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See detailRecent Progress Toward Intelligent Robot Assistants for Non-Destructive Disassembly
Jungbluth, Jan UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Müller, Rainer; Plapper, Peter; Brüls, Olivier (Eds.) et al Robotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2018 (2018)

One key to successful and fluent human-robot collaboration in disassembly processes is equipping the robot systems with greater autonomy and intelligence. In this paper, we present our progress in ... [more ▼]

One key to successful and fluent human-robot collaboration in disassembly processes is equipping the robot systems with greater autonomy and intelligence. In this paper, we present our progress in developing such an intelligent robot assistant system. We present the multi-agent control architecture we developed and describe its technical implementation. Our control approach relies on two types of knowledge models: product and process models. The product model describes the structure of the product to be dismantled through a description of the parts involved and the connections between them. A connection type-related process model describes which agents and objects participate in the disassembly process and which methods of human-robot cooperation or collaboration are most useful. When supplied with a product model and a goal definition, our robotic assistant can automatically generate a partially ordered disassembly task sequence. For each disassembly task, the user can choose one of the divisions of labor defined in the process model. Using the process model, through perception and deliberation, the control system can both execute actions and coordinate and synchronize the actions of human and machine. This approach allows the system to be more autonomous when providing assistance to human coworkers in complex and one-piece disassembly processes. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining Virtual and Robot Assistants - A Case Study about Integrating Amazon's Alexa as a Voice Interface in Robotics
Jungbluth, Jan UL; Krieger, Rolf; Gerke, Wolfgang et al

in Müller, Rainer; Plapper, Peter; Brüls, Oliver (Eds.) et al Robotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2018 (2018)

Virtual assistants such as Alexa, Siri, Cortana and Google Assistant increasingly find ways to enter our homes and everyday lives, where they serve as powerful human-machine interfaces to control devices ... [more ▼]

Virtual assistants such as Alexa, Siri, Cortana and Google Assistant increasingly find ways to enter our homes and everyday lives, where they serve as powerful human-machine interfaces to control devices through natural language. In this work, we explore the use of virtual assistants to control single components within an intelligent industrial robot assistant system for disassembly applications. Following a short introduction and an overview of commercially available virtual assistants, we present our system architecture, which integrates Amazon's Alexa through an Echo Dot device. Utilizing the Alexa Skill Kit, we build a voice user interface that contains dialogs to control various device functions and assistive system behaviors. By connecting Alexa Voice Service with Amazon’s Lambda and IoT web services, we can parametrize machine commands depending on the user's voice input and, through a Raspberry Pi, which routes messages between the internet and decoupled machine network, send them to the devices within the intelligent robot assistance system. With the reversed communication flow, we can update and store the current state of the devices in the Amazon Web Services IoT Shadow. Utilizing the IoT Shadow, we are able to inform the user upon request about the current state of the devices by synthesize speech with the Alexa Voice Services and vocalize it through the Echo Dot. One implemented assistive system behavior and the related dialog to activate the behavior is further explained in this work. In the conclusion, we address our gathered positive and negative experience to date. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Intelligent Robot Assistants for the non-destructive Disassembly of End of Life Products
Jungbluth, Jan UL; Plapper, Peter UL; Gerke, Wolfgang

in Plapper, Peter; Hichri, Bassem (Eds.) Robotix-Academy Conference (2017, May 06)

The effective collaboration between humans and robots in complex and task rich environments like End of Life product disassembly depends on the ability of the robot to anticipate the workflow as well as ... [more ▼]

The effective collaboration between humans and robots in complex and task rich environments like End of Life product disassembly depends on the ability of the robot to anticipate the workflow as well as the assistance the human co-worker wants. Our approach towards such an intelligent system is the development of an informed software agent that controls the robot assistance behavior. We inform the agent with procedural and declarative knowledge about the disassembly domain through models of the product structure and actor/object models. The product structure is then transformed to a directed graph and used to build, share and define a goal-orientated coarse workflow. Depending on the tasks and wanted assistance, the system can generate adaptable and detailed workflows through searching in the situation space on the basis of predefined and task dependent actions. The created detailed workflow consists of a sequence of actions that are used to call, parameterize and execute robot programs for the fulfillment of the assistance. The aim of this research is to equip robot systems with higher cognitive skills to allow them to be autonomous in the performance of their assistance to improve the ergonomics of disassembly workstations. [less ▲]

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See detailAn intelligent agent-controlled and robot-based disassembly assistant
Jungbluth, Jan UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Conference Proceedings on the 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Robotics ( ICAIR 2017) (2017)

One key for successful and fluent human-robot-collaboration in disassembly processes is equipping the robot system with higher autonomy and intelligence. In this paper, we present an informed software ... [more ▼]

One key for successful and fluent human-robot-collaboration in disassembly processes is equipping the robot system with higher autonomy and intelligence. In this paper, we present an informed software agent that controls the robot behavior to form an intelligent robot assistant for disassembly purposes. While the disassembly process first depends on the product structure, we inform the agent using a generic approach through product models. The product model is then transformed to a directed graph and used to build, share and define a coarse disassembly plan. To refine the workflow, we formulate “the problem of loosening a connection and the distribution of the work” as a search problem. The created detailed plan consists of a sequence of actions that are used to call, parametrize and execute robot programs for the fulfillment of the assistance. The aim of this research is to equip robot systems with knowledge and skills to allow them to be autonomous in the performance of their assistance to finally improve the ergonomics of disassembly workstations. [less ▲]

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See detailAgentenbasierte Steuerung der Mensch-Roboter-Interaktion
Jungbluth, Jan UL; Gerke; Plapper, Peter UL

in Automatisierungstechnische Praxis (2016), 12

Die manuelle Demontage schmälert die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Refabrikationsprozessen maßgebend und stellt in der Arbeitsplatzergonomie einen Problemprozess dar. Versuche, die zerstörungsfreie Demontage zu ... [more ▼]

Die manuelle Demontage schmälert die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Refabrikationsprozessen maßgebend und stellt in der Arbeitsplatzergonomie einen Problemprozess dar. Versuche, die zerstörungsfreie Demontage zu automatisieren, scheiterten an der Varianz der Produktgestalt oder am Produktzustand. Zur Lösung dieses Problems wird im Beitrag der Einsatz eines Softwareagenten beschrieben. Die Software steuert das Verhalten eines Roboters, um dem Menschen bei der Demontage zu assistieren. Zur Information des Agenten dienen generische Informationsmodelle die zur Prozessplanung und -steuerung verwendet werden. Die grobe Prozessplanung erfolgt mit Hilfe gerichteter Graphen und zerlegt den Gesamtprozess in eine Abfolge von Teilprozessen. In der detaillierten Prozessplanung werden die Aktionen und deren zeitliche Abfolge im Teilprozess durch eine Suche ermittelt und dann zur Steuerung des Roboters verwendet. Dies ermöglicht es dem System, in einer komplexen Umgebung zielgerichtet Assistenz zu leisten und die hierfür notwendigen eigenen Handlungen autonom zu bestimmen. Ziel des Assistenzsystems ist es, die Ergonomie der Demontagearbeitsplätze durch die Unterstützung von Handlungen zu verbessern. [less ▲]

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See detailDemontage von Elektroantrieben mit Assistenzrobotern zum wirtschaftlichen Recycling
Jungbluth, Jan UL; Plapper, Peter UL; Gerke, Wolfgang

in Tagungsband AALE 2016 (2016)

Die zerstörungsfreie Demontage zum Zweck der Refrabrikation oder des höherwertigem Produktrecyclings findet nur selten im industriellen Umfeld Anwendung. Allerdings ist mit einem Anstieg dieses trennenden ... [more ▼]

Die zerstörungsfreie Demontage zum Zweck der Refrabrikation oder des höherwertigem Produktrecyclings findet nur selten im industriellen Umfeld Anwendung. Allerdings ist mit einem Anstieg dieses trennenden Fertigungsverfahrens in naher Zukunft zu rechnen da die immer stärker begrenzten und zugänglichen Ressourcen durch strengere Gesetze im Rahmen der Abfallwirtschaft gesichert werden müssen. Zum Beispiel wurden durch das Kreislaufwirt-schaftsgesetz der europäischen Union [1] die Hersteller dazu verpflichtet Rücknahmesysteme für elektrische und elektronische Geräte zu schaffen um sie einer weiteren wirtschaftlichen Nutzung oder umweltgerechten Entsorgung zugänglich zu machen. Für die umweltgerechte Entsorgung ist eine wertstoffgerechte Trennung der Produktkomponenten vorgesehen. Aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen erfolgt diese Materialtrennung meist verfahrenstechnisch durch Zerkleinern und Sortieren der Wertstoffe. Die weitere wirtschaftliche Nutzung ganzer Kompo-nenten wird, trotz hoher Einsparpotenziale [2], durch den Aufwand der Refabrikation kaum in Betracht gezogen. Denn die zerstörungsfreie Trennung kann bisher meist nur manuell und damit kostenintensiv erfolgen. In der Folge werden gerade im Bereich der Elektroschrottver-wertung häufig illegale Entsorgungswege über das außereuropäische Ausland gewählt [3]. Zur Verbesserung der Wirtschaftlichkeit der Demontage bietet oft die Automatisierung Lösun-gen. Um diesen Sektor der Automatisierung zugänglich zu machen, erfolgten bereits For-schungsaktivitäten zur Automatisierung der Demontage von Fernsehgeräten [4] und PCs [5]. Das Ergebnis dieser Studien zeigt, dass durch die hohe Variation der Produktgestalt oder aufgrund von Beschädigungen der Produkte, der [less ▲]

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