries using 11 languages to connect to one unified diabetes database. Aggregate data are de-identified and exported for longitudinal health and economic data analysis. Through their network, the CORs wish to obtain political influence on a national and international level and to facilitate dissemination of new approaches and techniques. The SWEET project hopes to extend from the initial group of centers within countries, throughout Europe, and beyond with the help of the ISPAD network. [less ▲]

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See detailA pediatric diabetes toolbox for creating centres of reference
Lange, K.; Klotmann, S.; Saßmann, H. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(16), 49-61

Introduction ISPAD guidelines recommend age appropriate diabetes education concepts for young patients and their families as well as tools for nutritional management, psychosocial assessment, and ... [more ▼]

Introduction ISPAD guidelines recommend age appropriate diabetes education concepts for young patients and their families as well as tools for nutritional management, psychosocial assessment, and psychological advice but their implementation in Europe is presently unknown. Methods On the basis of a structured survey among the European SWEET members information on established tools and programs in national languages were analyzed using an extensive literature and desk search. These were differentiated according to five age-groups and five target groups (young people with diabetes, parents, and other close relations, carers in school and nursery, and healthcare professionals). Results Responses and original tools were received from 11 SWEET countries reflecting the European status in 2011. More or less structured information for parents, close relations, and carers in school or nursery are available in all 11 participating countries. However, only two countries followed the recommendations of having published a structured, curriculum lead, and evaluated program for different age-groups and carers. One of these was evaluated nationwide and funded by the respective National Health Care System after accreditation. In addition a huge variety of creative tools, e.g., booklets, leaflets, games, videos, and material for educating children of different age-groups and their parents are available - but most of them are not linked to a structured education program. Conclusions Harmonizing and integrating these materials into quality assured structured holistic national education programs will be an important future task for the ongoing SWEET project. A comprehensive European diabetes educational toolbox is aimed to be published and continuously updated on the SWEET website. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of continuous glucose monitoring in children and adolescents
Phillip, M.; Danne, T.; Shalitin, S. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(3), 215-228

[No abstract available]

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See detailA cross-sectional international survey of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in 377 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus from 10 countries
Danne, T.; Battelino, T.; Kordonouri, O. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2005), 6

OBJECTIVE: To document current practices using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by downloading electronically the 90-d pump data held within the pump memory and relating that to clinical ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To document current practices using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by downloading electronically the 90-d pump data held within the pump memory and relating that to clinical data from children and adolescents in different pediatric diabetes centers from Europe and Israel. METHODS: Data of patients (1-18 yr) treated with CSII in 23 centers from nine European countries and Israel were recorded with the encapture software (PEC International, Frankfurt, Germany). The number of patients who participated was 377 (48% female; mean diabetes duration +/- SD: 6.8 +/- 3.7 yr; age: 12.9 +/- 3.8 yr, preschool n = 33; prepubertal n = 95; adolescent n = 249; CSII duration: 1.6 +/- 1.2 yr; local HbA1c: 8.1 +/- 1.2%). RESULTS: The total insulin dose was lower than previously reported for injection therapy (0.79 +/- 0.20 U/kg/d). Covariance coefficient of daily total insulin was high in all age groups (adolescents 19 +/- 9%, prepubertal 18 +/- 8 and preschool 17 +/- 8). The distribution of basal insulin infusion rates over 24 hr (48 +/- 12% of total dose) varied significantly between centers and age groups. The number of boluses per day (7 +/- 3) was not significantly different between the age groups (average daily bolus amount: 0.42 +/- 0.16 U/kg). The rate of severe hypoglycemia (coma/convulsions) was 12.4 episodes per 100 patient-years and the number of diabetes-related hospital days was 124 per 100 patient-years. DISCUSSION: Pediatric CSII patients show a high variability in their insulin therapy. This relates both to age-dependent differences in the distribution of basal insulin as to the age-independent day-to-day variation in prandial insulin. [less ▲]

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