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See detailA multi-scale fine-grained LUTI model to simulate land-use scenarios in Luxembourg
Gerber, Philippe; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cornélis, Eric et al

in Journal of Transport and Land Use (2018), 11(1), 255272

The increasing attractiveness of Luxembourg as a place to work and live puts its land use and transport systems under high pressure. Understanding how the country can accommodate residential growth and ... [more ▼]

The increasing attractiveness of Luxembourg as a place to work and live puts its land use and transport systems under high pressure. Understanding how the country can accommodate residential growth and additional traffic in a sustainable manner is a key and difficult challenge that requires a policy relevant, flexible and responsive modelling framework. We describe the first fully fledged land-use and transport interaction framework (MOEBIUS) applied to the whole of Luxembourg. We stress its multi-scalar nature and detail the articulation of two of its main components: a dynamic demographic microsimulation at the scale of individuals and a micro-spatial scale simulation of residential choice. Conversely to traditional zone-based approaches, the framework keeps full details of households and individuals for residential and travel mode choice, making the model highly consistent with theory. In addition, results and policy constraints are implemented at a very fine resolution (20m) and can thus incorporate local effects (residential externalities, local urban design). Conversely to fully disaggregated approaches, a linkage is organized at an intermediate scale, which allows one (1) to simplify the generation and spatial distribution of trips, (2) to parallelize parts of the residential choice simulation, and (3) to ensure a good calibration of the population and real estate market estimates. We show model outputs for different scenarios at the horizon 2030 and compare them along sustainability criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailCity delineation in European applications of LUTI models: review and tests
Thomas, Isabelle; Jones, Jonathan; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

in Transport Reviews (2018), 38(1), 6-32

This paper stresses the lack of attention paid to the geographical definitions of cities in LUTI models as one key detrimental aspect to transferring and generalising LUTI results. First, the ... [more ▼]

This paper stresses the lack of attention paid to the geographical definitions of cities in LUTI models as one key detrimental aspect to transferring and generalising LUTI results. First, the argumentation develops from a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed publications about LUTI applications in European cities. We show that most authors do not assess findings against potential geographical biases. Second, theoretical simulations are conducted with UrbanSim applied to a synthetic urban area. By varying the geographical limits of the system and population endowments, our simulations confirm that the absence of control on city delineation weakens the results. Finally, the paper suggests methodological guidelines to improve the comparability of LUTI applications and push forward their theoretical agenda. [less ▲]

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See detailLand Use and Transport Interaction Models - Where is the limit?
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Jones, Jonathan; Thomas, Isabelle et al

Scientific Conference (2015, July 08)

Land Use and Transport Interaction (LUTI) models are precious tools to integrating the many impacts and feedbacks of the location of activities on transport infrastructures and vice versa. In that sense ... [more ▼]

Land Use and Transport Interaction (LUTI) models are precious tools to integrating the many impacts and feedbacks of the location of activities on transport infrastructures and vice versa. In that sense, applying LUTI models is key to delivering regulation and planning options for urban and transport sustainability. For they have been used in practice to guide urban planners and help transport policy since the 1960’s and the pioneering work of Lowry (1964). The effectiveness of LUTI models as decision support tools is generally well accepted by transport and planning researchers and by practitioners, despite sailing through troubled waters between consultancy secrets, politically led options, data problems, rule of thumb calibration, and model openness and transparency. At the turn of the millennium, LUTI models have developed from aggregate zone-based models to micro representation of space and disaggregated representation of agents, following increased computing capacity and availability of better GIS and individual data. As demonstrated by Wegener (2011) this modeling shift however goes with costs that impede empirical validation and further adoption in planning. LUTI modelers have long recognized that the different processes within LUTI models act and interface at different speeds (Wegener, 1986). The further granularity accompanying disaggregation then leads to dynamics that are trickier to handle. As argued by Anas (2013), LUTI models need clearer definitions and a stricter use of urban economics concepts. Likewise, we argue in this paper that LUTI models also need to take better care of geographical knowledge and spatial biases. They require the analysis of the robustness of model outcomes to the choice of spatial units and MAUP, which is analyzed by Jones et al. (2013) but also the effect of changing urban system boundaries, which is under focus here. Defining the limits of a coherent study area for modeling is actually questioning the delimitation of a city or urban region. This is obviously not a new question to geographers and economists but it impacts deeply on how inner stocks (population, firms, …) and external flows (traffic, labor,…) are modeled in LUTI models and therefore on their outcome. From intuition and practice, we hypothesize that there is strong inertia in LUTI models outcomes because the many parameters and variables that are present in these models are eventually strongly constrained by the geographical structure considered (monocentric, polycentric, including exurbs or not, etc.). Where the outer limit of a model is traced not only impacts the internal components of the city but also questions the problem of the limits between two cities, which is not trivial. First, we perform a meta-analysis of recent LUTI applications in European contexts based on 19 peer-reviewed articles. The lack of definition of the study area is striking. Interestingly in the first LUTI implementation, Lowry (1964) explicitly mentioned the use of an estimate of the commutershed of Pittsburgh for the next 20 years. The lack of explicit choice in later literature with models of increased complexity, stresses the need for guidelines that could improve practice in order to improve the comparability of applications and the generalization of results where possible. Second, we perform simulations on a synthetic city system using UrbanSim (Waddell et al., 2003). We gradually vary the spatial limits of the system from an inner center monocentric system to a polycentric city region. We also vary population and employment endowments, hence commuting patterns. Our simulations show that LUTI results are highly impacted by the change of limits and therefore suggest a reason why LUTI models are sensitive to large parametric shocks only. Our paper confirms that the absence of a strict theoretical rationale for city delineation weakens the effectiveness of LUTI models. References Anas, A. 2013. A response to the guest editorial: economics as the science for urban modeling. Environment and Planning B, 40 (6), 955 – 958 Jones, J., Peeters, D and Thomas, I. 2013. On the Influence of Scale on Urban Planning Evaluations by LUTI models. ASRDLF Congress 2013. Lowry, I.S. 1964. A model of metropolis. Memorandum RM 4035 Rand Corporation, Santa-Monica. 136p Waddell, P., Borning, A., Noth, M., Freier, N., Becke, M. and Ulfarsson, G. 2003. Microsimulation of Urban Development and Location Choices: Design and Implementation of UrbanSim. Networks and Spatial Economics, 3 (1), 43-67 Wegener, M., Gnad, F., Vannahme, M. 1986. The time scale of urban change. In Hutchinson, B and Batty, M. (Eds), Advances in Urban Systems Modelling. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 145–197. Wegener, M. 2011. From macro to micro - how much micro is too much? Transport Reviews, 31, 161–177 [less ▲]

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See detailOn the delineation of cities in applied LUTI models in Europe: bibliography and simulations
Thomas, Isabelle; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Gerber, Philippe et al

Scientific Conference (2015, July)

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See detailEditorial: Challenges, specificities and commonalities of transport research and policy within the BENELUX countries–the case of Luxembourg
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Gerber, Philippe; Hesse, Markus UL et al

in European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research (2015), 15(4), 501-505

In the recent years, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has emerged as a new player in research as part of a strategy to foster its knowledge for both economical and societal developments. In the transport ... [more ▼]

In the recent years, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has emerged as a new player in research as part of a strategy to foster its knowledge for both economical and societal developments. In the transport research field, the University of Luxembourg (created in 2003) with its Geography and Spatial Planning Institute (created in 2007) and its Transport Engineering group (created in 2012) joined forces with the public research institution LISER (previously CEPS-INSTEAD) to organize the 2013 Transport Research Day of the BIVEC. Looking backward to the event while preparing this editorial, we can see it actually played a kick-off role for the international diffusion of Luxembourg research on transport and related land-use issues, and was a good occasion to shed lights on Luxembourg specificities and commonalities within the Benelux, which we like to stress in this editorial. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between residential and daily mobility: Luxembourg case study in the MOEBIUS project (extended abstract)
Gerber, Philippe; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cornélis, Eric et al

in Hesse, Markus; Caruso, Geoffrey; Gerber, Philippe (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Days 2013 (2013)

We present the modelling strategy of the research project MOEBIUS, which aims at simulating future urbanisation and commuting mobility, including modal split, under various planning conditions. MOEBIUS is ... [more ▼]

We present the modelling strategy of the research project MOEBIUS, which aims at simulating future urbanisation and commuting mobility, including modal split, under various planning conditions. MOEBIUS is similar in its objectives to a Land Use and Transport Interaction (LUTI) model, although very modular in its implementation and with ability to deal with very fine spatial resolution inputs and outputs. We simulate (i) the future potential urbanisation in Luxembourg, (ii) the population and its spatial distribution, and (iii) the daily mobility (commuting pattern and travel mode choice) at a disaggregated level. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Days 2013
Hesse, Markus UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Gerber, Philippe et al

Book published by University Press (2013)

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See detailFrom land use scenarios to sustainable mobility: Luxembourg case study in the MOEBIUS Project
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Gerber, Philippe

Scientific Conference (2012)

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See detailLes monuments de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale
Kmec, Sonja UL; Majerus, Benoît UL; Bousch, Patrisck et al

in Der Luxemburg Atlas / Atlas du Luxembourg (2009)

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See detailDer Luxemburg Atlas
Bousch, Patrick; Chilla, Tobias UL; Gerber, Philippe et al

Book published by Emons (2009)

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See detailEin Porträt der Vielfalt : Ausländer in Luxemburg und Esch
Gerber, Philippe; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL

in Bousch, Patrick; Chilla, Tobias; Gerber, Philippe (Eds.) et al Der Luxemburg Atlas/Atlas du Luxembourg (2009)

Die verschiedenen Einwanderungswellen haben die ausländische Bevölkerung Luxemburgs immer weiter anwachsen lassen, sodass heute mehr als vier Zehntel der Einwohner des Landes ausländischer Nationalität ... [more ▼]

Die verschiedenen Einwanderungswellen haben die ausländische Bevölkerung Luxemburgs immer weiter anwachsen lassen, sodass heute mehr als vier Zehntel der Einwohner des Landes ausländischer Nationalität sind – im Vergleich zu einem Zehntel im Jahr 1947. In den zwei wichtigsten Städten des Landes ist der Anteil der ausländischen Bevölkerung noch höher. Deren Nationalitäten und Erwerbsprofile unterscheiden sich jedoch ebenso wie ihre räumliche Verteilung. [less ▲]

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See detailMobilités quotidienne et résidentielle au Luxembourg : un apercu à travers l'outil Mobilluxweb
Carpentier, Samuel; Gerber, Philippe; Petit, Sébastien et al

in Population et Territoire (2008), 13

Cet article propose, à travers différents indicateurs, un panorama des dynamiques de mobilité actuelles, consultable sur un site internet. Les analyses ainsi menées mettent en évidence une augmentation ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose, à travers différents indicateurs, un panorama des dynamiques de mobilité actuelles, consultable sur un site internet. Les analyses ainsi menées mettent en évidence une augmentation des flux domicile/travail alimentée à la fois par l’augmentation du nombre de travailleurs, mais aussi par l’allongement des distances parcourues consécutif au phénomène de périurbanisation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes villes de Luxembourg et d’Esch-sur-Alzette : quelques aspects économiques et géographiques à la lumière du recensement de 2001
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Gerber, Philippe

in Population & Territoire (2004), 4

Une comparaison des deux grandes villes luxembourgeoises, à travers les données du dernier recensement de 2001, apporte un nouvel éclairage des structures économiques et géographiques de leur population ... [more ▼]

Une comparaison des deux grandes villes luxembourgeoises, à travers les données du dernier recensement de 2001, apporte un nouvel éclairage des structures économiques et géographiques de leur population urbaine. En effet, nous remarquons que les villes de Luxembourg et d’Esch-sur-Alzette connaissent un vieillissement démographique atténué par une concentration d’un grand nombre d’étrangers, ces der-niers étant notamment surreprésentés dans les tranches d’âge actif. Cependant, les étrangers ne présentent pas les mêmes caractéristiques, tant par rapport au niveau d’éducation que de l’emploi qu’ils occupent. Ainsi, près de la moitié des Eschois ayant terminé leurs études ont uniquement suivi l’enseignement primaire ; un quart des habitants de la capitale sont dans ce cas. Cet écart se reporte notamment sur la proportion d’ouvriers, bien plus importante à Esch-sur-Alzette (60% des hommes par exemple) qu’à Luxembourg-Ville (32%). Par contre, la ségrégation socio-spatiale paraît plus accentuée au sein de la capitale du Grand-Duché, cette différence étant notamment liée à l’hétérogénéité de l’activité professionnelle (secteur international et place financière entre autres). [less ▲]

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