References of "Hörstermann, Thomas 50002007"
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See detailComparing regression approaches in modelling (non-)compensatory judgement formation
Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Studies in classification, data analysis and knowledge organization (in press)

Applied research on judgment formation, e.g. in education, is interested in identifying the underlying judgment rules from empirical judgment data. Psychological theories and empirical results on human ... [more ▼]

Applied research on judgment formation, e.g. in education, is interested in identifying the underlying judgment rules from empirical judgment data. Psychological theories and empirical results on human judgment formation support the assumption of compensatory strategies, e.g. (weighted) linear models, as well as non compensatory (heuristic) strategies as underlying judgment rules. Previous research repeatedly demonstrated that linear regression models well fitted empirical judgment data, leading to the conclusion that the underlying cognitive judgment rules were also linear and compensatory. This simulation study investigated whether a good fit of a linear regression model is a valid indicator of a compensatory cognitive judgment formation process. Simulated judgment data sets with underlying compensatory and noncompensatory judgment rules were generated to reflect typical judgment data from applied educational research. Results indicated that linear regression models well fitted even judgment data with underlying non compensatory judgment rules, thus impairing the validity of the fit of the linear model as an indicator of compensatory cognitive judgment processes. [less ▲]

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See detailAkademische Profile von Schüler*innen zur Bestimmung der Akkuratheit von Schulübergangsempfehlungen – eine Validierungsstudie
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Glock, Sabine; Kleen, Hannah (Eds.) Stereotype in der Schule (in press)

In verschiedenen europäischen Ländern führt der Wechsel zur Sekundarschule zu einer bedeutsamen Aufgliederung der Bildungswege, welche ein unterschiedlich hohes Schulleistungsniveau der Schüler*innen ... [more ▼]

In verschiedenen europäischen Ländern führt der Wechsel zur Sekundarschule zu einer bedeutsamen Aufgliederung der Bildungswege, welche ein unterschiedlich hohes Schulleistungsniveau der Schüler*innen voraussetzen. Die Akkuratheit der Zuweisung von Sekundarschulformen bestimmt nicht nur die Optionen der Schüler*innen bei späteren Übergangen im Bildungssystem, sondern beeinflusst auch den weiteren beruflichen und persönlichen Werdegang der Schüler*innen. Schüler*innen mit Migrationshintergrund sind auf die höheren sekundären Schulformen unterrepräsentiert. Inwiefern diese Unterrepräsentation auf stereotypgeprägte Leistungserwartungen zurückzuführen ist, ist bis jetzt unklar, denn es lisgt kein Kriterium vor, um die Urteilsakkuratheit adäquat zu messen. In diesem Kapitel wird ein Ansatz beschrieben, ein solches Akkuratheitskriterium zu entwickeln und zu validieren. In einem zweiten Schritt wird das Kriterium angewendet, um den Zusammenhang zwischen stereotypgeprägten Erwartungen und der Akkuratheit der Übergangsentscheidungen zu untersuchen. Das Kriterium erweist sich als valides Maß und könnte so einen wertvollen Ansatz für weitere Untersuchungen der Akkuratheit von Lehrerurteilen darstellen. Obwohl Lehrer*innen im Allgemeinen eine hohe Urteilsakkuratheit aufweisen, bestätigen die Befunde dennoch die Zusammenhänge zwischen stereotypgeprägten Erwartungen und Urteilsverzerrungen. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers’ assessments of students’ achievements: The ecological validity of studies using case vignettes
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Glock, Sabine et al

in Journal of Experimental Education (in press)

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See detailStudent case vignettes for the investigation of teachers' tracking decisions
Böhmer, Ines; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Gräsel, Cornelia et al

Report (in press)

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See detailTeachers’ information processing and judgement accuracy: effects of information consistency and accountability
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL et al

in European Journal of Psychology of Education (2019), online first

Research has shown that teachers are able to adapt their processing strategy of student information to situational demands, whereby they flexibly use either an automatic and category-based strategy or a ... [more ▼]

Research has shown that teachers are able to adapt their processing strategy of student information to situational demands, whereby they flexibly use either an automatic and category-based strategy or a controlled and information-integrating strategy. However, the effect of teachers’ accountability for task and the consistency of student information on strategy use is less clear. In two experimental studies, teachers were presented with consistent and inconsistent student profiles, whereby accountability levels were systematically varied. In the first study, the attention to and memory of information were investigated as indicators of changes in information processing strategy. In the second study, resulting changes in judgement accuracy were investigated. Results of study 1 provided support for the theoretical assumption that people apply the category-based strategy when confronted with consistent information under low accountability conditions, while inconsistent information and high accountability conditions led to the use of information-integration strategy. Results of study 2 showed that teachers’ judgement accuracy generally increased in relation to high accountability conditions and to lesser extent profile consistency, whereby inaccuracy reflected both under- and overestimation of student ability. The combined results suggest that the use of differential information processing strategies not only leads to differences in the attention to and processing of information, but also results in differences in the quality of judgements and decision making, especially under high accountability conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Implicit Nationality Preference in Speaker Evaluations in the Multilingual Context of Montreal
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Journal of Language and Social Psychology (2018)

Multilingual contexts in cross-border regions are characterized by a high number of inhabitants making use of various languages depending on the context. A language that a person speaks thus cannot be ... [more ▼]

Multilingual contexts in cross-border regions are characterized by a high number of inhabitants making use of various languages depending on the context. A language that a person speaks thus cannot be used as indicator of national group membership, which highlights the need for a distinction. The present study aimed to transfer an adapted model positing language and nationality attitudes as distinct factors of speaker evaluations, both on an explicit and implicit level, to the context of Montreal. Explicit attitudes were assumed to primarily affect explicit speaker evaluations, whereas implicit attitudes were expected to be the primary predictor of implicit speaker evaluations. Results primarily confirmed the distinctness of language and nationality concepts on an implicit attitude level. Moreover, the crucial role of nationality preference on an implicit level was highlighted: Quebecers’ implicit nationality attitudes affected implicit preferences for the Quebec nation suggesting affirmation of model transferability. [less ▲]

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See detailÜbergangsentscheidungen in Luxemburg – Die Passung zwischen Leistungs- und Anforderungsniveau und deren Relation zum späteren Lernerfolg
Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Lenz, Thomas; Baumann, Isabell; Küpper, Achim (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2018 (2018)

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See detailExplicit and implicit speaker evaluations and their differential attitudinal determinants
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Language Sciences (2018), 69

Previous speaker evaluation studies have traditionally assessed the influence of attitudes toward languages with explicit self-report measures. Social-cognitive theories positing a differential influence ... [more ▼]

Previous speaker evaluation studies have traditionally assessed the influence of attitudes toward languages with explicit self-report measures. Social-cognitive theories positing a differential influence of explicit and implicit attitudes on controlled versus automatic evaluative responses have not been addressed in this domain thus far. In addition to separating attitudes toward languages from attitudes toward nationality, the aim of this study was to test whether explicit and implicit speaker evaluations refer to distinct concepts. We expected that explicit attitudes would be stronger predictors of deliberate speaker evaluations than implicit attitudes would. By contrast, we expected that automatic evaluations examined with an evaluative priming task would primarily reflect implicit attitudes. Results showed that explicit speaker evaluations were influenced by explicit attitudes toward nationality, whereas implicit evaluations were mainly predicted by implicit attitudes toward nationality. The crucial role of speaker’s nationality in speaker evaluation processes is further discussed within the framework of implicit group processes. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers´ judgments and decision making: Studies concerning the transition from primary to secondary education and their implications for teacher education
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Toepper, M.; Pant, H.A. (Eds.) et al Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Higher Education – Cross-national Comparisons and Perspectives (2018)

Accuracy in assessing academic achievement and potential is a core component of teachers’ diagnostic competence. Large-scale studies in the Luxembourgish and German educational systems show that teachers’ ... [more ▼]

Accuracy in assessing academic achievement and potential is a core component of teachers’ diagnostic competence. Large-scale studies in the Luxembourgish and German educational systems show that teachers’ secondary school track decisions are biased by a student’s social background. Therefore, biased assessment of students may contribute to the social inequalities observed in secondary schools in both countries. Within a social cognitive framework of dual-process theories, bias is explained by heuristic information processing, which, in contrast to information-integrating processing, relies on stereotype-based expectations to form judgments about students. A series of experimental studies investigated the information processing strategies of teachers, identifying a low accountability of the decision setting and a high consistency of student information as key moderators that promote stereotype-based information processing strategies in teachers’ school track decisions. Similar effects were shown for novice teachers at the beginning of their professional career. Further research evaluated intervention modules based on increased accountability, feedback, and increased knowledge about judgment formation processes. Results demonstrated that all evaluated intervention modules led to higher judgment accuracy and more information-integrating processing. Reviewing current models of teachers’ diagnostic competence, the findings on teachers’ information processing emphasized the need to include situational and process-oriented components into models of diagnostic competence. Beside a cognitive component – the ability to form accurate and unbiased judgments – diagnostic competence includes an adaptive choice of information processing strategies, depending on the accountability and information consistency of the judgment setting. Results on intervention modules gave insights how to increase diagnostic competence in teacher education programs. [less ▲]

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See detailLanguage and nationality attitudes as distinct factors that influence speaker evaluations: Explicit versus implicit attitudes in Luxembourg
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Language & Communication (2018), 61

Many language attitude models have proposed that attitudes towards a speaker’s linguistic aspects have an influence on evaluations of that speaker. However, only a little attention has been paid to how a ... [more ▼]

Many language attitude models have proposed that attitudes towards a speaker’s linguistic aspects have an influence on evaluations of that speaker. However, only a little attention has been paid to how a speaker’s nationality might affect speaker evaluations. We examined whether language and nationality attitudes, on both explicit and implicit levels, are distinct concepts, and whether these attitude types affect speaker evaluations. Findings confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of language and nationality attitudes, thus confirming their conceptual distinctness. Moreover, explicit language attitudes affected explicit speaker evaluations, a finding that is discussed in the light of its implications for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing adaptive task assignments in a simulated classroom setting
Hörstermann, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2017, October)

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See detailThe influence of language and nationality attitudes on speaker evaluations: Explicit versus implicit information processing
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

Presentation (2017, September 04)

Previous language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. Moreover, language is framed by extra-linguistic cues (e.g ... [more ▼]

Previous language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. Moreover, language is framed by extra-linguistic cues (e.g., speaker’s social group membership) that may affect evaluative outcomes (e.g., Myers-Scotton, 2006). In previous research, a conceptual overlap exist between the evaluations of languages, nationality groups, and individual speakers. Consequently, the distinction between language and nationality attitudes has not been addressed. Moreover, dual-process theories argue that people hold two types of attitudes towards the same object, an explicit and an implicit attitude (e.g., Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000). Thus, we examined whether language and nationality attitudes affect speaker evaluations, both on an explicit and implicit level. Explicit assessments were examined with questionnaires and implicit assessments were measured with audio Implicit Association Tests and an affective priming task. Our study findings (N = 79) in Luxembourg, a linguistically diverse country with three official languages, revealed that implicit nationality attitudes significantly predicted implicit speaker evaluations such that a stronger implicit preference for the Luxembourgish national group was associated with an increase in the preference for speakers of the Luxembourgish national group. This implicit in-group favoritism is discussed in the light of its implications for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailIntervention strategies to improve the quality of teachers´ judgments: Changes in the accuracy of teachers´ transition decisions
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017, August 30)

This paper focuses on intervention modules to improve teachers’ diagnostic competence, especially in regards to decisions on students’ transition from primary to secondary education. Although these ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on intervention modules to improve teachers’ diagnostic competence, especially in regards to decisions on students’ transition from primary to secondary education. Although these transition decisions should be based on academic achievement, research has shown non-academic variables to influence decisions, leading to disadvantages for specific groups of students. Using an experimental pre-post design, we investigated the short and long term effects of accountability, theoretical knowledge and the application of prediction rules on teachers’ judgment accuracy, respectively. Pre-intervention data showed that although teachers’ decision accuracy was of high standard, decision accuracy for ethnic majority students was significantly higher than for ethnic minority students. Increased accountability resulted in increased decision accuracy, especially in regards to decisions for ethnic minority students. Similarly, the introduction of theoretical models of decision making and judgment formation and the application of prediction rules also resulted in an improvement of transition decisions but only for ethnic minority students. Unfortunately, the differential intervention effects of the intervention modules could not be maintained over time, that is, at follow up, the ethnicity bias reappeared. From these studies we can conclude that all three intervention modules can improve the accuracy of teachers’ transition decisions. In line with the intention of the interventions, the disproportionally high rate of decision errors for ethnic minority students observed pre-intervention was eliminated post-intervention and in line with error rates for ethnic majority students. However, training or instruction should be repeated briefly before making such judgments as their influence was not maintained over time. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of language and nationality attitudes on speaker evaluations: Explicit versus implicit information processing
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

Presentation (2017, May 03)

In previous research, language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. However, language behavior is always framed by extra ... [more ▼]

In previous research, language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. However, language behavior is always framed by extra-linguistic cues (e.g., speaker’s social group membership) that may affect evaluative outcomes (e.g., Myers-Scotton, 2006). Whereas most studies show a conceptual overlap between the evaluation of languages, national groups, and individual speakers, we examined whether language and nationality attitudes refer to distinct concepts that affect speaker evaluations. Moreover, dual-process theories argue that people make use of two types of strategies to process social objects, an explicit and an implicit processing strategy (e.g., Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000). We transferred the explicit-implicit distinction to the field of language by examining implicit assessments with audio Implicit Association Tests and an affective priming task. Explicit assessments were measured with validated questionnaires. Our study findings (N = 82) in Luxembourg, a linguistically diverse country with three official languages (Luxembourgish, French, and German), revealed that explicit nationality attitudes had a significant influence on explicit speaker evaluations, while implicit nationality attitudes significantly affected implicit speaker evaluations. Hence, on implicit level, a stronger implicit preference for the Luxembourgish national group was associated with an increase in the preference for speakers of the Luxembourgish national group. This in-group favoritism as well as the importance of nationality attitudes as potent factor that influence speaker evaluations is discussed in the light of its implications for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers’ school tracking decisions
Böhmer, Ines; Gräsel, Cornelia; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL et al

in Leutner, Detlev; Fleischer, Jens; Grünkorn, Juliane (Eds.) et al Competence assessment in education: Research, models, and instruments (2017)

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See detailDas Übergangsurteil am Ende der Primarstufe: eine Mouselab-Untersuchung zur Informationssuche der Lehrkräfte
Böhmer, Matthias UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Glock, Sabine et al

Scientific Conference (2016, September)

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See detailJudging people and their language use: How attitudes towards languages and speakers’ nationality influence speaker evaluations in multilingual contexts, using Luxembourg as an example
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

Presentation (2016, March 21)

In social encounters, language is one of the most salient cues eliciting evaluative responses. According to models on language attitudes (e.g., Cargile, Giles, Ryan & Bradac, 1994), listeners` attitudes ... [more ▼]

In social encounters, language is one of the most salient cues eliciting evaluative responses. According to models on language attitudes (e.g., Cargile, Giles, Ryan & Bradac, 1994), listeners` attitudes towards the speaker`s language influence the evaluation of this speaking person. However, linguistic stimuli might evoke additional inferences, e.g. on speaker`s nationality. We are therefore experimentally testing whether attitudes towards languages and attitudes towards speaker`s nationality are two distinguishable constructs which has not been addressed in previous research. Furthermore, the distinction between implicit and explicit attitudes is examined, resulting in a theoretical framework of four distinct types of attitudes influencing speaker evaluations. Luxembourg`s linguistic context is determined by the existence of various languages spoken by different inhabitants. In the present study, the model is tested with Luxembourgish and French. Using a combination of explicit measures and an adapted audio Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 2002), language and national attitudes of Luxembourgish university students are assessed. According our hypotheses, it is expected that language attitudes correlate moderately with national attitudes, providing evidence for the factorial separability. Results of regression analyses are discussed to give insight into the predictive impact of the four attitude types on speaker evaluations. A comparison between implicit and explicit attitudes is put into focus to demonstrate the model’s relevance. Overall, this study contributes to ascertaining the complexity of influencing factors on person perception based on linguistic cues by treating language and national attitudes as distinguishable constructs. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimacy effects in attention, recall and judgment patterns of simultaneously presented student information: Evidence from an eye-tracking study
Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL et al

in Hughes, Gary (Ed.) Student Achievement: Perspectives, Assessment and Improvement Strategies (2016)

Social cognition research has demonstrated that processes of memory and judgment formation are not only affected by information type but also by the sequence in which this information is received. These ... [more ▼]

Social cognition research has demonstrated that processes of memory and judgment formation are not only affected by information type but also by the sequence in which this information is received. These sequence (i.e. primacy and recency) effects are of special interest if the first or last information activates a social category, as this may increase the risk of stereotypical biases in decision making. This may be especially pertinent to the educational domain as studies have shown teachers´ judgments are influenced not only by students´ academic achievement but also their social background. Therefore, this study investigated primacy effects in the assessment of student performance. This study not only assessed the impact of sequence on memory and judgment, but also measured attention via eye-tracking techniques, hence offering a more detailed test of the assumption of the primacy effect (i.e. increased attention to the first piece of information). Forty participants were presented four student descriptions, containing information on the student’s grades, standardized test results, working behavior and social background. For half of the participants, social background information was presented in the top left position on the screen and grade information in the top right position. For the other half these positions were switched. The sequence of information was therefore not predefined by the experimenter, but left to the participant, however, given the left-to-right and top-to-bottom orientation common in Western European languages, the information in the top-left position was expected to draw initial attention of participants. After reading each student description, participants recommended a fitting secondary school track and later recalled student information. The design of the study is a 2×2 factorial design, with the position order (social background vs. grades in top-left position) as a between-subject factor and type of information (social background vs. grades) as a within-subject factor. According our expectations, eye-movements (i.e. fixations during the first second of presentation), showed a significant effect of the position order. Information in the top-left position received not only more initial attention, but also more attention throughout, than the same information positioned in the top-right position, thus indicating a primacy effect in attention. This result was only partially reflected in the recall data, and no differences resulted in the accuracy of judgments. The results confirmed that the positioning of simultaneously presented information leads to a primacy effect in attention, but does not produce primacy effects in subsequent memory and judgments. In regard to the common structure of various dossiers and records, which first list a student’s name and personal information, these findings imply that such structure may maximize teachers’ attention to social background information, stating a potential source of social disparities in educational systems. [less ▲]

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