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See detailMeasuring impulsivity in Children: Adaptation and Validation of a Short Version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behaviors Scale in Children and Investigation of Its Links with ADHD
Geurten, Marie; Catale, Corinne; Gay, Philippe et al

in Journal of Attention Disorders (in press)

Objective: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a wide range of problematic behaviors and psychological disorders in children. Method ... [more ▼]

Objective: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a wide range of problematic behaviors and psychological disorders in children. Method: In this study, we adapted the short French adult version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale for use with children (short UPPS-P-C) and tested its psychometric properties. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses conducted on a sample of 425 children (aged from 8 to 14 years) supported the five-factor structure of the scale. Additional analyses emphasized the good internal and test-retest reliability of the short UPPS-P-C. Furthermore, our results also revealed that lack of premeditation and urgency subscales were able to discriminate between children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their matched controls. Conclusion: These results suggest that the short UPPS-P-C may be considered as a promising time-saving tool to assess impulsivity traits in healthy children and in children with psychiatric disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailDo emotional stimuli interfere with two distinct components of inhibition?
Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Rochat, Lucien; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Cognition & emotion (2015), 29(3), 559-67

Emotions have recently been shown to interfere with the efficacy of inhibitory control. However, understanding their impact requires taking into account that inhibition is not a unitary construct, but ... [more ▼]

Emotions have recently been shown to interfere with the efficacy of inhibitory control. However, understanding their impact requires taking into account that inhibition is not a unitary construct, but consists of distinct functions underlain by specific mechanisms. In this study, 88 participants performed two emotional versions of classic laboratory tasks designed to assess (1) the ability to inhibit a prepotent response (a stop-signal task using faces with different emotional expressions) and (2) the capacity to resist the effect of proactive interference (PI; a recent negative task that included emotional words). Overall results showed that emotional stimuli interfered with inhibition capacities in both tasks. Although tending in the same direction, these results suggest that different underlying mechanisms (e.g., top-down vs. bottom-up processes) or consecutive differences in emotional processing (e.g., different interactions with stimulus/task properties, processing stages or motivational aspects) are at play in these two inhibition-related functions. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological predictors of problematic involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: illustration in a sample of male cybercafe players.
Billieux, Joël UL; Chanal, Julien; Khazaal, Yasser et al

in Psychopathology (2011), 44(3), 165-71

BACKGROUND: Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are video games in which a large number of players interact with one another in a persistent virtual world. MMORPGs can become ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are video games in which a large number of players interact with one another in a persistent virtual world. MMORPGs can become problematic and result in negative outcomes in daily living (e.g. loss of control on gaming behaviors, compromised social and individual quality of life). The aim of the present study is to investigate psychological predictors of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Fifty-four males who played MMORPGs regularly were recruited in cybercafes and screened using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (which assesses 4 facets of impulsivity) and the Motivation to Play Online Questionnaire (which assesses personal motives to play online). Negative consequences due to excessive time spent on the Internet were assessed with the Internet Addiction Test. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis showed that problematic use of MMORPGs is significantly predicted by: (1) high urgency (b = 0.45), and (2) a motivation to play for immersion (b = 0.35). CONCLUSION: This study showed that, for certain individuals (who are characterized by a proneness to act rashly in emotional contexts and motivated to play to be immersed in a virtual world), involvement in MMORPGs can become problematic and engender tangible negative consequences in daily life. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of urgency and its underlying psychological mechanisms in problematic behaviours.
Billieux, Joël UL; Gay, Philippe; Rochat, Lucien et al

in Behaviour research and therapy (2010), 48(11), 1085-96

The urgency facet of impulsivity, that is, the tendency to act rashly in response to intense emotional contexts [Cyders, M. A., & Smith, G. T. (2008). Emotion-based dispositions to rash action: positive ... [more ▼]

The urgency facet of impulsivity, that is, the tendency to act rashly in response to intense emotional contexts [Cyders, M. A., & Smith, G. T. (2008). Emotion-based dispositions to rash action: positive and negative urgency. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 807-828], has been related to a wide range of maladaptive behaviours. The present study further investigates the role of urgency in problematic behaviours by considering distinct psychological mechanisms that may underlie this component of impulsivity. With this aim, 95 volunteer participants were screened with self-reported questionnaires assessing urgency and three problematic behaviours (compulsive buying, excessive mobile phone use, excessive Internet use). They performed two laboratory tasks: a stop-signal task designed to assess the capacity to inhibit prepotent responses in response to both neutral and emotional stimuli; and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measuring the ability to take into account the future consequences of an action. A poor ability to inhibit prepotent responses in the emotional condition of the stop-signal task was found to predict more disadvantageous choices in the IGT, which ultimately results in higher urgency and more problematic behaviours. These findings shed new light on the construct of urgency, its related psychological mechanisms, and its role in problematic behaviours. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the distinction between intentional and unintentional interference control help differentiate varieties of impulsivity?
Gay, Philippe; Courvoisier, D. S.; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of Research in Personality (2010), 44(1), 46-52

It has recently been shown that perseverance specifically relates to resisting proactive interference [Gay, P., Rochat, L., Billieux, J., d'Acremont, M., & Van der Linden, M. (2008). Heterogeneous ... [more ▼]

It has recently been shown that perseverance specifically relates to resisting proactive interference [Gay, P., Rochat, L., Billieux, J., d'Acremont, M., & Van der Linden, M. (2008). Heterogeneous inhibition processes involved in different facets of self-reported impulsivity: Evidence from a community sample. Acta Psychologica, 129, 332-339]. The aim of this study was to replicate and extend this finding by investigating the relationships between unintentional control of interference (in a recent-negatives task), intentional control of interference (in a directed-forgetting task), and the four facets of impulsivity. The performance of 71 volunteers indicated that the relevant variables of the two tasks shared very little or no variance. In particular, regression analyses showed that lower perseverance (i.e., higher impulsivity on this facet) predicted more interference-related errors in both tasks and less time dedicated to resolving proactive interference; however, lower perseverance did not predict directed-forgetting cost. Higher urgency predicted higher interference time due to response-conflict. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailLack of inhibitory control predicts cigarette smoking dependence: evidence from a non-deprived sample of light to moderate smokers.
Billieux, Joël UL; Gay, Philippe; Rochat, Lucien et al

in Drug and alcohol dependence (2010), 112(1-2), 164-7

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between prepotent inhibition capacities and cigarette dependence in a sample of non-deprived light to moderate smokers. METHODS: Fifty volunteer smokers were ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between prepotent inhibition capacities and cigarette dependence in a sample of non-deprived light to moderate smokers. METHODS: Fifty volunteer smokers were screened with a laboratory go-stop paradigm, and self-reports of cigarette dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, FTND) and cigarette craving (revised Questionnaire on Smoking Urge, QSU-12). RESULTS: Correlation and regression analyses showed that lower prepotent inhibition capacities predict higher levels of cigarette dependence when individual differences in processing speed, craving states, and age were controlled for. In addition, lower inhibition capacity is associated with a higher number of cigarettes smoked per day. CONCLUSIONS: A poor ability to inhibit prepotent responses seems to be one of the individual factors related to cigarette smoking dependence. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneous inhibition processes involved in different facets of self-reported impulsivity: evidence from a community sample.
Gay, Philippe; Rochat, Lucien; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Acta psychologica (2008), 129(3), 332-9

Whiteside and Lynam (Whiteside, S. P., & Lynam, D. R. (2001). The Five Factor Model and impulsivity: Using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personality and Individual ... [more ▼]

Whiteside and Lynam (Whiteside, S. P., & Lynam, D. R. (2001). The Five Factor Model and impulsivity: Using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 669-689) clarified the multifaceted nature of impulsivity by identifying four distinct facets of self-reported impulsive behaviors: urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking. Building on work by Bechara and Van der Linden (Bechara, A., & Van der Linden, M. (2005). Decision-making and impulse control after frontal lobe injuries. Current Opinion in Neurology, 18, 734-739), the main objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that perseverance and urgency map onto the two distinct inhibitory functions distinguished by Friedman and Miyake (Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2004). The relations among inhibition and interference control functions: A latent-variable analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 101-135): prepotent response inhibition and resistance to proactive interference. Participants (N=126) completed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale and three tasks: a recent-negatives task to assess proactive interference in working memory, and two Go/No-Go tasks at different paces, the slower of which also assessed task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs). Consistent with the hypothesis, TUTs were positively correlated with lack of perseverance, and multiple regressions revealed that urgency was specifically related to errors in prepotent response inhibition, and lack of perseverance to errors due to difficulties overcoming proactive interference. [less ▲]

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