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See detailGenotype-phenotype relations for the Parkinson’s disease genes SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35: MDSGene Review.
Trinh, Joanne; Zeldenrust, Florentine M. J.; Huang, Jana et al

in Movement Disorders (2018), 33(12), 1857-1870

This comprehensive MDSGene review is devoted to the three autosomal-dominant PD forms: PARK-SNCA, PARK-LRRK2, and PARK-VPS35. It follows MDSGene's standardized data extraction protocol, screened a total ... [more ▼]

This comprehensive MDSGene review is devoted to the three autosomal-dominant PD forms: PARK-SNCA, PARK-LRRK2, and PARK-VPS35. It follows MDSGene's standardized data extraction protocol, screened a total of 2,972 citations, and is based on fully curated phenotypic and genotypic data on 937 patients with dominantly inherited PD attributed to 44 different mutations in SNCA, LRRK2, or VPS35. All of these data are also available in an easily searchable online database (www.mdsgene.org), which additionally provides descriptive summary statistics on phenotypic and genetic data. Despite the high degree of missingness of phenotypic features and unsystematic reporting of genotype data in the original literature, the present review recapitulates many of the previously described findings including later onset of disease (median age at onset: ∼49 years) compared to recessive forms of PD of an overall excellent treatment response. Our systematic review validates previous reports showing that SNCA mutation carriers have a younger age at onset compared to LRRK2 and VPS35 (P < 0.001). SNCA mutation carriers often have additional psychiatric symptoms, and although not exclusive to only LRRK2 or VPS35 mutation carriers, LRRK2 mutation carriers have a typical form of PD, and, lastly, VPS35 mutation carriers have good response to l-dopa. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-wide association study in musician's dystonia: a risk variant at the arylsulfatase G locus?
Lohmann, Katja; Schmidt, Alexander; Schillert, Arne et al

in Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society (2014), 29(7), 921-7

Musician's dystonia (MD) affects 1% to 2% of professional musicians and frequently terminates performance careers. It is characterized by loss of voluntary motor control when playing the instrument ... [more ▼]

Musician's dystonia (MD) affects 1% to 2% of professional musicians and frequently terminates performance careers. It is characterized by loss of voluntary motor control when playing the instrument. Little is known about genetic risk factors, although MD or writer's dystonia (WD) occurs in relatives of 20% of MD patients. We conducted a 2-stage genome-wide association study in whites. Genotypes at 557,620 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) passed stringent quality control for 127 patients and 984 controls. Ten SNPs revealed P < 10(-5) and entered the replication phase including 116 MD patients and 125 healthy musicians. A genome-wide significant SNP (P < 5 x 10(-8) ) was also genotyped in 208 German or Dutch WD patients, 1,969 Caucasian, Spanish, and Japanese patients with other forms of focal or segmental dystonia as well as in 2,233 ethnically matched controls. Genome-wide significance with MD was observed for an intronic variant in the arylsulfatase G (ARSG) gene (rs11655081; P = 3.95 x 10(-9) ; odds ratio [OR], 4.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.66-7.05). rs11655081 was also associated with WD (P = 2.78 x 10(-2) ) but not with any other focal or segmental dystonia. The allele frequency of rs11655081 varies substantially between different populations. The population stratification in our sample was modest (lambda = 1.07), but the effect size may be overestimated. Using a small but homogenous patient sample, we provide data for a possible association of ARSG with MD. The variant may also contribute to the risk of WD, a form of dystonia that is often found in relatives of MD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailProminent psychiatric comorbidity in the dominantly inherited movement disorder myoclonus-dystonia.
Weissbach, Anne; Kasten, Meike; Grünewald, Anne UL et al

in Parkinsonism & related disorders (2013), 19(4), 422-5

BACKGROUND: Neurological and psychiatric disorders show clinical overlap suggesting a shared pathophysiological background. We evaluated myoclonus-dystonia, a monogenic movement disorder as a disease ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Neurological and psychiatric disorders show clinical overlap suggesting a shared pathophysiological background. We evaluated myoclonus-dystonia, a monogenic movement disorder as a disease model for inherited psychopathology. METHOD: We investigated 12 SGCE mutation carriers using standardized neurological and psychiatric examinations to assign DSM-IV diagnoses. Furthermore, we analyzed all studies in the Medline database which included psychiatric information on SGCE mutation-positive patients. RESULTS: Of our twelve SGCE mutation carriers, 10 were older than 16 years. Two of them (20%) reported psychiatric diagnoses before our examination, which resulted in at least one psychiatric diagnosis in seven (70%) patients, most frequently anxiety (60%), depression (30%) or both. Substance abuse was observed in 20%, whereas obsessive-compulsive disorders were absent. One mutation carrier showed Axis 2 features. In the literature analysis, the ten studies using standardized tools covering DSM-IV criteria reported prevalences similar to those in our sample. This was three times the frequency of psychiatric disorders detected in 13 studies using clinical history or patient report only. CONCLUSION: About two thirds of SGCE mutation carriers develop psychiatric comorbidity and >80% are previously undiagnosed. [less ▲]

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See detailNext-generation phenotyping using the parkin example: time to catch up with genetics.
Grünewald, Anne UL; Kasten, Meike; Ziegler, Andreas et al

in JAMA neurology (2013), 70(9), 1186-91

IMPORTANCE: Two decades of intense research have led to important insights into the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, with limited direct clinical impact. While next-generation sequencing has ... [more ▼]

IMPORTANCE: Two decades of intense research have led to important insights into the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, with limited direct clinical impact. While next-generation sequencing has emerged as a powerful research tool, we hypothesized that systematic exploitation of phenotypic data are lagging behind genetic advances. OBJECTIVES: To use the 15-year experience with parkin-associated Parkinson disease (PD) to evaluate type, quality, and quantity of genetic and phenotypic data and to elucidate clinical or genetic features impacting genetic testing and counseling. EVIDENCE REVIEW: We searched MEDLINE: (1998-2012) using the term parkin AND mutation for English publications about proved parkin-associated PD and at least minimal, individual clinical information excluding digenic cases, and redundant articles. This approach identified 877 articles, of which 196 described patients with PD with confirmed parkin mutations and 127 articles fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Information was extracted using predefined criteria and a consensus approach for questionable details. To evaluate study method differences, we devised a quality score representing the completeness of clinical, demographic, and genetic information. FINDINGS: In the data about 1184 patients, the quality score increased steadily and was driven exclusively by improvements in genetic analyses. By contrast, demographic and clinical content stagnated. The mean age at onset was 9 years lower in index patients with 2 mutant parkin alleles than in heterozygotes. Genotype-phenotype correlation was observed for the number of mutated alleles and dystonia. By contrast, dementia was rare in all parkin-mutation carriers (<3%), despite long disease duration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Notwithstanding large gaps in phenotypic information content, we identified dystonia and the absence of dementia as "red flags" to be incorporated in counseling guidelines. We propose mandatory minimal criteria for genotype-phenotype studies to facilitate the next breakthrough-following genetics-toward more personalized medicine for genetic conditions, extending well beyond the parkin example. [less ▲]

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See detailNext-generation phenotyping and genomic incidental findings--reply.
Kasten, Meike; Grünewald, Anne UL; Klein, Christine UL

in JAMA neurology (2013), 70(12), 1590-1

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (2 UL)
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See detailMutant Parkin impairs mitochondrial function and morphology in human fibroblasts.
Grünewald, Anne UL; Voges, Lisa; Rakovic, Aleksandar et al

in PloS one (2010), 5(9), 12962

BACKGROUND: Mutations in Parkin are the most common cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). The mitochondrially localized E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Parkin has been reported to be involved ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Mutations in Parkin are the most common cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). The mitochondrially localized E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Parkin has been reported to be involved in respiratory chain function and mitochondrial dynamics. More recent publications also described a link between Parkin and mitophagy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the impact of Parkin mutations on mitochondrial function and morphology in a human cellular model. Fibroblasts were obtained from three members of an Italian PD family with two mutations in Parkin (homozygous c.1072delT, homozygous delEx7, compound-heterozygous c.1072delT/delEx7), as well as from two relatives without mutations. Furthermore, three unrelated compound-heterozygous patients (delEx3-4/duplEx7-12, delEx4/c.924C>T and delEx1/c.924C>T) and three unrelated age-matched controls were included. Fibroblasts were cultured under basal or paraquat-induced oxidative stress conditions. ATP synthesis rates and cellular levels were detected luminometrically. Activities of complexes I-IV and citrate synthase were measured spectrophotometrically in mitochondrial preparations or cell lysates. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide. Oxidative stress levels were investigated with the OxyBlot technique. The mitochondrial network was investigated immunocytochemically and the degree of branching was determined with image processing methods. We observed a decrease in the production and overall concentration of ATP coinciding with increased mitochondrial mass in Parkin-mutant fibroblasts. After an oxidative insult, the membrane potential decreased in patient cells but not in controls. We further determined higher levels of oxidized proteins in the mutants both under basal and stress conditions. The degree of mitochondrial network branching was comparable in mutants and controls under basal conditions and decreased to a similar extent under paraquat-induced stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Parkin mutations cause abnormal mitochondrial function and morphology in non-neuronal human cells. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (2 UL)