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See detailInduced Neural Stem Cells Achieve Long-Term Survival and Functional Integration in the Adult Mouse Brain
Hemmer, Kathrin UL; Zhang, Mingyue; van Wuellen, Thea et al

in Stem Cell Reports (2014)

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See detailRegrowing the adult brain: NF-kappaB controls functional circuit formation and tissue homeostasis in the dentate gyrus.
Imielski, Yvonne; Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Luningschror, Patrick et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(2), 30838

Cognitive decline during aging is correlated with a continuous loss of cells within the brain and especially within the hippocampus, which could be regenerated by adult neurogenesis. Here we show that ... [more ▼]

Cognitive decline during aging is correlated with a continuous loss of cells within the brain and especially within the hippocampus, which could be regenerated by adult neurogenesis. Here we show that genetic ablation of NF-kappaB resulted in severe defects in the neurogenic region (dentate gyrus) of the hippocampus. Despite increased stem cell proliferation, axogenesis, synaptogenesis and neuroprotection were hampered, leading to disruption of the mossy fiber pathway and to atrophy of the dentate gyrus during aging. Here, NF-kappaB controls the transcription of FOXO1 and PKA, regulating axogenesis. Structural defects culminated in behavioral impairments in pattern separation. Re-activation of NF-kappaB resulted in integration of newborn neurons, finally to regeneration of the dentate gyrus, accompanied by a complete recovery of structural and behavioral defects. These data identify NF-kappaB as a crucial regulator of dentate gyrus tissue homeostasis suggesting NF-kappaB to be a therapeutic target for treating cognitive and mood disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailSemaphorin 3A stimulates neurite extension and regulates gene expression in PC12 cells.
Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Fiore, Roberto; Bagnard, Dominique et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2004), 279(30), 30923-6

The secreted semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a member of a large family of proteins that act as guidance signals for axons and dendrites. While the receptors and signaling pathways that mediate the repulsive ... [more ▼]

The secreted semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a member of a large family of proteins that act as guidance signals for axons and dendrites. While the receptors and signaling pathways that mediate the repulsive effects of semaphorins are beginning to be understood in some detail, the mechanisms that are responsible for the ability of Sema3A to stimulate the extension of dendrites remain to be elucidated. Here we show that PC12 cells, a model widely used to study neuronal differentiation, can be used to dissect this pathway. Sema3A is as effective as nerve growth factor in stimulating the extension of neurites from PC12 cells. We show that Sema3A is able to regulate gene expression and identify mitochondria as a novel target of Sema3A signaling. Pharmacological block of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production abolishes the extension of neurites in response to Sema3A. These results show that the characterization of transcripts that are regulated by axon guidance signals may help to identify novel components of their signaling pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroarray analysis of tumor necrosis factor alpha induced gene expression in U373 human glioblastoma cells.
Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Lindecke, Antje; Elvers, Margitta et al

in BMC Genomics (2003), 4(1), 46

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is able to induce a variety of biological responses in the nervous system including inflammation and neuroprotection. Human astrocytoma cells U373 have been ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is able to induce a variety of biological responses in the nervous system including inflammation and neuroprotection. Human astrocytoma cells U373 have been widely used as a model for inflammatory cytokine actions in the nervous system. Here we used cDNA microarrays to analyze the time course of the transcriptional response from 1 h up to 12 h post TNF treatment in comparison to untreated U373 cells. TNF activated strongly the NF-kappaB transcriptional pathway and is linked to other pathways via the NF-kappaB target genes JUNB and IRF-1. Part of the TNF-induced gene expression could be inhibited by pharmacological inhibition of NF-kappaB with pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate (PDTC). NF-kappaB comprises a family of transcription factors which are involved in the inducible expression of genes regulating neuronal survival, inflammatory response, cancer and innate immunity. RESULTS: In this study we show that numerous genes responded to TNF (> 880 from 7500 tested) with a more than two-fold induction rate. Several novel TNF-responsive genes (about 60% of the genes regulated by a factor > or = 3) were detected. A comparison of our TNF-induced gene expression profiles of U373, with profiles from 3T3 and Hela cells revealed a striking cell-type specificity. SCYA2 (MCP-1, CCL2, MCAF) was induced in U373 cells in a sustained manner and at the highest level of all analyzed genes. MCP-1 protein expression, as monitored with immunofluorescence and ELISA, correlated exactly with microarray data. Based on these data and on evidence from literature we suggest a model for the potential neurodegenerative effect of NF-kappaB in astroglia: Activation of NF-kappaB via TNF results in a strongly increased production of MCP-1. This leads to a exacerbation of neurodegeneration in stoke or Multiple Sclerosis, presumably via infiltration of macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of genes regulated more than 3-fold were previously not linked to tumor necrosis factor alpha as a search in published literature revealed. Striking co-regulation for several functional groups such as proteasome and ribosomal proteins were detected. [less ▲]

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