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See detailGenotype-phenotype relations for the Parkinson’s disease genes SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35: MDSGene Review.
Trinh, Joanne; Zeldenrust, Florentine M. J.; Huang, Jana et al

in Movement Disorders (2018)

This comprehensive MDSGene review is devoted to the three autosomal-dominant PD forms: PARK-SNCA, PARK-LRRK2, and PARK-VPS35. It follows MDSGene's standardized data extraction protocol, screened a total ... [more ▼]

This comprehensive MDSGene review is devoted to the three autosomal-dominant PD forms: PARK-SNCA, PARK-LRRK2, and PARK-VPS35. It follows MDSGene's standardized data extraction protocol, screened a total of 2,972 citations, and is based on fully curated phenotypic and genotypic data on 937 patients with dominantly inherited PD attributed to 44 different mutations in SNCA, LRRK2, or VPS35. All of these data are also available in an easily searchable online database (www.mdsgene.org), which additionally provides descriptive summary statistics on phenotypic and genetic data. Despite the high degree of missingness of phenotypic features and unsystematic reporting of genotype data in the original literature, the present review recapitulates many of the previously described findings including later onset of disease (median age at onset: ∼49 years) compared to recessive forms of PD of an overall excellent treatment response. Our systematic review validates previous reports showing that SNCA mutation carriers have a younger age at onset compared to LRRK2 and VPS35 (P < 0.001). SNCA mutation carriers often have additional psychiatric symptoms, and although not exclusive to only LRRK2 or VPS35 mutation carriers, LRRK2 mutation carriers have a typical form of PD, and, lastly, VPS35 mutation carriers have good response to l-dopa. [less ▲]

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See detailBiological effects of the PINK1 c.1366C>T mutation: implications in Parkinson disease pathogenesis.
Grünewald, Anne UL; Breedveld, Guido J.; Lohmann-Hedrich, Katja et al

in Neurogenetics (2007), 8(2), 103-9

PINK1 gene mutations are a cause of recessively inherited, early-onset Parkinson's disease. In some patients, a single heterozygous mutation has been identified, including the recurrent c.1366C>T ... [more ▼]

PINK1 gene mutations are a cause of recessively inherited, early-onset Parkinson's disease. In some patients, a single heterozygous mutation has been identified, including the recurrent c.1366C>T transition. The interpretation of this finding remains controversial. Furthermore, the c.1366C>T mutation is associated with lower levels of PINK1 transcript, raising the question of whether mRNA levels correlate with the clinical status. We sequenced genomic DNA and copy DNA (cDNA) from 20 subjects carrying the c.1366C>T mutation in the homozygous (n = 5) or heterozygous (n = 15) state. In 17 mutation carriers, messenger RNA (mRNA) was quantified by real-time PCR using four different assays (PINK1 exon 5-6 or exon 7-8 relative to control genes SDHA or YWHAZ). Genomic sequencing confirmed the presence and zygosity of PINK1 mutations. cDNA sequencing in heterozygous mutation carriers revealed a strong wild-type and a much weaker or almost absent mutant signal, whereas in the homozygous patients, only the mutant signal was detected. Homozygous and heterozygous carriers showed PINK1 mRNA levels relative to a reference gene in the range of 0.1-0.2 and 0.5-0.6, respectively, compared with values of 0.9-1.0 in mutation-negative individuals. Treatment of lymphoblasts from a heterozygous mutation carrier with cycloheximide markedly increased the mutant transcript signal. We conclude that the recurrent PINK1 c.1366C>T mutation exerts a major effect at the mRNA level (80-90% reduction), most likely via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The absence of correlation between PINK1 mRNA levels and clinical status in heterozygous mutation carriers suggests that other genetic or environmental factors play a role in determining the phenotypic variability associated with the c.1366C>T mutation. [less ▲]

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