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See detailRegulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1) links stress with IL-1β-mediated familial Mediterranean fever attack through autophagy-driven neutrophil extracellular traps
Skendros, P.; Chrysanthopoulou, A.; Rousset, F. et al

in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2017)

Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an IL-1β-dependent autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations of Mediterranean fever (MEFV) encoding pyrin and characterized by inflammatory attacks ... [more ▼]

Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an IL-1β-dependent autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations of Mediterranean fever (MEFV) encoding pyrin and characterized by inflammatory attacks induced by physical or psychological stress. Objective: We investigated the underlying mechanism that links stress-induced inflammatory attacks with neutrophil activation and release of IL-1β-bearing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in patients with FMF. Methods: RNA sequencing was performed in peripheral neutrophils from 3 patients with FMF isolated both during attacks and remission, 8 patients in remission, and 8 healthy subjects. NET formation and proteins were analyzed by using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting, myeloperoxidase-DNA complex ELISA, and flow cytometry. Samples from patients with Still's disease and bacterial infections were used also. Results: The stress-related protein regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1) is significantly overexpressed during FMF attacks. Neutrophils from patients with FMF during remission are resistant to autophagy-mediated NET release, which can be overcome through REDD1 induction. Stress-related mediators (eg, epinephrine) decrease this threshold, leading to autophagy-driven NET release, whereas the synchronous inflammatory environment of FMF attack leads to intracellular production of IL-1β and its release through NETs. REDD1 in autolysosomes colocalizes with pyrin and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat/pyrin domain-containing 3. Mutated pyrin prohibits this colocalization, leading to higher IL-1β levels on NETs. Conclusions: This study provides a link between stress and initiation of inflammatory attacks in patients with FMF. REDD1 emerges as a regulator of neutrophil function upstream to pyrin, is involved in NET release and regulation of IL-1β, and might constitute an important piece in the IL-1β-mediated inflammation puzzle. © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. [less ▲]

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See detailAlkyl and aryl sulfonyl p-pyridine ethanone oximes are efficient DNA photo-cleavage agents
Andreou, Nicolaos-Panagiotis; Dafnopoulos, Konstantinos; Tortopidis, Christos et al

in Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology (2016), 158

Sulfonyloxyl radicals, readily generated upon UV irradiation of p-pyridine sulfonyl ethanone oxime derivatives, effectively cleave DNA, in a pH independent manner, and under either aerobic or anaerobic ... [more ▼]

Sulfonyloxyl radicals, readily generated upon UV irradiation of p-pyridine sulfonyl ethanone oxime derivatives, effectively cleave DNA, in a pH independent manner, and under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. p-Pyridine sulfonyl ethanone oxime derivatives were synthesized from the reaction of p-pyridine ethanone oxime with the corresponding sulfonyl chlorides in good to excellent yields. All compounds, at a concentration of 100 μM, were irradiated at 312 nm for 15 min, after incubation with supercoiled circular pBluescript KS II DNA and resulted in extended single- and double- strand cleavages. The cleavage ability was found to be concentration dependent, with some derivatives exhibiting activity even at nanomolar levels. Besides that, p-pyridine sulfonyl ethanone oxime derivatives showed good affinity to DNA, as it was observed with UV interaction and viscosity experiments with CT DNA and competitive studies with ethidium bromide. The compounds interact to CT DNA probably by non-classical intercalation (i.e. groove-binding) and at a second step they may intercalate within the DNA base pairs. The fluorescence emission spectra of pre-treated EB-DNA exhibited a significant or moderate quenching. Comparing with the known aryl carbonyloxyl radicals the sulfonyloxyl ones are more powerful, with both aryl and alkyl sulfonyl substituted derivatives to exhibit DNA photo-cleaving ability, in significantly lower concentrations. These properties may serve in the discovery of new leads for "on demand" biotechnological and medical applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of folate- pegylated polyester nanoparticles encapsulating ixabepilone for targeting folate receptor overexpressing breast cancer cells
Siafaka, P.; Betsiou, M.; Tsolou, A. et al

in Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine (2015), 26(12), 1-14

Abstract: The aim of this study was the preparation of novel polyester nanoparticles based on folic acid (FA)–functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(propylene succinate) (PEG–PPSu) copolymer and loaded ... [more ▼]

Abstract: The aim of this study was the preparation of novel polyester nanoparticles based on folic acid (FA)–functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(propylene succinate) (PEG–PPSu) copolymer and loaded with the new anticancer drug ixabepilone (IXA). These nanoparticles may serve as a more selective (targeted) treatment of breast cancer tumors overexpressing the folate receptor. The synthesized materials were characterized by 1H-NMR, FTIR, XRD and DSC. The nanoparticles were prepared by a double emulsification and solvent evaporation method and characterized with regard to their morphology by scanning electron microscopy, drug loading with HPLC–UV and size by dynamic light scattering. An average size of 195 nm and satisfactory drug loading efficiency (3.5 %) were observed. XRD data indicated that IXA was incorporated into nanoparticles in amorphous form. The nanoparticles exhibited sustained drug release properties in vitro. Based on in vitro cytotoxicity studies, the blank FA–PEG–PPSu nanoparticles were found to be non-toxic to the cells. Fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by conjugating Rhodanine B to PEG–PPSu, and live cell, fluorescence, confocal microscopy was applied in order to demonstrate the ability of FA–PEG–PPSu nanoparticles to enter into human breast cancer cells expressing the folate receptor. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. [less ▲]

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See detailCHD4 Is a RanGTP-Dependent MAP that Stabilizes Microtubules and Regulates Bipolar Spindle Formation
Koffa, Maria UL; Yokoyama, Hideki; Nakos, Konstantinos et al

in Current Biology (2013), 23(24), 2443-2451

Background Production of the GTP-bound form of the Ran GTPase (RanGTP) around chromosomes induces spindle assembly by activating nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing proteins. Several NLS proteins ... [more ▼]

Background Production of the GTP-bound form of the Ran GTPase (RanGTP) around chromosomes induces spindle assembly by activating nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing proteins. Several NLS proteins have been identified as spindle assembly factors, but the complexity of the process led us to search for additional proteins with distinct roles in spindle assembly. Results We identify a chromatin-remodeling ATPase, CHD4, as a RanGTP-dependent microtubule (MT)-associated protein (MAP). MT binding occurs via the region containing an NLS and chromatin-binding domains. In Xenopus egg extracts and cultured cells, CHD4 largely dissociates from mitotic chromosomes and partially localizes to the spindle. Immunodepletion of CHD4 from egg extracts significantly reduces the quantity of MTs produced around chromatin and prevents spindle assembly. CHD4 RNAi in both HeLa and Drosophila S2 cells induces defects in spindle assembly and chromosome alignment in early mitosis, leading to chromosome missegregation. Further analysis in egg extracts and in HeLa cells reveals that CHD4 is a RanGTP-dependent MT stabilizer. Moreover, the CHD4-containing NuRD complex promotes organization of MTs into bipolar spindles in egg extracts. Importantly, this function of CHD4 is independent of chromatin remodeling. Conclusions Our results uncover a new role for CHD4 as a MAP required for MT stabilization and involved in generating spindle bipolarity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailTripolin A, a Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Aurora A Kinase, Reveals New Regulation of HURP’s Distribution on Microtubules
Koffa, Maria UL; Giannis, Athanassios; Kesisova, Iliana A. et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(3),

Mitotic regulators exhibiting gain of function in tumor cells are considered useful cancer therapeutic targets for the development of small-molecule inhibitors. The human Aurora kinases are a family of ... [more ▼]

Mitotic regulators exhibiting gain of function in tumor cells are considered useful cancer therapeutic targets for the development of small-molecule inhibitors. The human Aurora kinases are a family of such targets. In this study, from a panel of 105 potential small-molecule inhibitors, two compounds Tripolin A and Tripolin B, inhibited Aurora A kinase activity in vitro. In human cells however, only Tripolin A acted as an Aurora A inhibitor. We combined in vitro, in vivo single cell and in silico studies to demonstrate the biological action of Tripolin A, a non-ATP competitive inhibitor. Tripolin A reduced the localization of pAurora A on spindle microtubules (MTs), affected centrosome integrity, spindle formation and length, as well as MT dynamics in interphase, consistent with Aurora A inhibition by RNAi or other specific inhibitors, such as MLN8054 or MLN8237. Interestingly, Tripolin A affected the gradient distribution towards the chromosomes, but not the MT binding of HURP (Hepatoma Up-Regulated Protein), a MT-associated protein (MAP) and substrate of the Aurora A kinase. Therefore Tripolin A reveals a new way of regulating mitotic MT stabilizers through Aurora A phosphorylation. Tripolin A is predicted to bind Aurora A similarly but not identical to MLN8054, therefore it could be used to dissect pathways orchestrated by Aurora kinases as well as a scaffold for further inhibitor development. © 2013 Kesisova et al. [less ▲]

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See detailGonadotropin-releasing hormone neuropeptides and receptor in human breast cancer: Correlation to poor prognosis parameters
Pazaitou-Panayiotou, Kalliopi; Chemonidou, Christina; Poupi, Aliki et al

in Peptides (2013), 42

Expression of the two gonadotropin-releasing hormone homologue peptides GnRHI and GnRHII and their receptor GnRHR has been demonstrated in a number of malignancies. In hormone-dependent breast cancer ... [more ▼]

Expression of the two gonadotropin-releasing hormone homologue peptides GnRHI and GnRHII and their receptor GnRHR has been demonstrated in a number of malignancies. In hormone-dependent breast cancer, GnRH analogs are used for therapy in premenopausal women. Gene expression of GnRHI, II and R was studied in breast biopsies from primary breast adenocarcinoma obtained from the tumor and the adjacent benign tissue. Levels were evaluated by a multiplex real-time RT-PCR. GnRHI transcripts were detected in 14.7% of the benign and 29.4% malignant biopsies and GnRHII in 21.2% benign and 44.1% malignant biopsies. GnRHR was also more frequent in the malignant (54.2%) than in the benign (24.0%) biopsies, at similar expression levels. No transcripts were detected in biopsies from healthy individuals. There was a strong correlation between the presence of GnRHI and GnRHII transcripts and their receptor in the benign and the malignant biopsies. GnRHI, II and R expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis pathological parameters. Immunohistochemistry for GnRHR revealed expression in malignant cells and in epithelial cells of mammary ducts of the adjacent area with pre-cancerous features. In contrast, GnRH I and II peptides were rarely expressed at low levels in breast cancer cells. In conclusion GnRH peptides and receptor are expressed more frequently in breast tumors than in the adjacent mammary tissue, representing a malignant feature. Their expression correlated to tumor characteristics of poor prognosis and was therefore related to more aggressive malignancies. Concomitant expression of peptides and receptor supports an autocrine/paracrine regulating role. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased apoptotic activity on inflammatory human placentas in spontaneous abortions during the first and second trimester of gestation: A histochemical and immunohistochemical study
Deftereou, Theodora-Eleftheria; Lambropoulou, Maria; Chatzaki, Ekaterini et al

in Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica (2012), 50(1), 118-124

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of apoptotic markers on inflammatory human placentas from spontaneous abortions during the first and second trimester of gestation and compare them to ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of apoptotic markers on inflammatory human placentas from spontaneous abortions during the first and second trimester of gestation and compare them to those without inflammation. Paraffin-embedded specimens from 76 placentas were investigated by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against M30, Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9, as well as the terminal deoxynucleotidyl tranferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling method. A higher prevalence of expression of apoptotic markers (94.4%) was observed in placentas associated with chorioamnionitis in comparison with those without inflammation. Our observations confirm that apoptosis is strikingly prevalent in placentas diagnosed with histologic chorioamnionitis, while the inflammation induces cell death. © Polish Society for Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. [less ▲]

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See detailGene therapy in liver diseases: State-of-the-art and future perspectives
Domvri, Kalliopi; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Porpodis, Konstantinos et al

in Current Gene Therapy (2012), 12(6), 463-483

Gene therapy is a fundamentally novel therapeutic approach that involves introducing genetic material into target cells in order to fight or prevent disease. A number of different strategies of gene ... [more ▼]

Gene therapy is a fundamentally novel therapeutic approach that involves introducing genetic material into target cells in order to fight or prevent disease. A number of different strategies of gene therapy are tested at experimental and clinical levels, including: a) replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene, b) inactivating a mutated gene that its improper function causes pathogenesis, c) introducing a new gene coding a therapeutic compound to fight a disease, d) introducing to the target organ an enzyme converting an inactive pro-drug to its cytotoxic metabolite. In gene therapy, the transcriptional machinery of the patient is used to produce the active factor that exerts the intended therapeutic effect, ideally in a permanent, tissue-specific and manageable way. The liver is a major target for gene therapy, presenting inherited metabolic defects of single-gene etiology, but also severe multifactorial pathologies with limited therapeutic options such as hepatocellular carcinoma. The initial promising results from gene therapy strategies in liver diseases were followed by skepticism on the actual clinical value due to specificity, efficacy, toxicity and immune limitations, but are recently re-evaluated due to progress in vector technology and monitoring techniques. The significant amount of experimental data along with the available information from clinical trials are systematically reviewed here and presented per pathological entity. Finally, future perspectives of gene therapy protocols in hepatology are summarized. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. [less ▲]

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See detailAutophagy Mediates the Delivery of Thrombogenic Tissue Factor to Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Human Sepsis
Kambas, Konstantinos; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Apostolidou, Eirini et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(9),

Background: Sepsis is associated with systemic inflammatory responses and induction of coagulation system. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) constitute an antimicrobial mechanism, recently implicated ... [more ▼]

Background: Sepsis is associated with systemic inflammatory responses and induction of coagulation system. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) constitute an antimicrobial mechanism, recently implicated in thrombosis via platelet entrapment and aggregation. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we demonstrate for the first time the localization of thrombogenic tissue factor (TF) in NETs released by neutrophils derived from patients with gram-negative sepsis and normal neutrophils treated with either serum from septic patients or inflammatory mediators involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Localization of TF in acidified autophagosomes was observed during this process, as indicated by positive LC3B and LysoTracker staining. Moreover, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibition with 3-MA or inhibition of endosomal acidification with bafilomycin A1 hindered the release of TF-bearing NETs. TF present in NETs induced thrombin generation in culture supernatants, which further resulted in protease activated receptor-1 signaling. Conclusions/Significance: This study demonstrates the involvement of autophagic machinery in the extracellular delivery of TF in NETs and the subsequent activation of coagulation cascade, providing evidence for the implication of this process in coagulopathy and inflammatory response in sepsis. © 2012 Kambas et al. [less ▲]

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