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See detailLa réponse au défi migratoire : «Europe souveraine» ou «souverainisme de repli» ?
Gatti, Mauro UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

La migration est probablement le « défi majeur » de l’Europe, aujourd’hui et dans les années qui viennent, comme le reconnaît Emmanuel Macron dans son discours de la Sorbonne de septembre 2017. On peut ... [more ▼]

La migration est probablement le « défi majeur » de l’Europe, aujourd’hui et dans les années qui viennent, comme le reconnaît Emmanuel Macron dans son discours de la Sorbonne de septembre 2017. On peut noter, par ailleurs, que la gestion de ce défi est à présent inadéquate : si 285.000 migrants ont été sauvés par des opérations coordonnées par l’Union européenne, 3.139 sont morts en 2017 ; en outre, l’état des droits des migrants dans l’Union et, surtout, dans les pays partenaires, reste problématique. Le « souverainisme de repli » n’assure aucune solution : « l’Europe seule peut, en un mot, assurer une souveraineté réelle » (Macron). Et la souveraineté de l’Europe – conçue comme la « capacité à exister dans le monde actuel pour y défendre nos valeurs et nos intérêts » – ne peut que s’assurer par la « solidarité » entre les Etats membres. Emmanuel Macron propose deux solutions au défi de la migration, qui paraissent toutefois insuffisantes ou illusoires : la création d’un « espace commun des frontières » vis-à- vis de l’extérieur et une gestion plus efficace de l’asile à l’intérieur de l’Union. [less ▲]

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See detailArt. 50 TEU: A Well-Designed Secession Clause
Gatti, Mauro UL

in European Papers (2017), 2(1), 159-181

Art. 50 TEU has been criticised because it allegedly grants EU Member States an unfettered right to unilateral secession, which questions the EU’s quasi-federal character and fosters its disintegration ... [more ▼]

Art. 50 TEU has been criticised because it allegedly grants EU Member States an unfettered right to unilateral secession, which questions the EU’s quasi-federal character and fosters its disintegration. This On the Agenda demonstrates that this widespread pessimism is unjustified, since it is based on an exceedingly formalistic reading of the law. Secession (from States) and withdrawal (from international organisations) is always possible de facto: the relevant question is whether constitutional provisions ensure an orderly secession and discourage casual recourse thereto. Art. 50 TEU arguably constitutes a “well-designed secession clause”, since it ensures the EU’s unity in withdrawal negotiations, limits the discretion of the departing State regarding the activation and termination of the withdrawal procedure, and induces it to reach a compromise with the Union. Art. 50 thus ensures a fair balance between the concern for the EU’s integrity and the democratic and federal principles that inspire it. [less ▲]

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See detailRégime d’aides d’État et exonération fiscale d’une école religieuse CJUE, gde ch., 27 juin 2017, Congregación de Escuelas Pías Provincia Betania / Ayuntamiento de Getafe, aff. C-74/16, EU:C:2017:496
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Revue des Affaires Européennes = Law & European Affairs (2017)

Le problème juridique posé par l’affaire Escuelas Pías concerne la qualification d’une école religieuse sans but lucratif en tant qu’« entreprise » au regard de l’article 107 TFUE 11, un problème qui ... [more ▼]

Le problème juridique posé par l’affaire Escuelas Pías concerne la qualification d’une école religieuse sans but lucratif en tant qu’« entreprise » au regard de l’article 107 TFUE 11, un problème qui dérive de l’attribution, par le droit espagnol, d’exonérations fis- cales aux institutions catholiques s’engageant dans des activités économiques. Dans sa réponse à la demande préjudicielle, la Cour de justice semble vouloir éviter de prendre une position trop nette : elle ne se prononce pas sur plusieurs questions concernant la compatibilité avec le droit de l’UE des exonérations fiscales pour les écoles catholiques ou elle en renvoie l’appréciation au juge national. [less ▲]

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See detailPaga (solo) chi inquina? L’attribuzione della responsabilità ambientale nella giurisprudenza della Corte di giustizia
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Lupoi, Michele Angelo (Ed.) Emergenze ambientali e tutela giuridica (2017)

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione. – 2. Considerazioni generali sul principio «chi inquina paga» nel diritto dell'Ue. – 3. Problematiche connesse all‟attribuzione della responsabilità ambientale nella prassi. – 4 ... [more ▼]

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione. – 2. Considerazioni generali sul principio «chi inquina paga» nel diritto dell'Ue. – 3. Problematiche connesse all‟attribuzione della responsabilità ambientale nella prassi. – 4. L‟attribuzione della responsabilità per danno ambientale «diffuso»: la sentenza Erg. – 5. La responsabilità ambientale del proprietario «incolpevole»: il caso Fipa. – 6. Considerazioni conclusive. [less ▲]

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See detailLa politica commerciale dopo il Parere 2/15: verso accordi “EU-only” senza ISDS/ICS?
Gatti, Mauro UL

in SIDIBlog (2017)

La Corte di giustizia dell’UE ha emesso il 16 maggio 2017 l’atteso Parere 2/15, riguardante l’Accordo di libero scambio tra l’UE e la Repubblica di Singapore. La domanda di parere, proposta dalla ... [more ▼]

La Corte di giustizia dell’UE ha emesso il 16 maggio 2017 l’atteso Parere 2/15, riguardante l’Accordo di libero scambio tra l’UE e la Repubblica di Singapore. La domanda di parere, proposta dalla Commissione europea sulla base dell’art. 218(11) TFUE, mirava a chiarire se l’Accordo rientrasse interamente nella competenza esclusiva dell’Unione o se vi fossero elementi che ricadevano nella competenza concorrente dell’UE, o addirittura nella competenza esclusiva degli Stati membri. Per comprendere la portata del Parere 2/15, è a mio avviso opportuno leggere la pronuncia della Corte nel suo più ampio contesto, valutandone l’impatto sui negoziati, presenti e futuri, di accordi commerciali da parte dell’Unione. In questa prospettiva, il Parere 2/15 pare offrire all’Unione la possibilità di perseguire una politica commerciale più efficace, seppur a prezzo dell’esclusione degli investimenti dall’oggetto degli accordi commerciali. [less ▲]

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See detailL’obbligo di proteggere le persone dalle calamità nell’Unione europea
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Spagnolo, Andrea; Saluzzo, Stefano (Eds.) La responsabilità degli Stati e delle organizzazioni internazionali: nuove fattispecie, problemi di attribuzione e di accertamento (2017)

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See detailProvisional Application of EU Trade and Investment Agreements: A Pragmatic Solution to Mixity Issues
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Fach Gómez (Ed.) La política de la Unión Europea en materia de derecho de las inversiones internacionales (2017)

Because of its limited competences, the EU often concludes trade and investment agreements in the “mixed” form, which implies long and uncertain ratification procedures. This paper suggests that the Union ... [more ▼]

Because of its limited competences, the EU often concludes trade and investment agreements in the “mixed” form, which implies long and uncertain ratification procedures. This paper suggests that the Union may bypass some of the problems created by “mixed” procedures by giving provisional application to trade and investment agreements. The analysis demonstrates that a provisionally applied agreement produces legal effects, and may therefore ensure a certain degree of legal certainty. Secondly, it is submitted that the provisional application of EU trade and investment agreements covers a large part of their substantive scope. Finally, it is contended that provisional application ensures a rather stable legal framework, because only the Union (and not its Member States) can decide to terminate it. Provisional application thus appears as a pragmatic instrument, that enables the Union to swiftly bring trade and investment agreements into application, and consequently enhances the effectiveness of the EU’s external policy. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EU-Turkey Statement: A Treaty That Violates Democracy
Gatti, Mauro UL

E-print/Working paper (2016)

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See detailLa blasfemia nel diritto europeo: ‘un reperto storico’
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Melloni, Alberto; Cadeddu, Francesca; Meloni, Federica (Eds.) Blasfemia, diritto e libertà (2016)

Molti credenti invocano «un giusto rispetto per il sacro», giacché «la mancanza di livelli civili di decenza, moderazione e rispetto nel mondo delle arti» danneggerebbe la coesione sociale . Altri, come ... [more ▼]

Molti credenti invocano «un giusto rispetto per il sacro», giacché «la mancanza di livelli civili di decenza, moderazione e rispetto nel mondo delle arti» danneggerebbe la coesione sociale . Altri, come Salman Rushdie, sostengono che «il “rispetto della religione” sia diventato un pretesto per la “paura della religione”. Le religioni, come tutte le altre idee, meritano le critiche, la satira e tutta la nostra impavida irriverenza». Le autorità pubbliche possono intervenire in questo dibattito, punendo la «blasfemia»? Le leggi sulla blasfemia sono da tempo oggetto di attenzione, soprattutto a causa di episodi che coinvolgono Stati islamici o gruppi di musulmani, dalla fatwa iraniana contro lo stesso Rushdie all’attentato nei confronti di Charlie Hebdo. Presentare il problema della blasfemia come una dicotomia tra Oriente e Occidente, tuttavia, può essere fuorviante . Ovunque esista una religione organizzata la blasfemia è un tabù . Essa è un peccato particolarmente grave nella tradizione cristiana, tanto che, secondo i Vangeli, «qualunque peccato e bestemmia verrà perdonata agli uomini, ma la bestemmia contro lo Spirito non verrà perdonata» . L’Antico Testamento prescrive una punizione severa per questo peccato: «chi bestemmia il nome del Signore dovrà essere messo a morte: tutta la comunità lo dovrà lapidare» . Ciò spiega perché in passato tutti i Paesi europei punissero la blasfemia . La progressiva separazione tra potere politico e potere religioso, così come l’affermazione di democrazie pluraliste, ha portato diversi Stati ad abolire le leggi sulla blasfemia. La Corte Suprema degli Stati Uniti, in particolare, ha affermato già nel 1952 che «lo Stato non ha alcun legittimo interesse a proteggere una qualsiasi religione, o tutte le religioni, da espressioni a loro sgradite [...] non spetta al governo sopprimere attachi reali o immaginati a una particolare dottrina religiosa» . Le leggi di molti Stati europei, però, continuano a vietare la blasfemia, in linea teorica, e alcuni Paesi la puniscono anche in pratica. Secondo la Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo (Corte EDU), la repressione della blasfemia è compatibile con la tutela dei diritti umani, perché non vi sarebbe sufficiente «terreno comune» agli ordinamenti giuridici e sociali degli Stati europei per poter concludere che il divieto della blasfemia sia innecessario in una società democratica. Tuttavia, la posizione della Corte è stata spesso criticata, perché teoricamente infondata e pericolosa per la libertà di espressione . Con questo studio si intende dimostrare che non è legittimo sanzionare la blasfemia in Europa; la prassi degli Stati membri dell’UE e delle istituzioni europee mostra infatti che il divieto di esprimere idee blasfeme non è più «necessario» nelle società democratiche. L’analisi si divide in tre sezioni. Nella prima si presentano le norme sulla blasfemia in vigore negli Stati membri dell’UE. Nella seconda si analizza la giurisprudenza della Corte EDU sulla blasfemia. Nella terza si discute della recente prassi dell’Unione Europea in materia. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean External Action Service - Promoting Coherence through Autonomy and Coordination
Gatti, Mauro UL

Book published by Brill (2016)

In European External Action Service, Mauro Gatti provides a legal analysis of the EU’s ‘foreign ministry’. The European External Action Service (EEAS) was created to coordinate the supranational and ... [more ▼]

In European External Action Service, Mauro Gatti provides a legal analysis of the EU’s ‘foreign ministry’. The European External Action Service (EEAS) was created to coordinate the supranational and intergovernmental areas of EU external relations, but it is unclear whether and how it may attain this objective. Through an analysis of law and practice, Gatti demonstrates that the EEAS is capable of effectively promoting coherence in EU external relations. Although working independently from EU institutions and Member States, the EEAS can coordinate their activities at an administrative level. The EEAS is thus ideally placed to bring together EU external action instruments, including diplomatic efforts, development cooperation, and security policies. [less ▲]

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See detailNormative or Hypocritical? Contradictions Between the EU’s External Promotion of Human Rights and Member States’ Policies
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Lundt, Bea; Wulk, Sophie (Eds.) Global Perspectives on Europe: Critical spotlights from five continents (2016)

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See detailDisaster Management in EU Law: Solidarity among Individuals and among States
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Hesselman, Marlies; Hallo de Wolf, Antenor; Toebes, Brigit (Eds.) Socio-Economic Human Rights in Essential Public Services Provision (2016)

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See detailBlasphemy in European Law
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Diez Bosch, Miriam; Torrents, Jordi (Eds.) On Blasphemy (2015)

European countries have been punishing blasphemy since time immemorial. Several members of the European Union maintain blasphemy laws in their books to this day and some States implement them. These laws ... [more ▼]

European countries have been punishing blasphemy since time immemorial. Several members of the European Union maintain blasphemy laws in their books to this day and some States implement them. These laws are problematic even when they are not applied, since they curtail criticism of religious doctrines and encourage censorship and self-censorship. In the past, the European Court of Human Rights affirmed that blasphemy laws were compatible with human rights law, since there was not sufficient common ground in the legal and social orders of European States to conclude that the repression of blasphemy was unnecessary in a democratic society. This paper intends to demonstrate that such ‘common ground’ now exists, especially within the European Union. Several EU countries have scrapped blasphemy laws from their penal codes, or have ceased to implement them. What is more, the governments of all EU Member States have repeatedly declared that blasphemy laws are incompatible with universal human rights standards. The existence of such a ‘common ground’ between EU Members suggests that the European Court of Human Rights should revise its jurisprudence. It also indicates that EU States should abolish their blasphemy laws, if they have not done so already. In a Union based on freedom and human rights, the most appropriate way to combat a perceived offense from the exercise of freedom of expression is not censorship, but the use of freedom of expression itself. [less ▲]

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See detailIDRL in Italy: A Study on Strengthening Legal Preparedness for International Disaster Response
Gatti, Mauro UL

Report (2015)

This report seeks to identify the main obstacles that existing rules create for international cooperation in the event of disasters in Italy: It does so by looking to the Guidelines for the Domestic ... [more ▼]

This report seeks to identify the main obstacles that existing rules create for international cooperation in the event of disasters in Italy: It does so by looking to the Guidelines for the Domestic Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery Assistance (hereinafter the IDRL Guidelines) and to the EU Host Nation Support Guidelines (HNSG). The analysis seeks to point out solutions (mostly legislative ones) that may contribute to enhancing international cooperation in response to disasters occurring in Italy. The report finds that Italy has developed advanced and flexible disaster response mechanisms. Furthermore, Italy’s participation in international cooperation arrangements, notably the European Union (EU) Civil Protection Mechanism, reinforces the country’s capacities and preparedness. As of today, the country has seldom relied on external assistance, and when it did, international cooperation did not prove problematic. Indeed, it would seem that Italian law is generally in line with the prescriptions of the IDRL Guidelines and the HNSG, especially as concerns assistance originating from other EU countries. However, the investigation has also indicated three main problems that need to be addressed in order to ensure effective and accountable assistance in the future. In the first place, the institutional framework is fragmented: Numerous organs with different resources and powers intervene in disaster response. In the second place, it is not always easy to say what rules apply: There is a multiplicity of instruments that regulate disaster response, and their identification and interpretation is often complex. And, in the third place, some of the rules may hinder incoming aid: There are cases in which the law may prevent the provision of assistance or may discourage it by imposing onerous procedures and financial obligations. These problems can be addressed by fixing the flaws identified in the report, that is, by clarifying existing law, repealing outdated provisions, and introducing specific norms designed to regulate and facilitate international cooperation. To this end, the report offers recommendations for the competent authorities. [less ▲]

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See detailLibertà di espressione e sentimento religioso - Laicità e simboli religiosi
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Manzini, Pietro; Lollini, Andrea (Eds.) Diritti fondamentali in Europa: un casebook (2015)

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See detailLa tutela dei diritti umani tra azione esterna dell’Unione europea e politiche interne degli Stati membri: medici, curate vos ipsos
Gatti, Mauro UL

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Il Consiglio dell’Unione europea ha recentemente adottato delle Conclusioni sulla coerenza fra aspetti esterni ed interni della protezione e promozione dei diritti umani nell’Unione europea. Tale ... [more ▼]

Il Consiglio dell’Unione europea ha recentemente adottato delle Conclusioni sulla coerenza fra aspetti esterni ed interni della protezione e promozione dei diritti umani nell’Unione europea. Tale strumento attira l’attenzione su un problema cruciale: l’Unione promuove da anni il rispetto di taluni diritti umani che i suoi stessi membri non sembrano proteggere, o che interpretano in modo difforme. Tale contraddizione è difficile da giustificare sul piano teorico ed è pericolosa su quello pratico, dato che pregiudica la credibilità dell’Unione sulla scena internazionale. Per risolvere questo problema, sarebbe opportuno che gli Stati membri inizino ad applicare in Europa le stesse regole che intendono diffondere nel mondo. [less ▲]

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See detailDiplomats at the Bar: The European External Action Service before EU Courts
Gatti, Mauro UL

in European Law Review (2014)

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See detailCoherence vs. Conferred Powers? The Case of the European External Action Service
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Rossi, Lucia Serena; Casolari, Federico (Eds.) The EU After Lisbon: Amending or Coping with the Existing Treaties? (2014)

The process of European integration has led to the creation of numerous external actions at the Union level, and these should now be brought together to reinforce the coherence of EU foreign affairs. The ... [more ▼]

The process of European integration has led to the creation of numerous external actions at the Union level, and these should now be brought together to reinforce the coherence of EU foreign affairs. The attainment of coherence finds an apparently insurmountable obstacle in the delimitation of the powers conferred on EU institutions, since a rigid separation of the powers of Union bodies hinders the generation of positive connections among EU policies. The Lisbon Treaty sought to increase coherence in foreign affairs in part by creating the European External Action Service. This paper examines the EEAS’s mandate and responsibilities in order to elucidate the interplay of coherence and conferred powers in external relations law. The first part of the analysis investigates the EEAS mandate, showing that the Treaties require the Service to coordinate external relations in order to ensure coherence. The second part examines the nature of this coordination, focusing on the technique legislators used to enable the EEAS to have a role in the implementation of development aid. Legislators identified the EEAS’s responsibilities by balancing the principle of the coherence of external action against the delimitation of conferred powers, with a view to fostering synergy in foreign affairs. It is argued that a similar approach can also be adopted in other areas where the EEAS brings added value as a coordinator, and in particular in the area of crisis response. An enlargement of the EEAS’s responsibilities is politically difficult, but it may be simplified by an amendment of the Treaties (where the mandate of the Service is spelled out), in such a way as to reinforce the Service’s legitimacy and effectiveness as a foreign-policy coordinator. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of the European External Action Service in the External Dimension of the Area of Freedom Security and Justice
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Rossi, Lucia Serena; Flaesch-Mougin, Catherine (Eds.) La dimension extérieure de l'Espace de liberté, sécurité et de justice (2013)

The abolition of the ‘third pillar’ of the European Union has apparently reinforced the ‘Community method’ in the external dimension of the Area of Freedom Security and Justice (AFSJ). However, the ... [more ▼]

The abolition of the ‘third pillar’ of the European Union has apparently reinforced the ‘Community method’ in the external dimension of the Area of Freedom Security and Justice (AFSJ). However, the objectives of this Area are pursued through several activities, characterised by different procedures and actors. This contribution intends to demonstrate that the creation of the European External Action Service (EEAS) can enhance the coherence of the external dimension of the AFSJ, because the Service is tasked with the coordination of the entire external action. It is submitted that the EEAS can foster the effectiveness of the law-making and policy implementation phases and it can ensure the unity of the EU’s diplomatic representation. The potential of the EEAS is particularly evident with respect to security, because the Service can effectively coordinate the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and non-CFSP aspects of the EU’s security management. However, the EEAS is largely influenced by the intergovernmental method, and its involvement in non-CFSP initiatives may perpetuate the intergovernmental approach to the external dimension of the AFSJ. [less ▲]

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