References of "Kahle, Philipp J"
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See detailOverexpression of synphilin-1 promotes clearance of soluble and misfolded alpha-synuclein without restoring the motor phenotype in aged A30P transgenic mice.
Casadei, Nicolas; Pohler, Anne-Maria; Tomas-Zapico, Cristina et al

in Human molecular genetics (2014), 23(3), 767-81

Lewy bodies and neurites are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease. These structures are composed of fibrillized and ubiquitinated alpha-synuclein suggesting that impaired protein clearance is ... [more ▼]

Lewy bodies and neurites are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease. These structures are composed of fibrillized and ubiquitinated alpha-synuclein suggesting that impaired protein clearance is an important event in aggregate formation. The A30P mutation is known for its fast oligomerization, but slow fibrillization rate. Despite its toxicity to neurons, mechanisms involved in either clearance or conversion of A30P alpha-synuclein from its soluble state into insoluble fibrils and their effects in vivo are poorly understood. Synphilin-1 is present in Lewy bodies, interacting with alpha-synuclein in vivo and in vitro and promotes its sequestration into aggresomes, which are thought to act as cytoprotective agents facilitating protein degradation. We therefore crossed animals overexpressing A30P alpha-synuclein with synphilin-1 transgenic mice to analyze its impact on aggregation, protein clearance and phenotype progression. We observed that co-expression of synphilin-1 mildly delayed the motor phenotype caused by A30P alpha-synuclein. Additionally, the presence of N- and C-terminal truncated alpha-synuclein species and fibrils were strongly reduced in double-transgenic mice when compared with single-transgenic A30P mice. Insolubility of mutant A30P and formation of aggresomes was still detectable in aged double-transgenic mice, paralleled by an increase of ubiquitinated proteins and high autophagic activity. Hence, this study supports the notion that co-expression of synphilin-1 promotes formation of autophagic-susceptible aggresomes and consecutively the degradation of human A30P alpha-synuclein. Notably, although synphilin-1 overexpression significantly reduced formation of fibrils and astrogliosis in aged animals, a similar phenotype is present in single- and double-transgenic mice suggesting additional neurotoxic processes in disease progression. [less ▲]

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See detailOlfactory neuron-specific expression of A30P alpha-synuclein exacerbates dopamine deficiency and hyperactivity in a novel conditional model of early Parkinson's disease stages.
Nuber, Silke; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Arias-Carrion, Oscar et al

in Neurobiology of disease (2011), 44(2), 192-204

Mutations in the N-terminus of the gene encoding alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) are linked to autosomal dominantly inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). The vast majority of PD patients develop ... [more ▼]

Mutations in the N-terminus of the gene encoding alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) are linked to autosomal dominantly inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). The vast majority of PD patients develop neuropsychiatric symptoms preceding motor impairments. During this premotor stage, synucleinopathy is first detectable in the olfactory bulb (OB) and brain stem nuclei; however its impact on interconnected brain regions and related symptoms is still less far understood. Using a novel conditional transgenic mouse model, displaying region-specific expression of human mutant alpha-syn, we evaluated effect and reversibility of olfactory synucleinopathy. Our data showed that induction of mutant A30P alpha-syn expression increased transgenic deposition into somatodendritic compartment of dopaminergic neurons, without generating fibrillar inclusions. We found reversibly reduced levels of dopamine and metabolites in the OB, suggesting an impact of A30P alpha-syn on olfactory neurotransmitter content. We further showed that mutant A30P expression led to neurodegenerative changes on an ultrastructural level and a behaviorally hyperactive response correlated with novelty, odor processing and stress associated with an increased dopaminergic tone in midbrain regions. Our present data indicate that mutant (A30P) alpha-syn is directly implicated in reduction of dopamine signaling in OB interneurons, which mediates further alterations in brain regions without transgenic expression leading functionally to a hyperactive response. These modulations of neurotransmission may underlie in part some of the early neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD preceding dysfunction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced basal autophagy and impaired mitochondrial dynamics due to loss of Parkinson's disease-associated protein DJ-1.
Krebiehl, Guido; Ruckerbauer, Sabine; Burbulla, Lena F. et al

in PloS one (2010), 5(2), 9367

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction and degradation takes a central role in current paradigms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Loss of DJ-1 function is a rare cause of familial PD ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction and degradation takes a central role in current paradigms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Loss of DJ-1 function is a rare cause of familial PD. Although a critical role of DJ-1 in oxidative stress response and mitochondrial function has been recognized, the effects on mitochondrial dynamics and downstream consequences remain to be determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using DJ-1 loss of function cellular models from knockout (KO) mice and human carriers of the E64D mutation in the DJ-1 gene we define a novel role of DJ-1 in the integrity of both cellular organelles, mitochondria and lysosomes. We show that loss of DJ-1 caused impaired mitochondrial respiration, increased intramitochondrial reactive oxygen species, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and characteristic alterations of mitochondrial shape as shown by quantitative morphology. Importantly, ultrastructural imaging and subsequent detailed lysosomal activity analyses revealed reduced basal autophagic degradation and the accumulation of defective mitochondria in DJ-1 KO cells, that was linked with decreased levels of phospho-activated ERK2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that loss of DJ-1 leads to impaired autophagy and accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria that under physiological conditions would be compensated via lysosomal clearance. Our study provides evidence for a critical role of DJ-1 in mitochondrial homeostasis by connecting basal autophagy and mitochondrial integrity in Parkinson's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation of mitochondrial function and morphology by interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with the mitochondrial fusion factor OPA1.
Kieper, Nicole; Holmstrom, Kira M.; Ciceri, Dalila et al

in Experimental cell research (2010), 316(7), 1213-24

Loss of Omi/HtrA2 function leads to nerve cell loss in mouse models and has been linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Omi/HtrA2 is a serine protease released as a pro ... [more ▼]

Loss of Omi/HtrA2 function leads to nerve cell loss in mouse models and has been linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Omi/HtrA2 is a serine protease released as a pro-apoptotic factor from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol. Under physiological conditions, Omi/HtrA2 is thought to be involved in protection against cellular stress, but the cytological and molecular mechanisms are not clear. Omi/HtrA2 deficiency caused an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. In Omi/HtrA2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, as well as in Omi/HtrA2 silenced human HeLa cells and Drosophila S2R+ cells, we found elongated mitochondria by live cell imaging. Electron microscopy confirmed the mitochondrial morphology alterations and showed abnormal cristae structure. Examining the levels of proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion, we found a selective up-regulation of more soluble OPA1 protein. Complementation of knockout cells with wild-type Omi/HtrA2 but not with the protease mutant [S306A]Omi/HtrA2 reversed the mitochondrial elongation phenotype and OPA1 alterations. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation showed direct interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with endogenous OPA1. Thus, we show for the first time a direct effect of loss of Omi/HtrA2 on mitochondrial morphology and demonstrate a novel role of this mitochondrial serine protease in the modulation of OPA1. Our results underscore a critical role of impaired mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss-of-function of human PINK1 results in mitochondrial pathology and can be rescued by parkin.
Exner, Nicole; Treske, Bettina; Paquet, Dominik et al

in The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2007), 27(45), 12413-8

Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is characteristic for Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to ... [more ▼]

Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is characteristic for Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to contribute to the etiology of PD. Although most cases are sporadic, recent evidence points to a number of genes involved in familial variants of PD. Among them, a loss-of-function of phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced kinase 1 (PINK1; PARK6) is associated with rare cases of autosomal recessive parkinsonism. In HeLa cells, RNA interference-mediated downregulation of PINK1 results in abnormal mitochondrial morphology and altered membrane potential. Morphological changes of mitochondria can be rescued by expression of wild-type PINK1 but not by PD-associated PINK1 mutants. Moreover, primary cells derived from patients with two different PINK1 mutants showed a similar defect in mitochondrial morphology. Human parkin but not PD-associated mutants could rescue mitochondrial pathology in human cells like wild-type PINK1. Our results may therefore suggest that PINK1 deficiency in humans results in mitochondrial abnormalities associated with cellular stress, a pathological phenotype, which can be ameliorated by enhanced expression of parkin. [less ▲]

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