References of "Hardt, C"
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See detailExtrapyramidal motor signs in degenerative ataxias.
Schols, L.; Peters, S.; Szymanski, S. et al

in Archives of neurology (2000), 57(10), 1495-500

BACKGROUND: Extrapyramidal motor signs (EPS) are well-known symptoms of degenerative ataxia. However, little is known about frequency and appearance of EPS in subtypes of ataxia. METHODS: We characterized ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Extrapyramidal motor signs (EPS) are well-known symptoms of degenerative ataxia. However, little is known about frequency and appearance of EPS in subtypes of ataxia. METHODS: We characterized 311 patients with ataxia clinically and genetically. Course of the disease and EPS were investigated according to a standardized protocol. Diagnostic and prognostic impact of EPS in subtypes of ataxia was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Extrapyramidal motor signs occurred in all forms of ataxia, but frequency and type of EPS varied between genetically and clinically defined subtypes. Postural tremor in hereditary ataxias was typical for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Dystonia was generally rare in ataxias, but, if present, suggested SCA3. We observed a parkinsonian variant of SCA3 in which parkinsonism was present in the beginning of the disease and responded well to levodopa therapy, leading to diagnostic confusion. Parkinsonism in SCA3 was independent of CAG repeat length but ran in families, suggesting modifying genes. In idiopathic sporadic cerebellar ataxia (ISCA), EPS are more frequent in late-onset than in early-onset forms. In 50% of ISCA patients with parkinsonism, the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy remained questionable because of normal autonomic function. CONCLUSIONS: Extrapyramidal motor signs can help to predict the genetic subtype of ataxia. Extrapyramidal motor signs were more frequent in genetic subtypes in which basal ganglia affection has been demonstrated by postmortem studies. However, no type of EPS was specific for an underlying mutation. In ISCA, EPS are an adverse prognostic factor. Parkinsonism is especially associated with a more rapid course of the disease. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:1495-1500 [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic analysis of immunomodulating factors in sporadic Parkinson's disease.
Krüger, Rejko UL; Hardt, C.; Tschentscher, F. et al

in Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2000), 107(5), 553-62

Immunomodulating factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) by biochemical methods. In order to investigate functionally important genes of the tumor necrosis ... [more ▼]

Immunomodulating factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) by biochemical methods. In order to investigate functionally important genes of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) pathway we studied the frequency of DNA polymorphisms in the interleukin 6 (IL6), the TNFalpha, and the TNFalpha receptor 1 (TNFR1) genes in 264 sporadic German PD patients and in 183 age and sex matched German healthy controls. Analyzing the TNFalpha-308 polymorphism we found heterozygous individuals carrying alleles 1 and 2 more frequently in patients with a relative risk of 1.56 (p = 0.046, p(c) = 0.13, chi2 = 3.98). In contrast, the frequency of the B/2 haplotype described by the TNFR1-609 and TNFRI+36 polymorphisms was significantly decreased in our PD patients group (p = 0.0097, p(c) = 0.048, chi2 = 6.69) with a relative risk reduced to 0.52. Our results suggest an involvement of immunomodulating factors in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD as revealed by a molecular genetic approach. [less ▲]

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