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See detailDevoutness to Islam and the Attitudinal Acceptance of Political Violence Among Young Muslims in Germany
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Schiefer, David; Boehnke, Klaus et al

in Political Psychology (2018), early online

This article investigates the links between religious beliefs and capitalist mentalities—namely devoutness to Islam and hierarchic self-interest (HSI)—and violence-accepting attitudes among the young ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the links between religious beliefs and capitalist mentalities—namely devoutness to Islam and hierarchic self-interest (HSI)—and violence-accepting attitudes among the young Muslim migrant population in Germany. Following a situational perspective, these links are analyzed under different individual conditions structured by (socioeconomic) precariousness and education. Based on framing approaches and concepts from socialization theory, we derive the following hypothesis: The links between religious beliefs and capitalist mentalities and the attitudinal acceptance of violence are stronger among individuals with low levels of education and a precarious economic status (compared to high education/non-precarious status). The strongest link is expected for a negative status inconsistency (high education/precarious economic status). Structural equation models for data from a random probability sample of 350 Muslims (aged 14–32 years) in Germany indicate that attitudinal acceptance of violence among young Muslims is not predicted by devoutness to Islam but by economic precariousness and by acceptance of capitalist values of the HSI belief system. [less ▲]

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See detailLe régime d’Etat providence joue un rôle dans le bien-être
Samuel, Robin UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Brunel, Valentin

E-print/Working paper (2018)

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See detailSchool alienation – Theoretical approaches and educational research
Hascher, Tina; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Educational Research (2018), 60(2), 171-188

Background: Many primary school students encounter the educational system positively from the outset. However, over the school years, students develop negative attitudes towards school, which peaks during ... [more ▼]

Background: Many primary school students encounter the educational system positively from the outset. However, over the school years, students develop negative attitudes towards school, which peaks during secondary education. According to the literature, we conceptualise this process as school alienation: a decreasing sense of belonging in terms of learning, teachers and classmates at school. Purpose: This article critically examines the research on school alienation, with a focus on primary and secondary education. In this overview, we consider definitions, general conceptual approaches and specific concepts of school alienation, as well as methodological issues, including operationalisations of school alienation. Based on our identification of the strengths and shortcomings of previous theoretical and empirical approaches, we propose a definition and model of school alienation that may guide future research efforts. We argue that future research on school alienation needs to focus on the processes by which school alienation manifests itself; moreover, it must take into account how school alienation can differ with regard to various domains in school (i.e. alienation from learning, from teachers, from classmates). Overall, we argue that instead of an emphasis on general alienation from school, a more specific approach to school alienation is required. Sources of evidence: We used scientific research search engines to identify the body of literature that explicitly studies the phenomenon of school alienation. Firstly, we identified different types of school/student alienation definitions and concepts. Then, we selected papers addressing school alienation as a crucial issue, as well as papers investigating this issue in relation to an outcome, such as violent student behaviour and drop-out, for review. Further, we related our review to comparable concepts, such as disengagement, to show similarities and/or differences. Main argument: The findings of our overview point to a lack of a clear definition of school alienation, a lack of systematic concepts and a diversity of operationalisations based on manifold theoretical approaches. Thus, we propose a contemporary concept of school alienation by bridging different concepts: particularly, the concepts of alienation and disengagement. Our approach specifies core domains to which school alienation is linked: academic learning, teachers and classmates. Furthermore, in regard to each domain, cognitive and affective aspects can be identified, while behavioural aspects are conceptualised as consequences of school alienation. Conclusions: The need for studies aimed at a more profound understanding of the process of school alienation during different stages of educational pathways (such as primary and secondary education) seems to be evident. Panel data are necessary to reconstruct student trajectories in order to take individual changes into account. Different levels of analysis (individual student level/ micro, school or classroom levels/meso, societal level/macro), as well as interaction between these levels, need to be studied. [less ▲]

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See detailThe value of education among immigrants and non-immigrants and how this translates into educational aspirations: a comparison of four European countries
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Scharf, Jan UL

in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2018), early online

Starting out from the frequent empirical finding that immigrants exhibit higher educational aspirations than non-immigrants, we analyse the role of immigrants’ value of education, i.e. the subjective ... [more ▼]

Starting out from the frequent empirical finding that immigrants exhibit higher educational aspirations than non-immigrants, we analyse the role of immigrants’ value of education, i.e. the subjective belief that education is beneficial for one’s life, in idealistic and realistic educational aspirations in four distinct institutional settings, comparing Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands and England. While the first part of the analyses relates to how immigrants differ from non-immigrants in the value they assign to education, the second part centres on country differences considering immigrant integration policies and education systems as crucial factors. A third part relates to the links between the value of education and educational aspirations to gain some insight into how the value of education may contribute to educational decisions. Analyses are based on longitudinal data of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). While results show that immigrants assign a higher value to education, the value of education does play a minor role in idealistic and realistic educational aspirations. The results of the country comparison are rather ambivalent, including very weak support for the argument that immigrants strive for education to a higher extent in countries with less favourable conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailSchulische Inklusion in Deutschland, Luxemburg und der Schweiz: Aktuelle Bedingungen und Herausforderungen
Powell, Justin J W UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Rathmann, Katharina; Hurrelmann, Klaus (Eds.) Leistung und Wohlbefinden in der Schule: Herausforderung Inklusion (2018)

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung Inklusiver Bildung – für Individuen und Gesellschaften gleichermaßen – wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteurinnen und Akteuren ... [more ▼]

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung Inklusiver Bildung – für Individuen und Gesellschaften gleichermaßen – wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteurinnen und Akteuren hervorgehoben sowie zunehmend auch wissenschaftlich multidisziplinär diskutiert. Inklusive schulische Bildung wird hinsichtlich der Merkmale des Zugangs und der Anwesenheit, der Beteiligung am Unterricht sowie der Teilhabe in Schulaktivitäten sowie in Bezug auf die Lernleistung, respektive deren Zertifizierung, bewertet. Aber auch Aspekte wie Wohlbefinden, Gleichstellung und soziale Integration werden zunehmend thematisiert. Der globale Diskurs um Inklusive Bildung als Menschenrecht geht über die Schulbildung hinaus und betrachtet auch die Hochschulbildung sowie lebenslanges Lernen. Inter- wie intranational werden vergleichende Analysen und Länderberichte immer wichtiger, um den Stand der schulischen Inklusion, der individuellen Verwirklichungschancen sowie der gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe von benachteiligten und behinderten Menschen zu messen. Innerhalb der räumlichen Vielfalt der inklusiven Bildung und sonderpädagogischer Fördersysteme finden sich vielfältige Barrieren, aber auch Katalysatoren inklusiver Bildungsreformen. Die Institutionalisierung sonderpädagogischer Fördersysteme in den deutschsprachigen Ländern, insbesondere über die zweite Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts, als isolierten eigenständigen und differenzierten Teil des Bildungssystems, stellt heutige Ziele inklusiver Bildungsreformen vor große Herausforderungen. In den drei hier untersuchten Ländern stellt Deutschland das differenzierteste und auch am stärksten segregierte System dar, dann folgt die Schweiz mit einem eher separativen Modell innerschulischer Differenzierung und schließlich Luxemburg als im Vergleich kleinstes Land, das aufgrund der spät begonnenen Etablierung von Sondereinrichtungen und seiner Kleinteiligkeit und seiner relativ hohen Schuldichte vergleichsweise günstige Ausgangsbedingungen für schulische Integration darstellt, allerdings – wie die beiden anderen Länder auch – durch die Mehrgliedrigkeit des Schulsystems und räumliche Segregation durch teilweise homogenisierte Lernumwelten gekennzeichnet ist. [less ▲]

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See detailEducational Trajectories Through Secondary Education in Luxembourg: How does Permeability Affect Educational Inequalities?
Backes, Susanne; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Bildungswissenschaften = Rivista Svizzera di Scienze dell' Educazione = Revue Suisse des Sciences de l'Education (2017), 39(3), 437-460

The link between stratification and educational inequality in empirical research is well documented. Some countries – particularly those that do not follow the model of comprehensive schools – discuss the ... [more ▼]

The link between stratification and educational inequality in empirical research is well documented. Some countries – particularly those that do not follow the model of comprehensive schools – discuss the possibility of increasing permeability between school tracks to reduce inequalities. This paper focuses on the occurrence of permeability in the stratified school system of Luxembourg and examines what this permeability entails for certain risk groups, specifically students from lower social background, male students and migrants. Educational pathways were classified (cluster analysis) on the basis of an administrative panel data set (n=5301); mechanisms behind educational decisions were analysed as a second step by estimating logistic regressions (Boudon, 1974). The findings show that reorientations in Luxembourg are often determined by the students’ social group, and that permeability – as blurred educational boundaries – mainly reproduces disparities in track placement. Introduction [less ▲]

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See detailAuthoritarianism
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Boehnke, Klaus

in Stein, John (Ed.) Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology (2017)

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See detailErwartete und unerwartete Folgen der Bildungsexpansion
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Becker, Rolf

in Becker, Rolf (Ed.) Lehrbuch der Bildungssoziologie. 3. aktualisierte und überarbeitete Auflage (2017)

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See detailMeritokratie: Zur gesellschaftlichen Legitimation ungleicher Bildungs-, Erwerbs- und Einkommenschancen in modernen Gesellschaften
Becker, Rolf; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Becker, Rolf (Ed.) Lehrbuch der Bildungssoziologie. 3. aktualisierte und überarbeitete Auflage (2017)

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See detailSchool Alienation: A Construct Validation Study
Morinaj, Julia; Scharf, Jan UL; Grecu, Alyssa Laureen UL et al

in Frontline Learning Research (2017), 5(2), 36-59

Early identification of school alienation is of great importance for students’ educational outcomes and successful participation in society. This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a newly ... [more ▼]

Early identification of school alienation is of great importance for students’ educational outcomes and successful participation in society. This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a newly developed assessment instrument, the School Alienation Scale (SALS), to measure school alienation among primary and secondary school students. The SALS consists of three school-related domains, namely, classmates, teachers, and learning. Based on the responses of Swiss (1) and Luxembourgish (2) students from two schoolspecific cohorts — primary (grade 4; n1=486, n2=503) and secondary schools (grade 7; n1=550, n2=534), we assessed instrument reliability, validity, and cross-cultural equivalence. The scale showed evidence of reliability and internal validity across two samples, confirming that the hypothesized first-order three-factor model fits the data better than several alternative models. The results of measurement invariance tests revealed that the measurement model operated equally well for primary and secondary school students in both countries. The construct validity of the SALS was additionally supported by demonstrated criterion-related validity. Specifically, school alienation domains were negatively associated with positive attitudes to and enjoyment in school; social problems in school were positively related to alienation from classmates and teachers. Our key contributions to the measurement of school alienation are the disclosure of the core domains of school alienation, development of a reliable and valid instrument, and justification for its use. Therefore, the results of this study have important implications for further theoretical work in alienation research and contribute to comparative research by examining the construct of school alienation in different educational settings. [less ▲]

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See detailChancengleichheit und Leistungsmotiv in der Bildungspolitik: Die Debatten um die Gesamtschule am Beispiel Luxemburgs
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Rothmüller, Barbara UL

in OPZ-Austrian Journal of Political Science (2016), 45(1), 51-64

Equality of opportunity and meritocracy are common catchwords of the legitimation of educational reforms. In the 20th century, a comprehensive school reform was one major reform project that was expected ... [more ▼]

Equality of opportunity and meritocracy are common catchwords of the legitimation of educational reforms. In the 20th century, a comprehensive school reform was one major reform project that was expected to reduce educational inequalities. Yet, very different concepts of equality, merit and achievement dominated the heated debates over a comprehensive school which remain controversial until today. Drawing on the example of Luxembourg, the article analyses main political arguments for and against a comprehensive school reform. Based on expert interviews and historical documents, the authors show how different political approaches to equality are connected with specific concepts of merit as well as the social reproduction of national elites. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Quantitative Methods of Data Analysis Can Contribute to Historical Analysis: The Example of the Stapfer Inquiry
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Ruloff, Michael; Boser, Lukas et al

in International Journal for the Historiography of Education (Bildungsgeschichte) (2016), 6(1), 11-26

In 1799, the Ministry of Education led by Philipp Albert Stapfer gathered data on a large variety of issues concerning the education system in the Helvetic Republic. The main objective of this paper is to ... [more ▼]

In 1799, the Ministry of Education led by Philipp Albert Stapfer gathered data on a large variety of issues concerning the education system in the Helvetic Republic. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how the Stapfer inquiry as a historical data source can be analyzed employing techniques of quantitative data analysis. Two research questions were considered: How did school fees and distance to school impact school attendance at the time? Before presenting analyses and results, strengths and limitations of the Stapfer inquiry from the historical and the social science perspective are discussed followed by a conceptual elaboration of the research issues. The database for our analysis is a sample drawn from the Stapfer inquiry that consists of 104 schools. Results show that whereas the existence of school fees does not seem to have had an impact, the distance to school had a negative impact on school attendance. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Welfare-State Regimes Shape Subjective Well-Being Across Europe
Samuel, Robin UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Social Indicators Research (2016), 129(2), 565-587

Welfare-state regimes achieve different outcomes in dealing with social inequalities. For example, the social democratic or Scandinavian welfare-state regime is often considered as the most egalitarian ... [more ▼]

Welfare-state regimes achieve different outcomes in dealing with social inequalities. For example, the social democratic or Scandinavian welfare-state regime is often considered as the most egalitarian with a high social transfer rate and a comparably low level of income inequality. While most research on welfare-state regimes focuses on objective indicators of quality of life and inequalities, we are interested in how citizens actually evaluate their lives, using subjective well-being (SWB) as an indicator. The paper deals with two research questions: (1) How does the welfare-state regime affect subjective well-being, and (2) does the welfare-state regime influence the effect of status on SWB? Status is an essential first-order goal to produce subjective well-being according to the social production theory of Lindenberg and colleagues (Ormel et al. 1999), but is also linked to many other instrumental goals such as comfort and stimulation. The study carries out a multilevel analysis using pooled European Social Survey data from the years 2002–2012, covering more than 30 European countries. While we first look at how status drives SWB levels in different welfare-state regimes as classified by Esping-Andersen 1990, 1999), our focus is mainly on cross-level interactions between welfare-state regime type and the relationship between status and SWB. Our results provide evidence that social-democratic welfare-state regimes not only provide for living standards that are associated with the highest SWB levels, but also compensate best for status differences in SWB compared to other welfare-state regimes. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxemburg als Weiterbildungs-Arena
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Zimmermann, Therese E.; Jütte, Wolfgang; Horváth, Franz (Eds.) Arenen der Weiterbildung (2016)

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See detailWie soziale Herkunft, Geschlecht und Migrationshintergrund den Übergang in Hochschule und höhere Berufsbildung prägen: Die Schweiz und Frankreich im Vergleich
Griga, Dorit; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Kriesi, Irene; Liebig, Brigitte; Horwath, Ilona (Eds.) et al Gender und Migration an Universitäten, Fachhochschulen und in der höheren Berufsbildung (2016)

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See detailEducation Systems and Inequalities. International Comparisons
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Gross

Book published by Policy Press (2016)

This unique book brings together an international roster of contributors to compare different education systems and their effects on social inequality. Starting with basic premises—such as how education ... [more ▼]

This unique book brings together an international roster of contributors to compare different education systems and their effects on social inequality. Starting with basic premises—such as how education systems can be characterized and what distinguishes them—the book goes on to explore those systems’ links with social structures, their role in expanding or ameliorating inequality, and the social mechanisms that underlie that role. It will be crucial to future debates on education and policy reform. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction. Education systems and inequalities
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Gross, Christiane

in Hadjar, Andreas; Gross, Christiane (Eds.) Education systems and inequalities. International comparisons (2016)

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See detailTheorising the impact of education systems on inequalities
Gross, Christiane; Meyer, Heinz-Dieter; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Hadjar, Andreas; Gross, Christiane (Eds.) Education systems and inequalities. International comparisons (2016)

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See detailEducation systems and gender inequalities in educational attainment
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Buchmann, Claudia

in Hadjar, Andreas; Gross, Christiane (Eds.) Education systems and inequalities. International comparisons (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (3 UL)