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See detailHybridisierung von Berufs- und Hochschulbildung in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz
Graf, Lukas UL

in Banscherus, Ulf; Engel, Ole; Mindt, Anne (Eds.) et al Differenzierung im Hochschulsystem: Nationale und internationale Entwicklungen und Herausforderungen (2015)

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See detailThe European Educational Model and its Paradoxical Impact at the National Level
Graf, Lukas UL

in Tröhler, Daniel; Lenz, Thomas (Eds.) Trajectories in the Development of Modern School Systems: Between the National and the Global (2015)

The Bologna and Copenhagen processes promote standards for the categorization of educational programs and qualifications throughout Europe – with the goal to create greater transparency and permeability ... [more ▼]

The Bologna and Copenhagen processes promote standards for the categorization of educational programs and qualifications throughout Europe – with the goal to create greater transparency and permeability in European skill formation. However, key tools of Europeanization, like the Bachelor and Master degree cycles and the European Qualification Framework, fail to acknowledge important cultural, normative, and regulative idiosyncrasies of the educational systems in Austria and Germany. In both countries the sectors of vocational training and academic education represent distinct organizational fields divided by an "educational schism". The tensions and contradictions that accompany this traditional institutional divide have in many cases been masked by patterns of loose coupling. However, the current Europeanization processes tend to unsettle these patterns, which unleashes conflicts between the actors of the respective organizational fields, for example, with regard to the placement of the different certificates in the common qualification framework. The outcome of these struggles often is that the institutional divide between vocational training and academic education is widening rather than narrowing. The chapter shows how the Austrian and German institutional heritage has diverted the European educational model's initial goal to foster permeability and, with that, illustrates this model's paradoxical impact at the national level. [less ▲]

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See detailGermany: Stability and Change
Graf, Lukas UL

in Corner, Trevor (Ed.) Education in the European Union. Pre-2003 Member States (2015)

Exploring the development of educational provision and contemporary issues, this book covers the countries that made up the European Union from its foundation to the signing of the Treaty of Nice: Austria ... [more ▼]

Exploring the development of educational provision and contemporary issues, this book covers the countries that made up the European Union from its foundation to the signing of the Treaty of Nice: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and The Netherlands. The chapters, written by regional experts, offer a review of contemporary national and regional educational structures and policies, research innovation and trends, as well as covering selected issues and problems including the effects of educational reform and systemic changes within the school and university systems, minority languages, and intercultural changes for indigenous and new immigrant populations. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping Advanced Work-Based Higher Education – What Germany and the U.S. Can Learn from Each Other
Graf, Lukas UL

in AICGS Transatlantic Perspectives (2015)

Currently, many countries are experiencing a strong renewed interest in work-based training. When it comes to discussions in this field, American policymakers usually identify dual apprenticeship training ... [more ▼]

Currently, many countries are experiencing a strong renewed interest in work-based training. When it comes to discussions in this field, American policymakers usually identify dual apprenticeship training as the "crown jewel" of Germany's admired skill formation system. In turn, their colleagues from Germany frequently travel to the U.S. to inform about the merits of the German apprenticeship model. However, what is often overlooked is that dual apprenticeship training at the secondary level is no longer the only way in which advanced work-based training is offered in Germany. Due to structural changes, such as the shift to the service and knowledge economy and the increased flexibility of labor markets, employers as well as individuals increasingly demand higher-level academic competences. As a consequence, so-called dual study programs in Germany have massively expanded. Dual study programs are apprenticeships offered at the higher education level and they have begun to attract high school graduates with excellent grades. In fact, in terms of recruiting talent, they can compete with prestigious German research universities for talented youth. Yet in the U.S. there are few programs that offer such a combination. Apprenticeships in the U.S. case are mainly organized through private providers or community colleges at the post-secondary level. As Lerman (2014) emphasizes, "Unlike programs in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, the apprenticeship system in the U.S. is almost entirely divorced from high schools […]." However, community colleges are usually considered a higher education pathway mainly for those who do not manage to gain access to four-year colleges (universities). In this essay I argue that the U.S. skill formation system might profit from systematically introducing programs similar to German dual study programs. Conversely, the U.S. approach to work-based higher education offers inspiration for policymakers in Germany. Thus, for example, while German higher education still functions as a rather elitist system, community colleges are designed to make higher education accessible, especially for non-traditional and disadvantaged students. It follows that the two countries can mutually learn from each other regarding the development of new pathways of advanced work-based higher education. In the following I discuss German dual study programs and U.S. community colleges as well as co-operative (co-op) study programs. Then I compare the German and the U.S. approaches to show how each of them offers distinct comparative advantages. [less ▲]

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See detailStratifizierung von Berufs- und Hochschulbildung in Europa: Deutschland und Frankreich im Spiegel klassischer Vergleichsstudien
Bernhard, Nadine; Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Dietzen, Agnes; Powell, Justin J W; Bahl, Anke (Eds.) et al Soziale Inwertsetzung von Wissen, Erfahrung und Kompetenz in der Berufsbildung (2015)

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See detailBerufsausbildung in Luxemburg: historische Ursprünge, institutionelle Struktur und aktuelle Herausforderungen
Graf, Lukas UL; Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Lenz, Thomas; Bertemes, Jos (Eds.) Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2015. Band 2: Analysen und Befunde (2015)

Luxembourg has a well differentiated and highly complex national vocational training system. Like many other countries, Luxembourg has a binary secondary education system, consisting of the largely ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg has a well differentiated and highly complex national vocational training system. Like many other countries, Luxembourg has a binary secondary education system, consisting of the largely institutionally separate areas of classical general education (secondaire générale) and rather more practical vocational training (secondaire technique). In the school year 2012–2013, there were 12,958 pupils enrolled in general secondary education (33%) and 26,627 in technical secondary education (67%). In the Luxembourg vocational education system at least four different qualifications can be distinguished; these are associated with very different possibilities for routes to subsequent education, such as access to higher education or training as a master craftsman. As compared to the other options, the régime technique provides the best opportunity to start university studies or, after one year of vocational training, to begin to train as a master craftsman. Of particular interest at the moment is the 2008 reform of vocational training, which is being implemented in stages between 2010 and 2015 and which is focusing more on skills and work processes, providing a more modular structure to the training and a more systematic combination of on-the-job- and school-based learning phases. International influences on the Luxembourg vocational training system are visible at different levels: first, the Luxembourg system itself contains elements of the dual German system and the more school-orientated and predominantly state-organised French system. Secondly, international cooperation with neighbouring countries – especially cross-border dual training – is essential because of the country's small size and the small number of qualified vocational trainers. Thirdly, the predominantly German-speaking Luxembourg vocational training system faces major challenges because of the high proportion of immigrants. It is clear that the Luxembourg system contains a certain degree of 'mix-and-match' of different elements and educational principles, which contribute to the strong separation between different pathways in secondary education. The vocational and practical training must not be a dead end for academically talented but linguistically disadvantaged pupils with an immigrant background, nor must vocational training be educationally unattractive for practically inclined and talented Luxembourgers for reasons of prestige. In order to formulate appropriate solutions in the context of these inequality-related problems, more international comparative research seems inevitable. An additional area for in-depth analysis is assessing the impact of the reform of 2008 on vocational training. Currently, it is not clear what lies behind a number of potentially problematic developments within the system. For example, there needs to be discussion on whether the modularisation measures have led to an unintended fragmentation of vocational training, which would be contrary to the principles and uniformity of the various professions. In this context, there is also the question of how the number of modules could be reduced. [less ▲]

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See detailMade only in Germany? Internationalization and Transfer of Dual Study Programs
Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann et al

Scientific Conference (2014)

Germany, along with Switzerland and Austria, has a long tradition in the provision of dual apprenticeship training. However, since the late 1960s we see a new development with the rise of hybrid dual ... [more ▼]

Germany, along with Switzerland and Austria, has a long tradition in the provision of dual apprenticeship training. However, since the late 1960s we see a new development with the rise of hybrid dual study programs located at the nexus of vocational training and higher education. In recent years, this innovative training model has received increasing attention by policy makers in Germany – and abroad. In this context, our study first analyses the degree of internationalization of dual study programs in Germany. Secondly, we examine institutional conditions for the transfer of these programs to other countries: France, the US, Mexico, Brazil, and Qatar. The explorative analysis is based on a range of expert and stakeholder interviews in all six countries. We apply a neo-institutional comparative-historical approach. [less ▲]

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See detailTransferpotenziale des deutschen dualen Studiums. Eine Bestimmung zentraler Faktoren anhand der Fallstudien Brasilien und Frankreich
Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Bernhard, Nadine

in Berufsbildung in Wissenschaft und Praxis (2014), 6/2014

Dem dualen Studium wird das Potenzial zugesprochen, eine wichtige Rolle bei der Kompetenzentwicklung für Berufe des 21. Jahrhunderts zu spielen. Bislang sind duale Studiengänge vor allem ein deutsches ... [more ▼]

Dem dualen Studium wird das Potenzial zugesprochen, eine wichtige Rolle bei der Kompetenzentwicklung für Berufe des 21. Jahrhunderts zu spielen. Bislang sind duale Studiengänge vor allem ein deutsches Phänomen. Derzeit trifft dieses Studienmodell jedoch vermehrt auf das Interesse von ausländischen Bildungsakteuren, die gezielt nach Modellen zur besseren Verknüpfung akademischer und berufspraxisbezogener Lernerfahrungen suchen. Anhand der Länder Frankreich und Brasilien werden allgemeine Bedingungen für einen erfolgreichen Transfer dieses Studienmodells und Möglichkeiten der binationalen Kooperation analysiert. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Swiss Apprenticeship System. Its Institutional Specificities and Strengths in International Perspective
Graf, Lukas UL

in AICGS Transatlantic Perspectives (2014)

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See detailGrowing in a Niche: Dual Study Programs Contribute to Change in Germany's Higher Education
Graf, Lukas UL

in WZB Report 2014 (2014)

The German educational model is characterized by a historically evolved strong institutional divide between the vocational education and training system and the higher education system. Yet, the ... [more ▼]

The German educational model is characterized by a historically evolved strong institutional divide between the vocational education and training system and the higher education system. Yet, the contemporary development of dual study programs implies the systematic combination of institutional elements from both subsystems. The rapid expansion of these programs is based on the hybridization of organizational structures – outside of traditional structures – at the nexus of traditional organizational fields of vocational training and higher education. [less ▲]

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See detailDual Study Programmes in Global Context: Internationalisation in Germany and Transfer to Brazil, France, Qatar, Mexico and the US
Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann et al

Book published by DAAD (2014)

This exploratory study is devoted in equal measure to the status quo and the future perspectives of the internationalisation of dual study programmes, a special hybrid form of vocational training and ... [more ▼]

This exploratory study is devoted in equal measure to the status quo and the future perspectives of the internationalisation of dual study programmes, a special hybrid form of vocational training and higher education developed in Germany. Building on the earlier DAAD studies ‘Sachstand: Duales Studium als Exportmodell’ (Maschke 2012) and ‘Modelle und Szenarien für den Export deutscher Studienangebote ins Ausland’ (Schreiterer and Witte 2001; see also DAAD/HRK 2012), the authors examine both the degree of internationalisation of existing dual study programmes in Germany (with special emphasis on students’ geographical mobility) and the possibilities and limits of systematically transferring this emergent educational model to selected countries. Two recent trends have helped put issues of internationalisation and the transfer of German education concepts higher up on the policy agenda again: first, the current economic situation in Germany, which has remained robust despite the recent financial and economic turmoil, reflected most importantly in comparatively low levels of youth unemployment. Dual vocational education and training models are seen as a key factor contributing to this success. Second, the concept of dual studies reflects an emergent model of skill formation at the nexus of initial vocational training and tertiary education. This innovative hybrid form is seen as having the potential to play a crucial role in the development of competencies for twenty-first-century occupations, not least against the backdrop of the pressing skills gap. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Hybridization of Vocational Training and Higher Education in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland
Graf, Lukas UL

Book published by Budrich UniPress (2013)

Austria, Germany, and Switzerland are increasingly relying on hybridization at the nexus of vocational training and higher education to increase permeability and reform their highly praised systems of ... [more ▼]

Austria, Germany, and Switzerland are increasingly relying on hybridization at the nexus of vocational training and higher education to increase permeability and reform their highly praised systems of collective skill formation. This historical and organizational institutionalist study compares these countries to trace the evolution of their skill regimes from the 1960s to today's era of Europeanization, focusing especially on the impact of the Bologna and Copenhagen processes. [less ▲]

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See detailDurch Europäisierung zu mehr Durchlässigkeit? Wandel im Verhältnis von Berufsbildungs- und Hochschulsystemen in Deutschland, Frankreich und Österreich
Bernhard, Nadine; Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Soeffner, Hans-Georg (Ed.) Transnationale Vergesellschaftungen. Verhandlungen des 35. Kongresses der DGS (2013)

Die europäischen Bildungsminister beschlossen 1999 einen einheitlichen europäischen Hochschulraum zu schaffen; der so genannte Bologna Prozess wurde in Gang gesetzt. Mit der Unterzeichnung der ... [more ▼]

Die europäischen Bildungsminister beschlossen 1999 einen einheitlichen europäischen Hochschulraum zu schaffen; der so genannte Bologna Prozess wurde in Gang gesetzt. Mit der Unterzeichnung der Kopenhagener Erklärung nur drei Jahre später entschlossen sich die Nationalstaaten, auch im Bereich der beruflichen Bildung stärker zusammenzuarbeiten. Vor allem soll die nationale wie internationale Vergleichbarkeit von Bildungsabschlüssen verbessert werden. Beide Prozesse zielen darauf ab, Durchlässigkeit zwischen den organisatorischen Feldern berufliche Bildung und Hochschulbildung zu erhöhen, und zwar mit Hilfe von gemeinsam entwi- ckelten Standards wie dem Europäischen und Nationalen Qualifikationsrahmen, einem System zur Validierung und Anerkennung unterschiedlicher Lernformen, der Ermöglichung flexibler Bildungswege und der Einführung von Kreditpunkte- systemen (Powell/Solga 2008, 2010, 2011). Heute, nach einem Jahrzehnt seit Beginn dieser Prozesse stellt sich die Frage, wie diese in den europäischen Nationalstaaten bisher schon gewirkt und wie sie das Verhältnis von Hochschul- und Berufsbildung verändert haben – Veränderungen, die mit vielfältigen Implikationen für die Bildungs- und soziale Mobilität einherge- hen können (Bernhard/Powell/Graf 2010): Die Frage nach Durchlässigkeit zwi- schen beruflicher und Hochschulbildung ist dabei insbesondere deswegen wichtig, da stratifizierte (Aus-)Bildungssysteme ohne Brücken zwischen einzelnen Bildungs- sektoren den möglichst gleichen Zugang zu Bildungs- und Beschäftigungsopportu- nitäten behindern. [less ▲]

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See detailVergleiche innerhalb von Gruppen und institutionelle Gelingensbedingungen. Vielversprechende Perspektiven für die Ungleichheitsforschung
Solga, Heike; Brzinsky-Fay, Christian; Graf, Lukas UL et al

Book published by Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB) (2013)

Die Untersuchung sozialer Ungleichheiten gehört zum Hauptgeschäft der Soziologie. Viele Ursache-Wirkungs-Mechanismen für Ungleichheitsphänomene sind gut erforscht, zumeist existieren alternative oder ... [more ▼]

Die Untersuchung sozialer Ungleichheiten gehört zum Hauptgeschäft der Soziologie. Viele Ursache-Wirkungs-Mechanismen für Ungleichheitsphänomene sind gut erforscht, zumeist existieren alternative oder komplementäre Erklärungen für vorhandene Ungleichheiten. Aus dem Wissen, wie Ungleichheiten (in bestimmten Kontexten) entstehen, kann allerdings selten abgeleitet werden, wie sie verringert werden können. Mit diesem Papier möchten wir daher zwei komplementäre Analyseperspektiven vorstellen, die notwendige und vielversprechende Untersuchungsrichtungen definieren und zwei Zielrichtungen verfolgen: 1. eine Spezifizierung der Reichweite von ungleichheitsgenerierenden Mechanismen und 2. die Identifizierung von institutionellen Gelingensbedingungen für den Abbau sozialer Ungleichheiten. Letzteres meint, institutionelle Bedingungen zu identifizieren, unter denen ein bekannter Mechanismus nicht mehr wirksam ist oder zumindest abgeschwächt wirkt. Die Analyse von Gelingensbedingungen findet dabei ihren Ausgangspunkt in der Feststellung, dass es häufig einen beachtlichen Anteil an Einheiten einer Population gibt, die zwar der benachteiligten Gruppe angehören, die allerdings – entgegen den theoretischen Erwartungen, die uns von den aus der Forschung bekannten sozialen Mechanismen nahegelegt werden – trotzdem ein positives Ergebnis erzielen (d. h. nicht oder kaum von der jeweils betrachteten Benachteiligung betroffen sind). Das Analysepotenzial dieser Perspektiven ist in der soziologischen Ungleichheitsforschung bisher weitgehend ungenutzt. Die Aufmerksamkeit der soziologischen Ungleichheitsforschung ist auf Intergruppenvergleiche, d. h. auf Unterschiede zwischen Subgruppen von Populationen, ausgerichtet. Die hier vorgestellten Analyseperspektiven des Intragruppenvergleichs und der Suche nach institutionellen Gelingensbedingungen sind nicht nur theoretisch interessant, sondern auch hinsichtlich politischer Implikationen für die Gestaltung bzw. den Abbau sozialer Ungleichheiten. Intragruppenvergleiche und Suche nach institutionellen Gelingensbedingungen klingt dabei leichter gesagt als getan, denn mit ihnen sind sowohl theoretische als auch empirische Herausforderungen verbunden. So stattet uns unser theoretisches Handwerkszeug sehr gut damit aus, Ungleichheiten zwischen Gruppen zu erklären, anders sieht es hingegen aus, wenn es um Ungleichheiten innerhalb von Gruppen geht. Umso größer ist jedoch die Chance, mit diesen Analyseperspektiven auch neue theoretische Beiträge leisten zu können. Gelingt uns diese Perspektivenerweiterung, dann können wir neue theoretische Einsichten – insbesondere hinsichtlich der Universalität und Kontextabhängigkeit von Ungleichheitsmechanismen – gewinnen und zugleich eine stärker policy-relevante Forschung betreiben. Für diese Perspektivenerweiterung möchten wir mit dem vorliegenden Discussion Paper einen Beitrag leisten. [less ▲]

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See detailAuswirkungen des neuen europäischen Bildungsmodells auf die Verknüpfung zwischen Berufs- und Hochschulbildung in Deutschland, Österreich und Frankreich
Bernhard, Nadine; Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Amos, Karin; Schmid, Josef; Schrader, Josef (Eds.) et al Europäischer Bildungsraum. Europäisierungsprozesse in Bildungspolitik und Bildungspraxis (2013)

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See detailNew Institutional Linkages between Dual Vocational Training and Higher Education. A Comparative Analysis of Germany, Austria and Switzerland
Ebner, Christian; Graf, Lukas UL; Nikolai, Rita

in Windzio, Michael (Ed.) Integration and Inequality in Educational Institutions (2013)

Germany, Austria, and Switzerland have traditionally provided a large proportion of their workforces with qualifications obtained in the dual vocational training system. However, due to the growing demand ... [more ▼]

Germany, Austria, and Switzerland have traditionally provided a large proportion of their workforces with qualifications obtained in the dual vocational training system. However, due to the growing demand for abstract and codified knowledge, all three countries aim at increasing the permeability and individual mobility between the dual training sector and the higher education system. In this chapter we analyse the ways in which Germany, Austria and Switzerland have tried to establish institutional linkages between dual vocational training and higher education. We begin by discussing options for creating such linkages: (1.) upgrading of vocational education and training courses, (2.) introducing dual courses of study, (3.) facilitating attendance of general upper secondary schools for people with vocational qualifications, (4.) enabling the parallel acquisition of a dual vocational training qualification and a higher education entrance qualification, (5.) allowing admission to higher education on the basis of prior dual vocational training qualifications and a certain amount of work experience, and (6.) recognising prior learning as an element in higher education programmes. Our analysis shows that, recently, Germany has relied strongly on the admission to higher education based on vocational training certificates in combination with work experience. Switzerland and Austria are rather pushing the comprehensive introduction of programmes that enable the parallel acquisition of a dual vocational training qualification and a higher education entrance qualification. Finally, we raise questions about the risk of institutional ambiguity and institutional task overload. [less ▲]

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See detailBesser verzahnt. Berufs- und Hochschulbildung in Österreich und der Schweiz
Graf, Lukas UL

in WZ-Brief Bildung (2013), 24

- Deutschlands Nachbarn verbinden erfolgreich berufliche und akademische Bildung. - Österreichs Berufsbildende Höhere Schulen bereiten auf Hochschule und Arbeitswelt vor. - Die Schweizer Berufsmaturität ... [more ▼]

- Deutschlands Nachbarn verbinden erfolgreich berufliche und akademische Bildung. - Österreichs Berufsbildende Höhere Schulen bereiten auf Hochschule und Arbeitswelt vor. - Die Schweizer Berufsmaturität führt aus der Lehre zum Fachhochschulstudium. [less ▲]

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See detailDuale Studiengänge als „unerwartete“ Form der institutionellen Durchlässigkeit zwischen Berufs- und Hochschulbildung in Deutschland
Graf, Lukas UL

in Solga, Heike; Brzinsky-Fay, Christian; Graf, Lukas (Eds.) et al Vergleiche innerhalb von Gruppen und institutionelle Gelingensbedingungen. Vielversprechende Perspektiven für die Ungleichheitsforschung (2013)

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See detailThe Emergent European Model in Skill Formation: Comparing Higher Education and Vocational Training in the Bologna and Copenhagen Processes
Powell, Justin J W UL; Bernhard, Nadine; Graf, Lukas UL

in Sociology of Education (2012), 85(3), 240-258

Proposing an alternative to the American model, intergovernmental reform initiatives in Europe have developed and promote a comprehensive European model of skill formation. What ideals, standards, and ... [more ▼]

Proposing an alternative to the American model, intergovernmental reform initiatives in Europe have developed and promote a comprehensive European model of skill formation. What ideals, standards, and governance are proposed in this new pan-European model? This model responds to heightened global competition among “knowledge societies” as it challenges national systems to improve. The authors thus compare this emergent European model with the historically influential models of Germany, France, Great Britain, and the United States. To what extent does the European model resemble these traditionally influential national models? The authors report findings of a theory-guided content analysis of official European policy documents in higher education and vocational training from 1998 to 2010. They find that while the European model is a bricolage that integrates diverse characteristics of influential models, the ambitious goals and standards codified in the twin Bologna and Copenhagen processes in higher education and vocational training offer a new model to compete internationally. Dozens of countries now seek to implement these principles. This comparative analysis finds different visions for the future of skill formation on both sides of the Atlantic. [less ▲]

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See detailAustrian Corporatism and Gradual Institutional Change in the Relationship between Apprenticeship Training and School-based VET
Graf, Lukas UL; Lassnigg, Lorenz; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Busemeyer, Marius R.; Trampusch, Christine (Eds.) The Political Economy of Collective Skill Systems (2012)

Within the context of collective skill formation systems, Austria presents a case in which a well-developed vocational education and training (VET) system provides a differentiated set of pathways for ... [more ▼]

Within the context of collective skill formation systems, Austria presents a case in which a well-developed vocational education and training (VET) system provides a differentiated set of pathways for youth as they prepare their transitions from school to work. If we wish to draw lessons from a comparison of collective skill systems, the dynamic relationship between a strong dual apprenticeship training system and a robust school-based training system is one of the key factors differentiating VET in Austria from the VET systems in Germany and Switzerland. Indeed, we argue that the Austrian collective skill system as well as contemporary changes within it cannot be understood without understanding full-time vocational schooling in Austria. [less ▲]

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