References of "Jurkowski, Wiktor"
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See detailRare coding variants in genes encoding GABAA receptors in genetic generalised epilepsies: an exome-based case-control study
May, Patrick UL; Girard, Simon; Harrer, Merle et al

in Lancet Neurology (2018), 17(8), 699-708

Background Genetic generalised epilepsy is the most common type of inherited epilepsy. Despite a high concordance rate of 80% in monozygotic twins, the genetic background is still poorly understood. We ... [more ▼]

Background Genetic generalised epilepsy is the most common type of inherited epilepsy. Despite a high concordance rate of 80% in monozygotic twins, the genetic background is still poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the burden of rare genetic variants in genetic generalised epilepsy. Methods For this exome-based case-control study, we used three different genetic generalised epilepsy case cohorts and three independent control cohorts, all of European descent. Cases included in the study were clinically evaluated for genetic generalised epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing was done for the discovery case cohort, a validation case cohort, and two independent control cohorts. The replication case cohort underwent targeted next-generation sequencing of the 19 known genes encoding subunits of GABAA receptors and was compared to the respective GABAA receptor variants of a third independent control cohort. Functional investigations were done with automated two-microelectrode voltage clamping in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Findings Statistical comparison of 152 familial index cases with genetic generalised epilepsy in the discovery cohort to 549 ethnically matched controls suggested an enrichment of rare missense (Nonsyn) variants in the ensemble of 19 genes encoding GABAA receptors in cases (odds ratio [OR] 2·40 [95% CI 1·41–4·10]; pNonsyn=0·0014, adjusted pNonsyn=0·019). Enrichment for these genes was validated in a whole-exome sequencing cohort of 357 sporadic and familial genetic generalised epilepsy cases and 1485 independent controls (OR 1·46 [95% CI 1·05–2·03]; pNonsyn=0·0081, adjusted pNonsyn=0·016). Comparison of genes encoding GABAA receptors in the independent replication cohort of 583 familial and sporadic genetic generalised epilepsy index cases, based on candidate-gene panel sequencing, with a third independent control cohort of 635 controls confirmed the overall enrichment of rare missense variants for 15 GABAA receptor genes in cases compared with controls (OR 1·46 [95% CI 1·02–2·08]; pNonsyn=0·013, adjusted pNonsyn=0·027). Functional studies for two selected genes (GABRB2 and GABRA5) showed significant loss-of-function effects with reduced current amplitudes in four of seven tested variants compared with wild-type receptors. Interpretation Functionally relevant variants in genes encoding GABAA receptor subunits constitute a significant risk factor for genetic generalised epilepsy. Examination of the role of specific gene groups and pathways can disentangle the complex genetic architecture of genetic generalised epilepsy. [less ▲]

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See detailExome-wide analysis of mutational burden in patients with typical and atypical Rolandic Epilepsy
Bobbili, Dheeraj Reddy UL; Lal, Dennis; May, Patrick UL et al

in European Journal of Human Genetics (2018)

Rolandic Epilepsy (RE) is the most common focal epilepsy in childhood. To date no hypothesis-free exome-wide mutational screen has been conducted for RE and Atypical RE (ARE). Here we report on whole ... [more ▼]

Rolandic Epilepsy (RE) is the most common focal epilepsy in childhood. To date no hypothesis-free exome-wide mutational screen has been conducted for RE and Atypical RE (ARE). Here we report on whole-exome sequencing of 194 unrelated patients with RE/ARE and 567 ethnically matched population controls. We identified an exome-wide significantly enriched burden for deleterious and loss-of-function variants only for the established RE/ARE gene GRIN2A. The statistical significance of the enrichment disappeared after removing ARE patients. For several disease-related gene-sets, an odds ratio > 1 was detected for loss-of-function variants. [less ▲]

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See detailA Novel Multi-objectivisation Approach for Optimising the Protein Inverse Folding Problem
Nielsen, Sune Steinbjorn UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Jurkowski, Wiktor et al

in Applications of Evolutionary Computation: 18th European Conference, EvoApplications 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark, April 8-10, 2015, Proceedings (2015)

In biology, the subject of protein structure prediction is of continued interest, not only to chart the molecular map of the living cell, but also to design proteins of new functions. The Inverse Folding ... [more ▼]

In biology, the subject of protein structure prediction is of continued interest, not only to chart the molecular map of the living cell, but also to design proteins of new functions. The Inverse Folding Problem (IFP) is in itself an important research problem, but also at the heart of most rational protein design approaches. In brief, the IFP consists in finding sequences that will fold into a given structure, rather than determining the structure for a given sequence - as in conventional structure prediction. In this work we present a Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) using the diversity-as-objective (DAO) variant of multi-objectivisation, to optimise secondary structure similarity and sequence diversity at the same time, hence pushing the search farther into wide-spread areas of the sequence solution-space. To control the high diversity generated by the DAO approach, we add a novel Quantile Constraint (QC) mechanism to discard an adjustable worst quantile of the population. This DAO-QC approach can efficiently emphasise exploitation rather than exploration to a selectable degree achieving a trade-off producing both better and more diverse sequences than the standard Genetic Algorithm (GA). To validate the final results, a subset of the best sequences was selected for tertiary structure prediction. The super-positioning with the original protein structure demonstrated that meaningful sequences are generated underlining the potential of this work. [less ▲]

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