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See detailEffective scheme to determine accurate defect formation energies and charge transition levels of point defects in semiconductors
Yao, Cang Lang; Li, Jian Chen; Gao, Wang et al

in Physical Review. B : Solid State (2017), 96

We propose an effective method to accurately determine the defect formation energy Ef and charge transition level ε of the point defects using exclusively cohesive energy Ecoh and the fundamental band gap ... [more ▼]

We propose an effective method to accurately determine the defect formation energy Ef and charge transition level ε of the point defects using exclusively cohesive energy Ecoh and the fundamental band gap Eg of pristine host materials. We find that Ef of the point defects can be effectively separated into geometric and electronic contributions with a functional form: Ef = χEcoh + λEg, where χ and λ are dictated by the geometric and electronic factors of the point defects (χ and λ are defect dependent). Such a linear combination of Ecoh and Eg reproduces Ef with an accuracy better than 5% for electronic structure methods ranging from hybrid densityfunctional theory (DFT) to many-body random-phase approximation (RPA) and experiments. Accordingly, ε is also determined by Ecoh/Eg and the defect geometric/electronic factors. The identified correlation is rather general for monovacancies and interstitials, which holds in a wide variety of semiconductors covering Si, Ge, phosphorenes, ZnO, GaAs, and InP, and enables one to obtain reliable values of Ef and ε of the point defects for RPA and experiments based on semilocal DFT calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailGuidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Klionsky, Daniel J.; Abdalla, Fabio C.; Abeliovich, Hagai et al

in Autophagy (2012), 8(4), 445-544

In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field ... [more ▼]

In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field. [less ▲]

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