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See detailClassroom biographies: Teaching and learning in evolving material landscapes (c. 1960-2015)
Tondeur, Jo; Herman, Frederik UL; De Buck, Maud et al

in European Journal of Education (2017)

Despite growing interest in redesigning the material landscape of education, relatively little is known about the impact of these evolving classrooms. The current study aimed to gain insight into the ... [more ▼]

Despite growing interest in redesigning the material landscape of education, relatively little is known about the impact of these evolving classrooms. The current study aimed to gain insight into the physical learning environment and the potential pedagogical impacts thereof. A ‘biographical approach’ (c.1963-2015), was used to explore the long-term socio-material landscapes where teachers and pupils, classroom materiality and spatiality, and teaching practices are entangled. Stimulated recall interviews were conducted in Flanders (Belgium) with primary school teachers. Teacher-generated floorplans detailing their material classroom over time, transcribed oral accounts elaborating on these, and supportive data sources were aggregated and thematically analysed. The resulting identification of six key themes shed light on the evolving architectural and infrastructural developments, as well as triggers and teaching impacts thereof amongst the interviewed teachers. Findings show that negative school evaluations urging school intervention, and teachers’ proactive engagement within their classrooms, were the main catalysts of change. Moreover, evolving classroom layouts, in addition to the affordances of upgraded equipment, can be associated to changes in teachers’ practices. It can be concluded that the classroom is becoming an action context as the result of the inextricable mediating agencies identified. [less ▲]

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See detailLa "Fabrication" du Luxembourg moderne. Technologies visuelles et industries réformatrices come moteurs de transformation sociétale. Fabricating modern Luxembourg. Visual technologies and industries of reform as engines of societal transformation
Priem, Karin UL; Herman, Frederik UL

in Consémius, Marguy; Poos, Françoise; Priem, Karin (Eds.) La Forge d'une société moderne. Photographie et communication d'entreprise à l'ère de l'industrialisation. ARBED 1911-1937. Forging a Modern Society. Photography and Corporate Communication in the Industrial Age. ARBED 1911-1937 (2017)

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See detailAdventures in Cultural Learning
Herman, Frederik UL; Roberts, Siân

in Paedagogica Historica (2017), 53(3),

In periods of disillusionment and crisis (war, occupation, migration, industrialisation), a greater “cultural vitality” seems to appear. Indeed, troubled pasts and presents have frequently acted as ... [more ▼]

In periods of disillusionment and crisis (war, occupation, migration, industrialisation), a greater “cultural vitality” seems to appear. Indeed, troubled pasts and presents have frequently acted as fertile breeding grounds for cultural productions and artistic manifestations — the cradle for a variety of ‘adventures in cultural learning’. Moreover, it is during these troubled times that culture is often radically re-enacted and re-evaluated as a medium to express unease and disgruntlement with the present, a vehicle to scrutinise problems, the means par excellence to provoke the masses in attempts to revolutionise society, or even as a kind of ‘therapeutic tool’. Thus, culture — while criticising atrocities and making radical propositions for the present and future — has frequently positioned itself at the vanguard of social critique and as a facilitator of societal change. Indeed it was, and still is, — to use Don Mitchell phrasing — “politics by another name” (2000, 3). It should, therefore, not surprise us that culture became a contested territory, a sought-after platform to reassert a certain image or to challenge and reconcile conflicting narratives of the past, present and future. In other words, it was and is believed that those who governed cultural capital/heritage controlled its diffusion and consumption, had/has power over meaning making, the ‘memory factory’ and, thus, identity construction. [less ▲]

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See detailHautnah. Materialität der Moderne und sensomotorische Ansätze der Berufsbildung im "Zeitalter des Stahles"
Priem, Karin UL; Herman, Frederik UL

in Thompson, Christiane; Casale, Rita; Ricken, Norbert (Eds.) Die Sache(n) der Bildung (2017)

Introduction: Das “Zeitalter des Stahles” In seinem Passagen-Werk, das der Überlieferung nach zwischen 1927 und 1940 entstanden ist, widmet sich Walter Benjamin den kunstvollen Eisen- und ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Das “Zeitalter des Stahles” In seinem Passagen-Werk, das der Überlieferung nach zwischen 1927 und 1940 entstanden ist, widmet sich Walter Benjamin den kunstvollen Eisen- und Glaskonstruktionen der Pariser Arkaden, die der modernen Großstadt nicht nur eine bisher unbekannte räumliche Atmosphäre gaben, sondern auch einen neuen Lebensstil prägten (Benjamin 1991). In der Tat wurden urbane Räume mehr und mehr durch bauliche und technische Raffinessen bestimmt, die, als Zeugen eines neuen Zeitalters, erst durch Werkstoffe wie Eisen und Stahl entstehen konnten. Im Jahre 1930 wurde vom Deutschen Werkbund, dem unter anderem Künstler, Konstrukteure und Architekten angehörten, der Band „Eisen und Stahl“ herausgegeben. Dieser enthielt 97 Schwarz-Weiß-Photographien von Albert Renger-Patzsch. Der Band machte bereits kurz nach seiner Publikation Furore und dokumentiert die herausragende Rolle der Photographie bei der Propagierung des neuen Zeitalters. Die Einleitung zu „Eisen und Stahl“ wurde vom damaligen Generaldirektor der Vereinigten Stahlwerke Albert Vögler geschrieben. Vögler (Renger-Patzsch 1930, S. 1 ff.) betonte den enormen kulturellen Einfluss von Eisen und Stahl, deren Materialeigenschaften seiner Auffassung nach nicht nur Alltagsdinge, Architektur, Technik und Ökonomie, sondern auch das intellektuelle Leben und die Ökologie ganzer Landschaften gravierend verändert hatten. Konsequenterweise bezeichnete Vögler daher das ausgehende 19. und beginnende 20. Jahrhundert als „Zeitalter des Stahles“ (ebd., S. 1), das er als eine grundlegend neue Welt beschrieb. Auslöser für diese neue Welt waren seiner Meinung nach spezifische Materialien, vor allem aber Eisen und Stahl, die unterschiedliche Härte- und Reinheitsgrade der Eisenerzverarbeitung repräsentierten und die nach und nach neue ästhetische Formen und menschliche Erfahrungen ermöglichten, welche wiederum vor allem von Ingenieuren, Konstrukteuren, Künstlern, Industriearbeitern und Angestellten geplant und ermöglicht wurden. Die rasant verlaufende internationale technische Entwicklung der Eisengewinnung und Stahlproduktion ermöglichte nicht nur die massenhafte Produktion von Waren und Gütern (bei denen Material, Form und Funktion auf neue Weise interagierten), sondern erschloss auch globale Märkte für Konsumenten. (...) [less ▲]

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See detailKlaslokalen Binnenstebuiten: Leerkrachten over de veranderende onderwijsleeromgeving doorheen hun carrière (1960-2015)
Herman, Frederik UL; Tondeur, Jo

Article for general public (2016)

Welke scholen hebben we nodig voor de 21ste eeuw? Hoe moeten die toekomstige schoolgebouwen eruitzien? Misschien wel als één grote open werkruimte – met zithoeken, labo’s, vergaderlokalen voor groepswerk ... [more ▼]

Welke scholen hebben we nodig voor de 21ste eeuw? Hoe moeten die toekomstige schoolgebouwen eruitzien? Misschien wel als één grote open werkruimte – met zithoeken, labo’s, vergaderlokalen voor groepswerk, een immer toegankelijke media- en bibliotheek, enzovoort – waarin leerkrachten en leerlingen vrij kunnen bewegen naar gelang de activiteiten en noden. Zullen de ‘traditionele’ klaslokalen hun bestaansredenen verliezen in deze nieuwe onderwijsleeromgevingen? Het vraagstuk naar innovatieve scholenbouw is verre van nieuw. Inderdaad, eb en vloed kenmerken onze onderwijsgeschiedenis.klaslokalen hun bestaansredenen verliezen in deze nieuwe onderwijsleeromgevingen? Het vraagstuk naar innovatieve scholenbouw is verre van nieuw. Inderdaad, eb en vloed kenmerken onze onderwijsgeschiedenis. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvisioning the Industrial Present: Pathways of Cultural Learning in Luxembourg (1880s-1920s).
Herman, Frederik UL; Plein, Ira UL

in Paedagogica Historica (2016)

This paper examines how and to what extent Luxembourg society was “exposed” to visual representations of the prospering steel industries and labour and working-class culture(s) from the 1880s until the ... [more ▼]

This paper examines how and to what extent Luxembourg society was “exposed” to visual representations of the prospering steel industries and labour and working-class culture(s) from the 1880s until the 1920s – a period of massive industrialisation – and how it thus gradually “learned to labour”. Indeed, modern visual media were seen as ideal catalysts for the circulation, transmission and production of meaning, since they were considered to be appealing, objective, direct and capable of inspiring the imagination. The paper takes the reader through various mundane moments and events of industrial enculturation (annual funfair, slide lecture, vocational school, etc.) and engages with different “technologies of display” (photographs, fair albums, postcards, scale models, etc.) that subtly calibrated, conveyed and inculcated the new industrial reality “through the eye” and, in the process, (re)produced national identifications. By zooming in on these different “visual encounters” with industry and by bringing these isolated encounters together in one story, the paper (re)constructs a “learning route” – one among many possible pathways through this huge dynamic field of learning resources (or, “cultural ecology”) – and thus suggests how (informal) “cultural learning” might have taken place at the time. While accompanying us on this journey, the reader gains insights into how this field of resources evolved and how the industrial present was (re)framed, visually performed and (re)configured over time. [less ▲]

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See detailBody_Machine? Encounters of the Human and the Mechanical in Education, Industry and Science
Herman, Frederik UL; Priem, Karin UL; Thyssen, Geert

in History of Education (2016)

This paper unveils the body-machine as a key element of dynamic mental maps that have come to shape both educational praxis and research. It traces and analyses instances in which the human and the ... [more ▼]

This paper unveils the body-machine as a key element of dynamic mental maps that have come to shape both educational praxis and research. It traces and analyses instances in which the human and the mechanical encountered each other in metaphorical, material and visual forms, thereby blurring to some extent the boundaries between them while capturing and mobilising specific forms of knowing and acting. The paper studies firstly, how certain ‘orienting frames of reference’ and associated ‘experimental systems’ managed to materialise around the body-machine and penetrate theory and praxis; and, secondly, what visual and textual sources related to a vocational school may reveal about where and how the body-machine has come to operate in education, industry and science. The paper centres on early twentieth century photographs and analyses these not only as media presenting, representing and interrogating common thought and practice but also as agents of meaning-making around the body-machine. [less ▲]

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See detailA Plea for Commonality: Disability History, Discourses of Rehabilitation, and the Individual
Verstraete, Pieter; Herman, Frederik UL

in Asclepio - Revista de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia (2016), 68(2),

Since the late twentieth century, disability history has grown out of its infancy. Scholars from a variety of backgrounds have increasingly become convinced of the value of looking at the past through the ... [more ▼]

Since the late twentieth century, disability history has grown out of its infancy. Scholars from a variety of backgrounds have increasingly become convinced of the value of looking at the past through the lens of disability. Many studies have focused on the constructed nature of disability and thus deliberately tried to deconstruct contemporary distinctions between able-bodied and disabled individuals. By positively revaluing the particular position of the individual with disabilities on the basis of historical narratives, an attempt was made to counter ongoing tendencies of discrimination and oppression. In this article, we would like to remind the reader of another approach which sometimes runs the danger of being snowed under, namely a historical venture that seeks to uncover commonalities: places where the distinctions between persons with and without disabilities are temporarily forgotten and/or erased, ‘moments where the boundaries of otherness and sameness, of individual and collective identity are redrawn’ (Jenkins, 2014). In order to do so, we will draw on an influential discourse from the history of disability itself: the discourse of rehabilitation. Going back to the early twentieth century, we will present the work of French scientist Jules Mardochée Amar and two Belgian disabled soldiers from the First World War. Amar’s ideas on rehabilitation would prove influential for the actual practices of rehabilitation during and after the war. The two Belgian disabled soldiers were retrained in a professional institute for rehabilitation established by the Belgian government in the north of France. By juxtaposing Amar’s discourse with the experiences of the two Belgian soldiers, we will demonstrate how, besides the discursive individual of rehabilitation, one also can find moments were that individual is absorbed by a real and tangible commonality. As a consequence, everybody – whether able-bodied citizen or mutilated soldier – becomes part of a community of equals. [less ▲]

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See detailKörper_Maschinen? Die Verschmelzung von Mensch und Technik in Pädagogik, Industrie und Wissenschaft
Herman, Frederik UL; Priem, Karin UL; Thyssen, Geert UL

in Caruso, Marcelo; Mietzner, Ulrike; Wiegmann, Ulrich (Eds.) Jahrbuch für Historische Bildungsforschung (2015)

This paper unveils mutually constituent material, visual and metaphorical expressions of encounters between the human and the mechanical. It investigates circumstances and ways in which these expressions ... [more ▼]

This paper unveils mutually constituent material, visual and metaphorical expressions of encounters between the human and the mechanical. It investigates circumstances and ways in which these expressions have come into existence, and captured and mobilised new forms of knowing and acting. The paper explores firstly, how certain ‘orienting frames of reference’ and associated ‘experimental systems’ have managed to materialise around the body-machine and penetrate theory and praxis; and, secondly, what visual and textual sources related to a vocational school reveal about where and how the body-machine has come to operate in education, industry and science. The paper thereby analyses photographs not only as media presenting, representing and interrogating common thought and practice but rather as agents adding further layers to networks of meaning around the body-machine. It shows how the body-machine in metaphorical, material and visual ways became a key element of dynamic mental maps underlying educational practices and research. [less ▲]

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See detailPutting Male and Female Bodies in Their Places: Arenas and Theatres of Educational Reform
Priem, Karin UL; Herman, Frederik UL

in Burke, Catherine; Grosvenor, Ian; Haenggeli-Jenni, Béatrice (Eds.) et al Education across Europe: A Visual Conversation (2014)

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See detailPutting Male and Female Bodies in Their Places: Arenas and Theatres of Educational Reform
Priem, Karin UL; Herman, Frederik UL

in Burke, Catherine; Grosvenor, Ian; Haenggeli-Jenni, Béatrice (Eds.) et al Education across Europe: A Visual Conversation (2014)

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See detailForging Harmony in the Social Organism: Industry and the Power of Psychometric Techniques
Herman, Frederik UL

in History of Education (2014), 43(5), 592-614

This article analyses the initiating role of the steel industry in educational selection by means of psychometric techniques used in the psycho-physiological laboratory associated with a vocational school ... [more ▼]

This article analyses the initiating role of the steel industry in educational selection by means of psychometric techniques used in the psycho-physiological laboratory associated with a vocational school in Luxembourg founded in 1914. It first considers the origins of, and initial meanings bestowed upon, this first (and perhaps also last) Luxembourg Laboratory of Psychophysiology. Second, it investigates whether and, if so, to what extent psychometric techniques developed in this laboratory for vocational orientation were used strategically to foster an ethic of individual harmony by means of objectified observation and categorisation of the aptitude. What hidden agendas underpinned the industry’s rhetoric regarding the rebirth of the individual and the empowerment of personal vocation through science-oriented processes like quantification, measurement and rational assessment? Did such rhetoric legitimise the industry’s self-image as a privileged force in structuring the social fabric as well as individual lives? [less ▲]

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See detailCreative Social Engineering? Reform Initiatives in Vocational Education and Professional Orientation (ca. 1880-1930)
Herman, Frederik UL

Scientific Conference (2013, September 11)

Despite obvious connections between the industrial sector and that of technical-vocational schooling and training (cf. Blankertz, 1969) the historical importance of industry-related entrepreneurship for ... [more ▼]

Despite obvious connections between the industrial sector and that of technical-vocational schooling and training (cf. Blankertz, 1969) the historical importance of industry-related entrepreneurship for education in the whole of Europe remains underappreciated. In social-cultural and educational historiography alike States and/or Churches, rather than the industry and associated networks, tend to be connected to attempts at societal reform (see, e.g. de Swaan, 1988). Yet, in many European countries evidence can be found of industrialist initiatives preceding those from a governmental or congregational side. In view of economic interests and related values like efficiency, rationalization, etc., captains of industry needed to be innovative, and therefore also creative. In order to achieve innovation, however, actors from the economic sphere required input from the outside and in particular from the arts (literature, painting, philosophy, design, etc.). A key hypothesis of this paper, then, is that protagonists of the industry and the artistic-intellectual milieus of which they became part, were far less dependent on the formal structures that characterized state and denominational institutes’ organization. From a somewhat informal stage of society they may indeed have been able to act in a much more problem-focused manner. Whether this led to truly creative and innovative solutions remains a question to be answered. Some key players, in each case, were at once active in economy, politics, popular media and intellectual circles, which may well have enabled them to force through ideas at all levels, using alternative strategies in function of what they were aiming at. In Luxembourg – the point of departure of this paper – one such aim around the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was the integration of new social groups (chiefly immigrant workers) into a rapidly changing society, including the allocation of their ‘proper’ place within the social fabric. Assumed to have been established at least partly to serve this purpose were mining schools, technical-vocational schools and associated professional orientation centres. Concretely, the paper will study reform initiatives like these undertaken in The Grand Duchy and investigate to what extent they creatively combined existing elements from neigbouring countries and constituted innovative solutions. Luxembourg and its industrial-intellectual sphere will thereby be considered as points of circulation and transformation, as crossroads of ideas at the heart of Western Europe. Case studies investigated, like the ‘Institut Émile Metz’ in Dommeldange suggest this is warranted. Thus, a ‘psycho-physiological laboratory’ attached to this institution inscribed itself in debates on ‘psychometrics’, inspired by ‘pedology’, ‘pedological psychology’, ‘experimental pedagogy’, ‘child study’, etc. (cf. Depaepe, 1993), and refering back to the ‘social physics’ made popular by Adolphe Quetelet as of the mid-1830s. Images, perhaps more than textual sources, visualize, propagate and/or question such currents in the area studied. Thus, for instance, unique glassplate negatives from a 2,248 unit large collection give insight into representations with regard to ‘experimental’ testing of students’ aptitude, etc., at the Dommeldange school. As part of a ‘perspectivist’ approach, such visual sources will be analyzed critically alongside textual ones. Method The subject and focus of this paper cannot be confined to national borders. From the primary and secondary sources consulted so far, it is abundantly clear that the historical actors behind the reform initiatives mentioned, as well as the ideas inspiring them, were of importance transnationally and of relevance for the whole of Western Europe in particular. From a methodological point of view, the paper will therefore draw inspiration from such concepts as ‘entangled’/‘shared’ history, ‘Kulturtransfer’ and ‘histoire croisée’, as put forth by scholars like Michel Espagne (2000), Matthias Middell (2001), Sebastian Konrad & Shalini Randeira (2002), Bénédikte Zimmermann & Michael Werner (2006). In dealing with visual material, this contribution will in turn follow two (related) approaches. The first approach stresses epistemological aspects of imagery and identifies pictures as a medium of perceiving, creating and questioning social-cultural realities (cf. e.g.: Boehm, 1999; Thyssen, 2007; Priem, 2009). The second consists of a documentary method inspired by Erwin Panofsky, which combines iconographical description with iconological/iconic interpretation and at the same time emphasizes analysis of image series as horizons of comparison. Expected Outcomes An expected outcome of this paper is that initiatives in the domain of technical-vocational education and professional orientation in Luxembourg, as elsewhere, were based on two rationales: a moral-utopian one, inspired by ideas of social critics like Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier and Robert Owen (e.g.: Bartier, 1985; Cunliffe & Erreygers, 2001), and one connected to beliefs in efficiency and rationality. Furthermore, it is expected that the reform initatives investigated in this paper were not to any notable extent distinctively ‘new’ or ‘Luxembourgian’. Elements were likely borrowed from neighbouring or other European countries, but then perhaps ‘creatively’ adapted to local circumstances. Another expected outcome is that from research in the domain mentioned, an interconnectedness or interdependence of economy (efficiency, rationality, etc.) and creativity (in view of innovation) emerges, in which educationally conceived initiatives from the industry and associated artistic-intellectual circles played a key role. [less ▲]

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See detailForging Harmony in The Social Organism: Industry and the Power of Psychometric Techniques
Herman, Frederik UL

Scientific Conference (2013, August 22)

This paper analyses the initiating role of industry in educational selection by means of psychometric techniques used, for example, in psycho-physiological laboratories such as the one associated with a ... [more ▼]

This paper analyses the initiating role of industry in educational selection by means of psychometric techniques used, for example, in psycho-physiological laboratories such as the one associated with a technical vocational school in Luxembourg as of the 1920s. The paper investigates whether such techniques were used strategically in vocational orientation in order to underline an ethic of individual harmony via objectified observation and categorization of the talents of apprentices. What hidden agendas may have underpinned the industry’s rhetoric regarding the rebirth of the “individual” and the empowerment of personal vocation through science-oriented processes like quantification, measurement, and rational assessment? Could such a rationale have functioned to legitimize the industry’s self-image as a privileged force in structuring individual lives and the social fabric? The paper addresses these matters. [less ▲]

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See detailAppropriation Processes in Theory and Praxis Modern Architecture Meets New Education: Renaat Braem's Design and the Brussels Decroly School (1946)
Herman, Frederik UL; Van Gorp, Angelo; Simon, Frank et al

in Depaepe, Marc (Ed.) Between Educationalization and Appropriation - Selected Writings on the History of Modern Educational Systems (2012)

À la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les architectes R. Braem et J. Sokol furent invités à élaborer le projet d'un nouveau bâtiment scolaire pour l'École Decroly l'Ermitage, une école privée élitaire ... [more ▼]

À la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les architectes R. Braem et J. Sokol furent invités à élaborer le projet d'un nouveau bâtiment scolaire pour l'École Decroly l'Ermitage, une école privée élitaire progressiste qui avait été créée en 1907 à Bruxelles par le Dr Ovide Decroly. D'une part, l'ancien bâtiment était en piteux état et, d'autre part, on craignait que l'école ne devînt trop petite à cause de la croissance du nombre d'écoliers. L'école, qui était le coeur de la rénovation de l'enseignement belge au cours de la première moitié du vingtième siècle, ne disposait toutefois que de peu de ressources financières. Les "Decrolyens" furent dès lors contraints d'organiser une campagne de collecte de fonds outre-mer qui semble s'être soldée par un échec. Le projet de construction s'inscrivait également dans le cadre de la grande campagne de propagande que les Decrolyens voulaient mettre parallèlement sur pied afin de diffuser la "méthode Decroly". Leur bâtiment scolaire (tout comme leur méthode d'enseignement) aurait pu servir de modèle à la construction (et à la gestion) des écoles de l'avenir, en Belgique et à l'étranger. Le discours des "Decrolyens" sur le caractère élitaire et le rôle pionnier de leur école se reflète de manière flagrante dans les conceptions architecturales idéalistes et idéologiques, présentes dans divers croquis intermédiaires, plans de construction non exécutés, descriptions et notices d'accompagnement. Le projet de 1946 n'est toutefois pas une simple traduction de la méthode d'enseignement de Decroly; Braem y a également intégré son idéologie et sa vision de l'architecture "véritablement moderne". La "véritable" architecture moderne était à ses yeux le levier permettant de réaliser une société socialiste libérée. Avec ce projet, les deux parties cherchaient tant à se profiler qu'à s'insurger contre les conceptions architecturales existantes, les pratiques d'enseignement prépondérantes, les images dominantes de la société et de l'être humain. Il n'est dès lors pas étonnant qu'ils aient présenté cet "acte de résistance" comme une rupture nette avec les bâtiments scolaires rationalisés et standardisés de l'époque; les anciens temples dans lesquels on pratiquait l'ancienne croyance. Le projet ne fut jamais réalisé; il resta dans les mémoires à l'état de trace d'un rêve d'avenir nouveau et différent. [less ▲]

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See detailAbout Pedagogization: From the Perspective of the History of Education
Depaepe, Marc; Herman, Frederik UL; Surmont, Melanie et al

in Depaepe, Marc (Ed.) Between Educationalization and Appropriation - Selected Writings on the History of Modern Educational Systems (2012)

For history researchers, it is not a needless luxury to consider from time to time the content and the significance of the basic concepts they use, certainly if they have the ambition to interpret and/or ... [more ▼]

For history researchers, it is not a needless luxury to consider from time to time the content and the significance of the basic concepts they use, certainly if they have the ambition to interpret and/or explain history in addition to purely describing it. This self-reflection, compelled by the annually recurring dialogue with educational philosophers (cf. Smeyers & Depaepe, 2006),2 need not necessarily place an emphasis on philosophical abstraction but can just as well start from an examination of the history of one’s own research. Such an approach need not succumb to navel-gazing. Instead, such historical self-reflection possibly points to the creeping (and thereby largely unconscious) shifts in meaning that accompany various fashions (consider the swirling “turns” of recent years), which affect the social scientific vocabulary (historiographic, philosophical, pedagogical, psychological sociological, etc.). By rendering such developments explicit, the epistemological wrestling with the stream of experiences we call 'history', a process that can be chaotic, may in the future perhaps be somewhat less sloppy. Admittedly, even the most critical concepts that emerged from our own work were not always used with methodological care and/or theoretical purity. [less ▲]

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See detailBrodskys hygienische Klappschulbank: Zu leicht für die schulische Mentalität?
Depaepe, Marc; Simon, Frank; Herman, Frederik UL et al

in Zeitschrift fur Pädagogik. Beiheft (2012), 58

Die Autoren schlagen vor, die Materialität der Erziehung als ökonomische Strategie und als Ausdruck der Grammatik pädagogischer Institutionen zu analysieren. […] Als intellektuelle Spielerei über eine ... [more ▼]

Die Autoren schlagen vor, die Materialität der Erziehung als ökonomische Strategie und als Ausdruck der Grammatik pädagogischer Institutionen zu analysieren. […] Als intellektuelle Spielerei über eine merkwürdige "Erfindung" hatte dieser Beitrag nicht unmittelbar zum Ziel, eine theoretische Grundlage für die neue Geschichtsschreibung der Schulbank zu schaffen. Möglicherweise hat er jedoch eine Tür für einen besser geeigneten Umgang mit der pädagogischen Vergangenheit und insbesondere mit der pädagogischen Materialität eröffnet, für einen Umgang, der sich nicht mit Nostalgie zufrieden gibt, sondern sich eher auf eine wissenschaftliche Analyse stützt, welche im Dialog mit den Quellen zustande gekommen ist. (DIPF/Orig.) [less ▲]

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See detailModern Architecture meets New Education. Renaat Braem's Design and the Brussels Decrolyschool (1946)
Herman, Frederik UL; Van Gorp, Angelo; Simon, Frank et al

in Revue Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine = Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (2011), 41(1-2), 135-166

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See detailAuf den Spuren von Diskurs, Traum und Wirklichkeit der architektonischen Formgebung in Decrolys Ermitage
Herman, Frederik UL; Van Gorp, Angelo; Simon, Frank et al

in Zeitschrift fur Pädagogik. Beiheft (2011), 57(6), 928-951

The contribution is divided into three parts; first, [it tries] ... to uncover the Decrolyians'discourse concerning school architecture. On the basis of original sources, [the authors] ... look at the ... [more ▼]

The contribution is divided into three parts; first, [it tries] ... to uncover the Decrolyians'discourse concerning school architecture. On the basis of original sources, [the authors] ... look at the manner in which Decroly's and his disciples' thoughts on school buildings expressed themselves in the material heritage. Subsequently, Decroly's own school location is described and the question is raised as to how the developed environment was integrated into the pedagogical practice. In the final section, we study the utopian blue-print by the architects Renaat Braem (who nowadays is still considered one of the most important representatives of modern architecture and modern urban development in Belgium) and Jack Sokol, dating back to 1946. This had been a megalomaniacal project which was described both by the archtitects mentioned above and by the Decrolyians as a break with the existing school buildings, the ancient temples of pedagogy, in which one professed one's faith in the old didactics. It links up with the body of thought of an international plea which had been discussed during the first half of the 20th century, mainly in reform-pedagogical circles. The fact that the Decrolyians did, in the end, not realize their project of a renewable architecture was not so much the result of their persistent skepticism regarding one or the other school-architectonic determinism, which would transport the school building beyond the pre-eminence of its flexible use within the framework of the active method, it was simply due to limited financial resources. [less ▲]

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See detailSpace and Design of Classrooms - The Organic Growth of the Decroly School in Brussels. From Villa to School, from Living Room to Classroom
Herman, Frederik UL; Van Gorp, Angelo; Simon, Frank et al

in Braster, Sjaak; Grosvenor, Ian; Maria del Mar del Pozo Andrés (Eds.) The Black Box of Schooling. A Cultural History of the Classroom (2011)

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